Irish Independent

The Irish Independent is Ireland's largest-selling daily newspaper, published by Independent News & Media (INM). It often includes glossy magazines.[1] While most of the paper's content in English, it also publishes a weekly supplement in Irish called Seachtain. ("Seachtain" is the Irish word for "week".) The Irish Independent's sister publication is the Sunday Independent.

Since May 2012, the Irish Independent has been controlled by billionaire Denis O'Brien since he acquired 29.9% of the paper's parent company. In January 2008, at the same time as completing the purchase Today FM (Ireland's last national radio station independent of O'Brien and state broadcaster RTÉ), O'Brien increased his INM shareholding to become that company's second-biggest shareholder behind Tony O'Reilly, whom he ousted just over four years later.[2] Traditionally a broadsheet newspaper, it introduced an additional compact size in 2004 and in December 2012 (following O'Brien's takeover) it was announced that the newspaper would become compact only.[3]

Irish Independent
Broadsheet version of the Irish Independent, 24 November 2005
TypeDaily newspaper
Owner(s)Independent News & Media
EditorFionnan Sheahan
FoundedJanuary 1905
(replaced Daily Irish Independent)
Political alignmentPopulist
HeadquartersTalbot Street, Dublin, Ireland


Irish Independent First Issue 1905 01 02
First issue of the Irish Independent

The Irish Independent was formed in 1905 as the direct successor to the Daily Irish Independent, an 1890s pro-Parnellite newspaper, and was launched by William Martin Murphy, a controversial Irish nationalist businessman, staunch anti-Parnellite and fellow townsman of Parnell's most venomous opponent, Bantry's Timothy Michael Healy.[4]

During the 1913 Lockout of workers, in which Murphy was the leading figure among the employers, the Irish Independent vigorously sided with its owner's interests, publishing news reports and opinion pieces hostile to the strikers, expressing confidence in the unions' defeat and launching personal attacks on the leader of the strikers, James Larkin. The Irish Independent described the 1916 Easter Rising as "insane and criminal" and famously called for the shooting of its leaders.[5] In December 1919, during the Irish War of Independence, a group of twenty IRA men destroyed the printing works of the paper, angered at its criticism of the Irish Republican Army's attacks on members of the Dublin Metropolitan Police and British government officials.[6] In 1924, the traditional nationalist newspaper, the Freeman's Journal, merged with the Irish Independent. Until October 1986 the paper's masthead over the editorial contained the words "incorporating the Freeman's Journal".[7]

For most of its history, the Irish Independent (also called simply the Independent or, more colloquially, the Indo) was seen as a nationalist, Catholic, anti-Communist, newspaper,[8] which gave its political allegiance to the Pro-Treaty party Cumann na nGaedheal and later its successor party, Fine Gael.[8] During the Spanish Civil War, the Irish Independent's coverage was strongly pro-Franco; the paper criticised the De Valera government for not intervening on behalf of the Spanish Nationalists.[9]

In 1961 the Harp became a symbol to the Irish Independent originally appeared in black but was changed to green in 1972.

In the 1970s, it was taken over by former Heinz chairman Tony O'Reilly. Under his leadership, it became a more populist, market liberal newspaper—populist on social issues, but economically right-wing. By the mid-nineties its allegiance to Fine Gael had ended. In the 1997 general election, it endorsed Fianna Fáil under a front-page editorial, entitled "It's Payback Time". While it suggested its headline referred to the fact that the election offered a chance to "pay back" politicians for their failings, its opponents suggested that the "payback" actually referred to its chance to get revenge for the refusal of the Rainbow Coalition to award the company a mobile phone licence.[10]

In late 2004, Independent Newspapers moved from their traditional home in Middle Abbey Street to a new office, "Independent House" in Talbot Street, with the printing facilities already relocated to the Citywest business park near Tallaght.

On 27 September 2005, a fortnight after the paper published its centenary edition, it was announced that editor Vinnie Doyle would step down after 24 years in the position. He was replaced by Gerry O'Regan, who had until then been editor of the Irish Independent's sister paper, the Evening Herald. The newspaper's previous editor Stephen Rae was also formerly editor of the Evening Herald and was appointed editor in September 2012. Fionnan Sheahan was appointed editor in January 2015.[11]

Denis O'Brien successfully acquired a majority shareholding the newspaper parent company INM in May 2012.

New Irish Writing and Hennessy Award

Since 2011, the Irish Independent has been the home of New Irish Writing (and its associated Hennessy Award),[12] which was originally established by David Marcus in 1969 in the Irish Press and appeared in the Sunday Tribune from 1988 to 2011. The New Irish Writing Page is "the longest-running creative writing feature of its kind in any Irish or British newspaper".[13][14]

Exam Brief

The Irish Independent, in co-operation with the Institute of Education, produces Exam Brief, a yearly six-part supplement dedicated to preparation for Leaving and Junior Certificate exams.[15] This supplement is published in February, March and April each year.

Related papers and concerns

Excluding The Sun and the Daily Mirror, most of the content of which are produced in the United Kingdom, the Independent Group owns just over 67% of Irish daily newspapers.[16] INM-owned or partly owned titles have 58% of the newspaper market on Sunday. With the closure of the Evening Press, the Independent's Evening Herald is now the only Irish national evening newspaper. Another sister paper is the Sunday Independent.

Other newspapers in the Independent News & Media group include the Irish Daily Star, the Sunday World and many local Irish newspapers.

The Independent News and Media Group had a major share in the Sunday Tribune, a Sunday broadsheet before its closure in 2011.

The Independent News & Media Group has been accused of holding an "unhealthy dominance" of the Irish newspaper market,[17] all the more so since the demise of the Irish Press, Evening Press and Sunday Press newspapers published by the Irish Press Group in 1995.

The Independent News and Media Group also owns online business directory site Your Local that provides local business information on approximately 100,000 Irish businesses.


Average print circulation was approximately 165,000 copies per issue in 1999,[18] and had dropped to approximately 100,000 by 2016.[19]

Year (period) Average circulation per issue
1999 (January to July)[18]
2006 (January to December)[20]
2009 (July to December)[21]
2012 (January to June)[22]
2012 (July to December)[23]
2014 (January to June)[24]
2016 (January to June)[19]
2016 (July to December)[25]
2017 (January to June)[26]
2017 (July to December)[27]
2018 (January to June)[28]
2018 (July to December)[29]


  1. ^ "Who is the greatest Irish footballer of all – see if you agree with our choice". Irish Independent. 30 November 2012. Retrieved 30 November 2012. The Legends is the third glossy magazine and iMag produced by the Irish Independent in just over a week after 'The Gathering' publication and our 'Mistletoe' Christmas special.
  2. ^ Hancock, Ciarán (12 January 2008). "O'Brien seals €200m deal for Emap's three Irish radio outlets". The Irish Times. Archived from the original on 1 June 2015.
  3. ^ "A message from the editor to you, our reader". Irish Independent. 21 December 2012. Retrieved 15 April 2013.
  4. ^ Andy Bielenberg, Entrepreneurship, Power, and Public Opinion in Ireland; The career of William Martin Murphy.
  5. ^ Easter Rising newspaper archive Archived 9 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine—from the BBC History website
  6. ^ "Following a report on the assassination of the Lord Lieutenant...the IRA attacked the offices of the (Irish Independent) the following day." Ian Kenneally, The Paper Wall: Newspapers and Propaganda in Ireland 1919–1921. Dublin, Collins Press. 2008, ISBN 1905172583 (p.105).
  7. ^ "Irish Independent masthead containing "Incorporating the Freeman's Journal"".
  8. ^ a b "During the Free State Period, the Independent was characterized by a triumphalist strain of Catholicism, virulent anti-Communism and support for the Pro-Treaty Party." Fearghal McGarry, "Irish Newspapers and the Spanish Civil War", Irish Historical Studies, Vol. 33, No. 129 (May 2002), pp. 68–90.
  9. ^ Fearghal McGarry, "Irish Newspapers and the Spanish Civil War", Irish Historical Studies, Vol. 33, No. 129 (May 2002), pp. 68–90.
  10. ^ Irish Examiner archives Archived 8 May 2009 at the Wayback Machine—O'Reilly 'took revenge in editorial'
  11. ^ "INM appoints two new editors to Irish Independent and Sunday Independent". The Irish Independent.
  12. ^ Vanessa O'Loughlin, "New Irish Writing" Archived 21 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine,
  13. ^ "Your chance to join the ranks of our best writers". The Irish Independent.
  14. ^ "New home for New Irish Writing and the Hennessy Award",
  15. ^ "Exam Brief". Irish Independent. Archived from the original on 5 October 2009. Retrieved 5 March 2011.
  16. ^ Irish Examiner archives Archived 13 January 2008 at the Wayback Machine—O'Reilly's global empire still built on print'
  17. ^ "Dáil Éireann – Volume 432 – 10 June, 1993 – Mergers, Take-overs and Monopolies (Control) Act, 1978 (Section 2) Order, 1993: Motion". Archived from the original on 12 September 2012.
  18. ^ a b "Good times begin to roll for hard-pressed newspaper sector".
  19. ^ a b "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 19 September 2016. Retrieved 18 August 2016.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  20. ^ "Irish Times, Sunday Business Post circulation down 30% since 2006".
  21. ^ "Fall in circulation for all of Republic's daily newspapers".
  22. ^ "Irish Morning Newspaper ABC Circulations, Jan–June 2012 – SEO Ireland, Search Engine Optimisation, Media and Marketing Consulting".
  23. ^ "Morning Newspapers ABC July–Dec 2012 – SEO Ireland, Search Engine Optimisation, Media and Marketing Consulting".
  24. ^
  25. ^
  26. ^
  27. ^ Doyle, Conor. "Irish Newspaper Circulation July-Dec 2017 Island of Ireland Report - Media and Marketing Consulting, PPC, SEO Ireland, Search Engine Optimisation,".
  28. ^
  29. ^

External links

2013 in Ireland

Events during the year 2013 in Ireland.

2014 in Ireland

This is a list of events that occurred during the year 2014 in Ireland.

2017 in Ireland

Events during the year 2017 in Ireland.

2018 in Ireland

Events during the year 2018 in Ireland.

All-Ireland Senior Club Camogie Championship

The All-Ireland Club Camogie Championship is the most important competition for club teams in the Irish women’s field sport of camogie. It is contested by the senior club champions of the leading counties and organised by An Cumann Camógaíochta.

Bertie Ahern

Bartholomew Patrick "Bertie" Ahern (born 12 September 1951) is a former Irish Fianna Fáil politician who served as Taoiseach from 1997 to 2008, Leader of Fianna Fáil from 1994 to 2008, Leader of the Opposition from 1994 to 1997, Tánaiste and Minister for Arts, Culture and the Gaeltacht from November 1994 to December 1994, Deputy Leader of Fianna Fáil from 1992 to 1994, Minister for Industry and Commerce in January 1993, Minister for Finance from 1991 to 1994, Minister for Labour from 1987 to 1991, Government Chief Whip and Minister of State at the Department of Defence from March 1982 to December 1982 and Lord Mayor of Dublin from 1986 to 1987. He served as a Teachta Dála (TD) from 1977 to 2011.

In 1994, Ahern was elected the sixth Leader of Fianna Fáil. Under Ahern's leadership, Fianna Fáil led three coalition governments. After Éamon de Valera, Bertie Ahern's term as Taoiseach is the longest. Ahern resigned as Taoiseach on 6 May 2008, in the wake of revelations made in Mahon Tribunal, and was succeeded by Minister for Finance Brian Cowen. The Mahon Tribunal in 2012, found that Ahern, while not judged corrupt, had received monies from developers and the Tribunal disbelieved his explanations of those payments. Fianna Fáil proposed to expel politicians censured by the tribunal, but Ahern resigned from the party prior to the expulsion motion being moved.

In November 2016, it was announced that a decision had been made by Fianna Fáil to give Ahern the option of rejoining the party.

Enda Kenny

Enda Kenny (born 24 April 1951) is an Irish Fine Gael politician who served as the 13th Taoiseach from 2011 to 2017, Leader of Fine Gael from 2002 to 2017, Minister for Defence from May 2014 to July 2014 and 2016 to 2017, Leader of the Opposition from 2002 to 2011, Minister for Tourism and Trade from 1994 to 1997 and Minister of State for Youth Affairs from 1986 to 1987. He has been a Teachta Dála (TD) since 1975, currently for the Mayo constituency.He is the longest-serving TD currently in Dáil Éireann, which makes him the incumbent Father of the Dáil.

Kenny led Fine Gael to a historic victory at the 2011 general election, with his party becoming the largest in the state for the first time, forming a coalition government with the Labour Party on 9 March 2011. He subsequently became the first Fine Gael Taoiseach to be elected to a second consecutive term on 6 May 2016, after two months of negotiations, following the 2016 election, forming a Fine Gael-led minority government. He was the first Taoiseach from Fine Gael since John Bruton (1994–1997), and the first Leader of Fine Gael to win a general election since Garret FitzGerald in 1982. He became the longest-serving Fine Gael Taoiseach in April 2017.Kenny stepped down as Leader of Fine Gael on 2 June 2017, and announced he would resign as Taoiseach once a new leader was chosen in early June. In the following leadership election, the then Minister for Social Protection Leo Varadkar, was elected to succeed Kenny as Leader of Fine Gael. He tendered his resignation as Taoiseach on 13 June 2017, and was succeeded by Varadkar the following day. On 5 November 2017, Kenny announced that he would not contest the next general election.

Fitzgibbon Cup

The Fitzgibbon Cup (Irish: Corn Mhic Giobúin) is the trophy for the premier hurling championship among higher education institutions (universities, colleges and institutes of technology) in Ireland.

The Fitzgibbon Cup competition is administered by Comhairle Ard Oideachais Cumann Lúthchleas Gael (CLG), the GAA's Higher Education Council. Comhairle Ard Oideachais also oversees the Ryan Cup (tier 2 hurling championship), the Fergal Maher Cup (tier 3 hurling championship) and the Padraig MacDiarmada (tier 4 hurling championship).

The GAA Higher Education Cups are sponsored by Electric Ireland.

Freeman's Journal

The Freeman's Journal was the oldest nationalist newspaper in Dublin, Ireland. It was founded in 1763 by Charles Lucas and was identified with radical 18th-century Protestant patriot politicians Henry Grattan and Henry Flood. This changed from 1784 when it passed to Francis Higgins (better known as the "Sham Squire") and took a more pro-British and pro-administration view. In fact Francis Higgins is mentioned in the Secret Service Money Book as having betrayed Lord Edward FitzGerald. Higgins was paid £1,000 for information on FitzGerald's capture.In the 19th century it became more nationalist in tone, particularly under the control and inspiration of Sir John Gray (1815–75).

The Journal, as it was widely known as, was the leading newspaper in Ireland throughout the 19th century. Contemporary sources record it being read to the largely illiterate population by priests and local teachers gathering in homes. It was mentioned in contemporary literature and was seen as symbolising Irish newspapers for most of its time. By the 1880s it had become the primary media supporter of Charles Stewart Parnell and the Irish Parliamentary Party (IPP).

It was challenged on all sides by rivals. On the nationalist side some preferred The Nation founded by Thomas Davis while others, including radical supporters of Parnell, read the United Irishman. The Anglo-Irish establishment in contrast read the historically Irish unionist The Irish Times. With the split in the IPP over Parnell's relationship with Katherine O'Shea, its readership split too. While The Journal went with the majority in 1893 in opposing Parnell, a minority moved to read the Daily Irish Independent. It was also challenged from the turn of the century by William O'Brien's Irish People and the Cork Free Press. With Thomas Sexton becoming Chairman of the Board of Directors (1893–1911), the Journal languished under his spartanic management.

The collapse of the IPP in 1918, and the electoral success of Sinn Féin, saw a more radical nationalism appear that was out of step with the moderation of the Journal. It found itself overshadowed by the more aggressively marketed Irish Independent, the successor to the Daily Irish Independent. Just prior to the outbreak of the Irish Civil War in March 1922, the Freeman's Journal printing machinery was destroyed by Anti-Treaty IRA men under Rory O'Connor for its support of the Anglo-Irish Treaty. It did not resume publication until after the outbreak of civil war, when the Irish Free State re-asserted its authority over the country.

The Freeman's Journal ceased publication in 1924, when it was merged with the Irish Independent. Until the 1990s, the Irish Independent included the words 'Incorporating the Freeman's Journal' in its mast-head over its editorials.

Gael Linn

Gael Linn (Irish pronunciation: [ɡeːl̪ˠ lʲɪnʲ], meaning "Gaels with us") is an organisation devoted to the Irish language and arts.

It is a non-governmental, non-profit organisation, founded in 1953 to foster the Irish language and promote artistic events. On the business side, they run the Gael Linn record label, which is partly funded by the Irish state.

Independent Irish Party

The Independent Irish Party (1852–1858) was an Irish political party founded in July 1852 by 40 Liberal Irish MPs who had been elected to the Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. It is sometimes mentioned as the Irish Independent Opposition Party, and colloquially known as the Pope's Brass Band because of their stance on the Ecclesiastical Titles Act. Its MPs were also called the "Irish Brigade".It had two central aims:

The repeal of the Ecclesiastical Titles Act, which banned Roman Catholic Bishops from re-assuming pre-reformation ecclesiastical bishopric titles in the United Kingdom, as well as the prohibition of the wearing of clerical outfits.

The adoption and enforcement of the Three Fs, namely

fair rent;

fixity of tenure;

free sale. (These would all have aided Irish tenant farms, all of whom lacked them.)The Independent Irish Party initially achieved the balance of power in the House of Commons. It brought down Lord Derby's Tory ministry and enabled the leader of the Peelites Lord Aberdeen and Whigs to form a coalition government. However two Irish MPs, John Sadleir and William Keogh then broke ranks by joining this ministry, an act for which they were never forgiven in Ireland, where they were remembered with contempt even a century later.Some but not all Irish Liberal candidates in the 1852 election had pledged themselves to form an independent party in Parliament. This was done in their election address or at two conferences in 1852, one held by the Tenants League and the other about Religious Equality. 48 Irish MPs were elected after making such a pledge. One was unseated after an election petition.

The group began to nominate its own candidates in by-elections between 1852 and 1857 and had some limited success, winning four seats.

Irish Independent Albums Chart

The Irish Independent Albums Chart (also known as Independent Artist Albums or Top 20 Indie Albums) is a chart of best-selling independent album releases in Ireland. It is issued weekly by the Irish Recorded Music Association (IRMA) and complied on its behalf by GfK's Chart-Track.

Chart rankings are based upon album sales compiled through electronically captured retail data each day from retailers' EPOS systems and certain digital retailers. Sales from major retailers, including HMV, Virgin, Tower and Golden Discs, were once excluded from the chart but data from major retailers and over forty other independent retailers now compose the chart.

Joe Canning

Joe Canning (born 11 October 1988) is an Irish hurler who plays for Galway Senior Championship club Portumna and at inter-county level with the Galway senior hurling team. He currently lines out as a centre-forward.

Katie Taylor

Katie Taylor (born 2 July 1986) is an Irish boxer and former footballer. In professional boxing she is currently a unified lightweight female world champion, having held the WBA title since 2017, the IBF title since 2018, and the WBO title since March 2019. As of January 2019, she is ranked as the world's best active female lightweight and second best active female boxer, pound for pound, by BoxRec.

In her successful amateur boxing career, Taylor won five consecutive gold medals at the Women's World Championships, gold six times at the European Championships, and gold five times at the European Union Championships. Hugely popular in Ireland, she is credited with raising the profile of women's boxing at home and abroad. Regarded as the outstanding Irish athlete of her generation, she was the flag bearer for Ireland at the 2012 London Olympics opening ceremony before going on to win an Olympic gold medal in the lightweight division. Taylor turned professional in 2016 under Matchroom Boxing, and is known for her fast-paced, aggressive boxing style.

Michael D. Higgins

Michael Daniel Higgins (Irish: Mícheál Dónal Ó hUigínn; born 18 April 1941) is an Irish politician who has served as the President of Ireland since November 2011.

Higgins is a politician, poet, sociologist, and broadcaster. He served as a Teachta Dála (TD) for the Galway West constituency and was Minister for Arts, Culture and the Gaeltacht from 1993 to 1997. He was the President of the Labour Party from 2003 until 2011, when he resigned following his election as President of Ireland.He has used his time in office to address issues concerning justice, social equality, social inclusion, anti-sectarianism, anti-racism and reconciliation. He made the first state visit by an Irish President to the United Kingdom in April 2014.

Higgins ran for a second term as President of Ireland in 2018 and was re-elected in a landslide victory. Higgins attained the largest personal mandate in the history of the Republic of Ireland, with 822,566 first preference votes. Higgins' second presidential inauguration took place on 11 November 2018.

Musgrave Park, Cork

Musgrave Park, referred to as Irish Independent Park for sponsorship reasons, is a rugby football stadium in the city of Cork, Ireland. The ground is situated on Pearse Road in Ballyphehane. The ground was originally named after Jimmy Musgrave, a past-president of the Irish Rugby Football Union, with naming rights later sold to Independent News & Media in 2014. Owned by the Irish Rugby Football Union (IRFU), it is primarily used by Dolphin RFC, Sundays Well RFC, and Munster Rugby.

National Hurling League

The National Hurling League is an annual inter-county hurling competition featuring teams from Ireland and England. Founded in 1925 by the Gaelic Athletic Association, it operates on a system of promotion and relegation within the league system.

The league has 35 teams divided into six divisions, with either five or six teams in each division. Promotion and relegation between these divisions is a central feature of the league. Although primarily a competition for Irish teams, teams from England – currently Lancashire, London and Warwickshire – also take part, while in the past New York also fielded a team for the latter stages of the league. Teams representing subdivisions of counties, such as Fingal and South Down have also participated at various times.The National Hurling League has been associated with a title sponsor since 1985. Ford, Royal Liver and Church & General have all served as sponsors of the league since then. The competition is currently sponsored by Allianz and is officially known as the Allianz Hurling League.The league season runs from January to March with each team in the group playing each other once. Division 1 of the league features the top twelve hurling teams split into two divisions of six. A knock-out stage follows for the four top-placed teams in each division. The winners of the Division 1 title are awarded the Dr. Croke Cup and are officially regarded as the National Hurling League champions.

The National Hurling League title has been won by 10 different teams, 9 of whom have won the title more than once. The all-time record-holders are Tipperary, who have won the league on 19 occasions. Kilkenny are the current champions.

Sigerson Cup

The Sigerson Cup is the trophy for the premier Gaelic football championship among Higher Education institutions (Universities, Colleges and Institutes of Technology) in Ireland. It begins in mid January and ends in late February. The Sigerson Cup competition is administered by Comhairle Ard Oideachais Cumann Lúthchleas Gael (CLG), the GAA's Higher Education Council.

The Trench Cup is the second tier football competition, Corn na Mac Léinn the third tier and Corn Comhairle Ardoideachais the fourth tier. The Fitzgibbon Cup is the hurling equivalent of the Sigerson Cup.

The Irish Times

The Irish Times is an Irish daily broadsheet newspaper launched on 29 March 1859. The editor is Paul O'Neill who succeeded Kevin O'Sullivan on 5 April 2017; the deputy editor is Deirdre Veldon. The Irish Times is published every day except Sundays. It employs 420 people.Though formed as a Protestant nationalist paper, within two decades and under new owners it had become the voice of British unionism in Ireland. It is no longer marketed as a unionist paper; it presents itself politically as "liberal and progressive", as well as promoting neoliberalism on economic issues. The editorship of the newspaper from 1859 until 1986 was controlled by the Anglo-Irish Protestant minority, only gaining its first nominal Irish Catholic editor 127 years into its existence.

The paper's most prominent columnists include writer and arts commentator Fintan O'Toole and satirist Miriam Lord. The late Taoiseach Garret FitzGerald was once a columnist. Senior international figures, including Tony Blair and Bill Clinton, have written for its op-ed page. Its most prominent columns have included the political column Backbencher, by John Healy, Drapier (an anonymous piece produced weekly by a politician, giving the 'insider' view of politics), Rite and Reason (a weekly religious column, edited by Patsy McGarry, the 'religious affairs' editor) and the long-running An Irishman's Diary. An Irishman's Diary was written by Patrick Campbell in the forties (under the pseudonym 'Quidnunc'); by Seamus Kelly from 1949 to 1979 (also writing as 'Quidnunc'); and more recently by Kevin Myers. After Myers' move to the rival Irish Independent, An Irishman's Diary has usually been the work of Frank McNally. On the sports pages, Philip Reid is the paper's golf correspondent.

One of its most popular columns was the biting and humorous Cruiskeen Lawn satire column written, originally in Irish, later in English, by Myles na gCopaleen, the pen name of Brian O'Nolan (Brian Ó Nualláin) who also wrote books using the name Flann O'Brien. Cruiskeen Lawn is an anglicised spelling of the Irish words crúiscín lán, meaning 'full little jug'. Cruiskeen Lawn made its debut in October 1940, and appeared with varying regularity until O'Nolan's death in 1966.

Northern Ireland

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