Iraqi insurgency (2011–2013)

The Iraqi insurgency, later referred to as the Iraq Crisis, escalated[14] after the withdrawal of U.S. troops in 2011, resulting in violent conflict with the central government, as well as sectarian violence among Iraq's religious groups.

The insurgency was a direct continuation of events following the U.S.-led invasion of Iraq in 2003. After the U.S. military's withdrawal, the level of violence rose[15] as Sunni militant groups stepped up attacks targeting the country's majority Shia population to undermine confidence in the Shia-led government and its efforts to protect people without coalition assistance.[16] Armed groups inside Iraq were increasingly galvanized by the Syrian Civil War, with which it merged in 2014. Many Sunni factions stood against the Syrian government, which Shia groups moved to support, and numerous members of both sects also crossed the border to fight in Syria.[17]

In 2014, the insurgency escalated dramatically following the conquest of Mosul and major areas in northern Iraq by the Islamic State in Iraq and Syria (ISIS), a Salafi jihadist militant group and unrecognised proto-state that follows a fundamentalist, Wahhabi doctrine of Sunni Islam.[18][19] ISIL gained global prominence in early 2014 when it drove Iraqi government forces out of key cities in its Western Iraq offensive,[20] followed by its capture of Mosul[21] and the Sinjar massacre.[22] thereby merging the new conflict with the Syrian Civil War, into a new, far deadlier conflict.

Insurgency in Iraq
(2011–2013)
Part of the Iraq conflict (2003–present) and the Arab Winter
Gate closing Iraq-Kuwait border

U.S. and Kuwaiti troops unite to close the gate between Kuwait and Iraq after the last military convoy passed through on Dec. 18, 2011, signaling the end of Operation New Dawn and the beginning of the post-U.S. phase of the insurgency
Date18 December 2011 – 31 December 2013
(2 years, 1 week and 6 days)
Location
Iraq (mostly central and northern, including Baghdad)
Result
  • Significant increase in violence since the U.S. withdrawal, with an increasing number of insurgent large-scale attacks and assaults
  • Resurgence of ISI,[1] later transforming to ISIL
  • Escalation of conflict beginning in 2014
Belligerents

Sunni insurgent factions:
Islamic State of Iraq (ISIL since April 2013)


Ba'ath Party Loyalists

Shi'a factions:

Supported by:

 Iran

Iraq Iraqi Government

 Iraqi Kurdistan

Supported by:

 United States
Commanders and leaders

Abu Dua


Izzat Ibrahim ad-Douri
Mohammed Younis al-Ahmed
Ishmael Jubouri
Muqtada al-Sadr
Qais al-Khazali
Akram al-Kabi
Abu Mustafa al-Sheibani
Abu Deraa
Abu Mahdi al-Muhandis

IraqIraqi Kurdistan Jalal Talabani
Iraq Nouri al-Maliki
Iraq Babaker Shawkat B. Zebari
Iraqi Kurdistan Massoud Barzani

Iraq Ahmad Abu Risha
Strength
Supreme Command for Jihad and Liberation: 2,000–3,000[2] Islamic Army in Iraq: 10,400 (2007)[3] Al-Qaeda: 1,000–2,000[4]
JRTN: 1,500-5,000[5]
Special Groups: 7,000[6]
Badr Brigade: 10,000[7]
Iraqi Security Forces
600,000 (300,000 Army and 300,000 Police)[8]
Awakening Council militias – 30,000[9]
Contractors ~7,000[10][11]
Iraqi security forces losses
1,156 policemen and 949 soldiers killed
2,286 policemen and 1,759 soldiers wounded
Insurgent losses
919+ killed, 3,504 arrested
Civilian casualties
6,746 killed and 10,511 wounded
TOTAL CASUALTIES
9,770 killed
(Government figures, December 2011 – December 2013)[12]
Civilian casualties
14,855 killed
(Iraq body count figures, December 2011 – December 2013)[13]

Background

The Iraq War[nb 1] was a protracted armed conflict that began with the U.S.-led invasion of Iraq in 2003, which toppled the government of Saddam Hussein. However, the war continued for much of the next decade as an insurgency emerged to oppose the occupying forces and the post-invasion Iraqi government.[23] The United States officially withdrew its troops from Iraq in 2011, but the insurgency and various dimensions of the civil armed conflict have continued.

The invasion began in 2003 when the United States, joined by the United Kingdom and several coalition allies, launched a "shock and awe" surprise attack without declaring war. Iraqi forces were quickly overwhelmed as U.S. forces swept throughout the country. The invasion led to the collapse of the Ba'athist government; Saddam was captured, and he was executed by a military court three years later. However, the power vacuum following Saddam's fall, the mismanagement of the occupation and the sectarian policies of various militias[24] led to a lengthy insurgency against U.S., coalition forces and Iraqi government forces as well as widespread sectarian violence between Shias and Sunnis. The United States responded with a troop surge in 2007; the heavy American security presence and deals made between the occupying forces and Sunni militias reduced the level of violence. The U.S. began withdrawing its troops in the winter of 2007–2008. The winding down of U.S. involvement in Iraq accelerated under President Barack Obama. The U.S. withdrew all combat troops from Iraq by 2011.[25]

The Bush administration based its rationale for war principally on the assertion that Iraq possessed weapons of mass destruction (WMDs) and that Saddam's government posed an immediate threat to the United States and its coalition allies.[26][27] Some U.S. officials accused Saddam of harboring and supporting al-Qaeda,[28] while others cited the desire to end a repressive dictatorship and bring democracy to the people of Iraq.[29][30] After the invasion, however, no substantial evidence was found to verify the initial claims about WMDs. The rationale and misrepresentation of pre-war intelligence faced heavy criticism within the U.S. and internationally.

As a result of the war, Iraq held its multi-party elections in 2005, and Nouri al-Maliki later became Prime Minister the following year. The Maliki government enacted policies that were widely seen as having the effect of alienating the country's Sunni minority, which worsened sectarian tensions. In 2014, ISIS launched a military offensive in Northern Iraq and later declared a worldwide Islamic caliphate, eliciting another military response from the United States and its allies. The Iraq War caused hundreds of thousands of civilian and military casualties (see estimates). The majority of the casualties occurred as a result of the insurgency and civil conflicts between 2004 and 2007.

Timeline

2011

As previously planned, the last US combat troops were withdrawn from Iraq in 2011, with security responsibility in the hands of the Iraqi Armed Forces. On 15 December, martial closing ceremony was held in Baghdad putting a formal end to the U.S. mission in Iraq. This ceased direct U.S. combat involvement in the war.[31][32][33] The last 500 soldiers left Iraq under cover of darkness and under strict secrecy early on the morning of 18 December 2011, ending the U.S. military presence in Iraq after nearly nine years.[34][35][36][37][38] On 22 December 2011 at least 72 civilians were killed and more than 170 wounded in a series of bombings across Baghdad, while nine others died in various attacks in Baqubah, Mosul and Kirkuk.

2012

A number of bombings took place in Baghdad and Nasiriyah, killing 73 and leaving 149 injured. The bombing in the southern Iraqi city was targeted at crowds of Shi'ite Muslims and killed at least 44, injuring more than 80 others. It was the first major attack in Nasiriyah since a suicide attack against an Italian army base killed 28 in November 2003, including 19 Italians. ISIS claimed responsibility.

A suicide bomber detonated his explosives amid a crowd of Shi'ite pilgrims in Basra, killing 53 and injuring 141. This was the deadliest attack in the city since car bombs in April 2004 killed at least 74. On January 27 – A suicide bomber attacked a funeral procession in Baghdad's Zaafaraniyah district, killing 32 and injuring more than 70 others.[16] On February 23 – A series of attacks across 15 Iraqi cities left 83 killed and more than 250 injured. ISIS claimed responsibility two days later. On March 5 – A gang of gunmen disguised in military-style uniforms and carrying forged arrest warrants killed 27 police and then hoisted the battle flag of al-Qaeda in a carefully planned early morning attack in Anbar Governorate.[39] On March 20 – A wave of attacks centered on Baghdad and Kerbala killed at least 52 and left more than 250 injured. ISIS claimed responsibility.[39] On April 19 – More than 20 bombs exploded across Iraq, killing at least 36 people and wounding almost 170.[40] ISIS claimed responsibility.[40] On June 4, A suicide bomber killed 26 people and wounded almost 200 at the offices of a Shiite foundation in Baghdad, sparking fears of sectarian strife at a time of political crisis. The attack in the center of the capital was followed later by an explosion near a Sunni religious foundation, causing no casualties.[41] On June 13, At least 93 people were killed and over 300 wounded in a series of highly coordinated attacks across Iraq. ISIS claimed responsibility.[42]

Baghdad Iraq during the post withdrawal insurgency soldiers
Iraqi soldiers in Baghdad, 26 December 2011

On July 3, Explosions in Diwaniyah, Karbala, Taji and Tuz Khormato killed 40 and injured 122 others.[43] On July 22, Car bombs killed 23 and wounded 74 in Baghdad, Mahmoudiyah and Najaf.[44] On July 23, Coordinated attacks across Iraq killed 116 and left 299 injured. ISIS claimed responsibility.[45] On July 31, Attacks across Iraq killed 24 and injured 61, most of them in twin car bombings in Baghdad.[46] On August 13, at least 128 people were killed and more than 400 wounded in coordinated attacks across Iraq, making them the deadliest attacks in the country since October 2009, when 155 were killed in twin bombings near the Justice Ministry in Baghdad.[47][48] On September 9, A wave of attacks across the country killed at least 108 and left more than 370 others injured.[49][50][51][52][53] On September 30, A string of attacks occur in at least 10 Iraqi cities, killing 37 and injuring more than 90 others, most of them civilians.[54] On October 27, a wave of attacks during the Eid al-Adha holiday across Iraq killed at least 46 and left 123 injured. Most incidents occurred in Baghdad, Taji, Mosul and Muqdadiya.[55] On October 28, a Car bombings during the last day of Eid left 15 people dead and 33 injured in Baghdad.[56] On November 6, a car bombing outside an army base in Taji killed 31 people and injured at least 50 others, most of them soldiers. The blast struck as troops were leaving the base and potential recruits were lining up for job interviews.[57][58] On November 14, Insurgents staged a number of attacks on the eve of the Islamic New Year, killing 29 and injuring at least 194 others. The deadliest incidents took place in Kirkuk and Hilla, where at least seven bombings killed 19 and left 129 wounded. Other attacks took place in Baghdad, Mosul, Kut, Fallujah and Baqubah.[59] On November 27, At least 29 people are killed and 126 wounded in eight car bombings across Iraq.[60]

Two days of consecutive attacks across northern and central Iraq on December 16 and 17 killed at least 111 and injured 299 others. A significant part of the casualties were from a series of blasts in Kirkuk, Baghdad and Tuz Khormato, where at least 34 died and 154 others were injured. Other incidents took place in Mosul, Tarmiyah, Diwaniyah, Dujail, Tikrit and Baqubah, among others. Most of the attacks appeared to target police officers and members of the Iraqi Army.[61][62][63]

Sunni protests (2012)

After a period of calm, renewed political tension within Iraq led to renewed protests, this time mostly centered around the country's Sunni minority. The main cause for upheaval was the ongoing standoff between Vice President Tareq al-Hashemi and Prime Minister al-Maliki, but strained relationships with the Kurdish autonomous regions added to the scene. On December 23, 2012, several thousand Iraqis marched against al-Maliki, responding to his moves against al-Hashemi and other influential Sunni leaders.[64]

2013

On 4 January, a car bombing in Musayyib killed 28 Shi'ite pilgrims and injured 60 others as they were returning from Karbala.[65][66] In mid-January, a suicide bomber killed a prominent Sunni MP and six others in Fallujah, two days after Finance Minister Rafi al-Issawi survived an assassination attempt in the same city. The parliamentarian, Ayfan Sadoun al-Essawi, was an important member of the Sons of Iraq committee in Fallujah and part of the opposition to Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki.[67] A suicide truck-bomber also attacked the headquarters of the Kurdistan Democratic Party in Kirkuk, killing 26 and leaving 204 injured. A similar attack against another Kurdish office in Tuz Khormato killed 5 and wounded 40.[68][69] Later that month, a suicide bomber blew himself up during a funeral for a politician's relative in the city of Tuz Khormato, killing 42 and leaving 75 others wounded.[70] In addition, protests by Sunni Muslims in Iraq against the government of Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki turned deadly in Fallujah, as soldiers opened fire on a crowd of rock-throwing demonstrators, killing 7 and injuring more than 70 others. Three soldiers were later shot to death in retaliation for the incident, and clashes erupted in Askari, on the eastern outskirts of Fallujah. Security forces were placed on high alert as a curfew and vehicle ban were brought into effect. In a statement, Maliki urged both sides to show restraint and blamed the incident on unruly protesters. He also warned that it could lead to a "rise in tension that al-Qaida and terrorist groups are trying to take advantage of".[71][72]

In February, a suicide car-bomber detonated his vehicle near the provincial police headquarters in Kirkuk, killing at least 36 and injuring 105 others. Among the wounded was Major General Jamal Tahir, the city's chief of police, who had survived a previous attack at almost the same spot two years earlier. Three additional attackers were killed after the initial blast, as they attempted to throw grenades at security forces. Several officers who survived the attack reported that the first bomber was driving a police car and wearing a uniform. When guards at the gate stopped him to check his credentials, he detonated his explosives.[73][74]

In early March, unidentified gunmen ambushed a Syrian Army convoy escorted by Iraqi soldiers in the Battle of Akashat, killing 48 Syrians and 13 Iraqis. The assault took place near the desert border between the two nations in Iraq's Al Anbar Governorate. Authorities suspected the Free Iraqi Army, Jabhat al-Nusra, or al-Qaeda in Iraq of being behind the attack.[75] A week later, ISIS claimed responsibility for the attack, stating that they had "annihilated" a "column of the Safavid army," a reference to the Shia Persian dynasty that ruled Iran from 1501 to 1736. The group also claimed that the presence of Syrian soldiers in Iraq showed "firm co-operation" between the Syrian and Iraqi governments.[76] In mid-March, a series of coordinated attacks across the capital Baghdad and several major cities in the north and central parts of the country killed at least 98 people and left 240 others injured. The wave of violence was directed mostly at Shia civilians and took place on the tenth anniversary of the beginning of the Iraq War. ISIS later claimed responsibility for the attacks.[77]

In April, a tanker bomb exploded at the police headquarters in Tikrit, killing at least 42 people and injuring 67 others. Insurgents attacked an oil field near Akaz in a remote part of Al Anbar Governorate, killing 2 engineers and kidnapping a third one. Other attacks across the country left a prison warden in Mosul dead and 11 others injured, including the mayor of Tuz Khormato and at least four journalists, who were stabbed by unknown assailants in a series of attacks on media offices in the capital Baghdad.[78] Five days later, a suicide bomber killed 22 and injured 55 at a political rally for a local Sunni candidate in Baqubah.[79] On April 23, Iraqi Army units moved against an encampment set up by protesters in Hawija, west of the city of Kirkuk, sparking deadly clashes and reprisal attacks across the country.[80] According to army officers, the operation was aimed at Sunni militants from the Naqshbandi Army, who were reportedly involved in the protests. A total of 42 people were killed and 153 others injured, with most of them being protesters - only 3 soldiers were confirmed dead and 7 others wounded.[80][81] The incident sparked a number of revenge attacks, that soon spread out across much of the country. Minister of Education Mohammed Tamim resigned from his post in response to the Army's operation, and was followed later by Science and Technology Minister Abd al-Karim al-Samarrai.[80] Insurgents from the Naqshbandi Army completely captured the town of Sulaiman Bek, about 170 km north of Baghdad, after heavy fighting with security forces on April 25, only to relinquish control of it a day later, while escaping with weapons and vehicles. More than 340 were killed and 600 others injured in the four days of heaviest violence, while attacks continued after that at a pace higher than earlier in the year.[82][83][84][85]

In late May, the Iraqi government launches Operation al-Shabah (Phantom), with the stated aim of severing contact between Al-Qaeda in Iraq and the Syrian al-Nusra Front by clearing militants from the border area with Syria and Jordan.[86]

Aftermath

From January 2014 onwards, the rise of ISIS (or as it is also known, ISIL), a major belligerent in the Syrian Civil War, has transformed the insurgency into a regional war that includes Syria, Iran and a large coalition of Western and Islamic forces led by the United States.

Humanitarian aid

See also

Notes

  1. ^ The conflict is also known as the War in Iraq, the Occupation of Iraq, the Second Gulf War, Gulf War II, and Gulf War 2. The period of the war lasting from 2003 to 2010 was referred to as Operation Iraqi Freedom by the United States military.

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2011 Dohuk riots

The 2011 Dohuk riots refers to riots which began on December 2, 2011 in the Dohuk Governorate, Iraq. They were instigated by Friday prayers' sermons by Ismail Osman Sindai, a radical Kurdish imam, calling for attacks against stores selling alcohol and massage parlours in Zakho. The riots soon developed into the looting and burning down of Assyrian and Yazidi-owned properties in other towns in the governorate, causing four million dollars of damage.The riots ended after Kurdistan Regional Government security forces intervened and began a massive crackdown on demonstrators. As a result of the riots, a group of secular Kurds attacked a number of buildings belonging to the Kurdistan Islamic Union party.

2012–13 Iraqi protests

The 2012–13 Iraqi protests started on 21 December 2012 following a raid on the home of Sunni Finance Minister Rafi al-Issawi and the arrest of 10 of his bodyguards. Beginning in Fallujah, the protests afterwards spread throughout Sunni Arab parts of Iraq. The protests centered on the issue of the alleged sectarianism of Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki. Pro-Maliki protests also took place throughout central and southern Iraq, where there is a Shia Arab majority. In April 2013, sectarian violence escalated after the 2013 Hawija clashes. The aggressive protests continued throughout 2013, and in December Maliki used security forces to forcefully close down the main protest camp, in Ramadi. Sunni groups, such as the Army of the Men of the Naqshbandi Order, took up arms in response, and joined forces with the General Military Council for Iraqi Revolutionaries (GMCIR), a militant group made up of former Ba'athists, to conduct a military campaign against the Iraqi government. The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) would later grow out of this civil conflict.

2014 international conferences on Iraqi security

Following US President Barack Obama's address on the subject, a series of international conferences took place in order to build a formal coalition to destroy the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, which had taken over large portions of Syria and Iraq and had briefly invaded a small part of Lebanon.

Abu Mahdi al-Muhandis

Abu Mahdi al-Muhandis (real name Jamal Jafaar Mohammed Ali Ebrahimi) is an Iraqi-Iranian military commander who heads the Popular Mobilisation Committee (Al-Hashd Al-Sha'abi), which is active against the Islamic State. The organisations he oversees are reported to have close connections to the Quds Force, part of the Armed Forces of Iran.

He was the commander of the Kata'ib Hezbollah militia, and prior to that worked with the Iranian Revolutionary Guards against Saddam Hussein's regime.Allegations of terrorism have been levelled against him over his activities in Kuwait in the 1980s. He was sentenced to death in absentia by a court in Kuwait for his involvement in 1983 Kuwait bombings. Muhandis is on the United States' list of designated terrorists.

Army of the Men of the Naqshbandi Order

The Army of the Men of the Naqshbandi Order (Arabic: جيش رجال الطريقة النقشبندية‎ Jaysh Rijāl aṭ-Ṭarīqa an-Naqshabandiya), also called the Naqshbandi Army, is one of a number of underground Ba'athist and Sufi militant insurgency groups in Iraq. Media frequently refers to the group by the initials JRTN, a romanization of its Arabic name. Supreme Command for Jihad and Liberation, technically the name of the umbrella organisation to which JRTN belongs, is also often used to refer to JRTN specifically.It is ostensibly a militant Sufi Muslim organisation named for the Naqshbandi Sufi Order and the JRTN's ideology has been described as "a mix of Islamic and pan-Arab nationalistic ideas", with Izzat Ibrahim al-Douri being described as "the hidden sheikh of the Men of the Naqshbandi".

Casualties of the Iraqi insurgency (2011–present)

Casualties of the Iraqi insurgency (2011–present) refers to deaths and injuries in Iraq after the withdrawal of US forces at the end of the Iraq War on 18 December 2011, as fighting continued between the Iraqi government and anti-government forces in the Iraqi insurgency (2011–2013) and later escalated into the Iraqi Civil War (2014–2017) and subsequent Iraqi insurgency (2017–present).

Dwekh Nawsha

The Dwekh Nawsha (Syriac: ܕܒ݂ܝܚ ܢܦ̮ܫܐ‎; literally "one who sacrifices") is a Christian military organization created in June 2014 in order to defend Iraq's Assyrian population from the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), and possibly retake their lands currently controlled by ISIL. The militia defends the Christian cities in the Nineveh province of the historical Assyria region.The Dwekh Nawsha operates in coordination with the regional and international security forces.Despite being led by the Assyrian Patriotic Party, most militiamen are not members of the party. Several Christian foreign fighters have joined the Dwekh Nawsha; they include Americans, French, British and Australians.Sons of Liberty International, who had previously trained the Nineveh Plain Protection Units, announced in fall 2015 that they will begin training Dwekh Nawsha in their fight against ISIL.

Free Iraqi Army

The Free Iraqi Army (Arabic: الجيش العراقي الحر‎, Al-Jayš Al-‘Irāqī Al-Ḥurr, FIA) was a Sunni rebel group formed in the western Sunni-majority provinces of Iraq from Iraqi supporters of the Free Syrian Army rebels fighting in the Syrian Civil War. The group aimed to overthrow the Shia-dominated government of Iraq, believing that they would gain support in this from Syria should the rebels be successful in overthrowing Bashar al-Assad. An Iraqi counterterror spokesman denied this, saying that the name is merely being used by al-Qaeda in Iraq to "attract the support of the Iraqi Sunnis by making use of the strife going on in Syria."Aside from Anbar Province, the FIA reportedly had a presence in Fallujah, along the Syrian border near the town of Al-Qaim, and in Mosul in the north of Iraq. A recruiting commander for the group told a reporter from The Daily Star newspaper in Lebanon that the group was opposed to both Al-Qaeda in Iraq and their opponents in the Sahwa militia. The same commander claimed that the group received financial support from cross-border tribal extensions and Sunni sympathizers in the Persian gulf states of Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the UAE.On 4 February 2013, Wathiq al-Batat of the Shiite militant group Hezbollah in Iraq, announced the formation of the Mukhtar Army to fight against al-Qaeda and the Free Iraqi Army. In August 2014, the group became defunct, after a large offensive by ISIL in northern Iraq, with activity on their websites ceasing.

Gulf War (disambiguation)

The Gulf War (August 1990 to February 1991) was a war against Iraq by a U.S.-led coalition, following Iraq's invasion of Kuwait.

Gulf War or Persian Gulf War may also refer to a number of other wars or conflicts, including:

Iran–Iraq War (September 1980 to August 1988), began when Iraq invaded Iran, and ended almost eight years later in stalemate

Operation Desert Fox (1998), a four-day bombing campaign during the Iraq disarmament crisis

Iraq conflict (2003–present) (March 2003 to December 2011), a two-phase conflict comprising an initial invasion of Iraq led by US and UK forces and a longer, seven-year phase of occupation and fighting with insurgents.

Iraqi insurgency (2011–2013), the surge in sectarian violence that occurred immediately following the end of the 2003 to 2011 Iraq War

Iraqi Civil War (2014–2017), a conflict that began when the initial three-year-long insurgency escalated in January 2014

American-led intervention in Iraq (2014–present), a multi-national campaign beginning in June 2014 to rid Iraq of ISIL influence and deliver humanitarian aid to Iraqi minority religious and ethnic groups.

Irreligion in Iraq

Irreligion is thought to be rare in Iraq, as the country which is still trying to overcome violence between Shias and Sunnis. There may be only a few hundred self-described atheists in Iraq. Exact numbers are unclear because many fear telling their friends and family about their belief. Some young Iraqis turned away from Islam due to religious fundamentalism and the Iraqi insurgency (2003–11), the Iraqi insurgency (2011–2013) and the Iraqi Civil War (2014–2017).

Islamic Army in Iraq

The Islamic Army in Iraq (IAI) (Arabic: الجيش الإسلامي في العراق, al jaysh al islāmi fī'l-`irāq) is one of a number of underground Islamist militant (or mujahideen) organizations formed in Iraq following the 2003 invasion of Iraq by United States and coalition military forces, and the subsequent collapse of the Baathist government headed by Saddam Hussein.

Although it carries an Islamic title, the group combines Sunni Islamism with Iraqi nationalism, and has been labelled as "resistance" by Iraq's Sunni Vice-President Tariq al-Hashemi (sentenced to death in 2012) despite Tariq al-Hashemi's close relations with the US government.

Following the withdrawal of American forces from Iraq in late 2011, the IAI demobilized and turned towards political activism, setting up the Sunni Popular Movement. The groups turn away from armed opposition towards activism was criticised by other militant groups, including groups that the IAI had previously allied with such as Jaysh al-MujihadeenSince the beginning of 2014, however, the group has been active in the ongoing anti-government violence in Anbar and Northern Iraq. The group is primarily active in the Diyala and Saladin Provinces.. Most of its fighters have renounced fighting against the Iraqi state although some have joined ISIS.

List of armed groups in the Iraqi Civil War

This article is a list of armed groups involved in the Iraqi Civil War. The civil war started in 2014, following the 2011–2013 insurgency, and is currently ongoing though under control. The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) had a major involvement during the war, until it was militarily defeated in Iraq in December 2017. It is unclear whether ISIL will succeed in involving itself again directly or indirectly. Baathist supporters and some Sunni groups have fought against the Government of Iraq and its allies. The Peshmerga fought against ISIL and other forces during the civil war; though not against the government, they did not join the Iraqi forces. There are ongoing negotiations related to the future of Iraqi Kurdistan, internal and external conflicts, and the security of the country and the region.

List of bombings during the Iraqi insurgency (2011–2013)

This article lists major bombings during the Iraqi Insurgency (2011–present) following the withdrawal of US troops at the end of the Iraq War.

Mukhtar Army

The Mukhtar Army is a Shi'a Iraqi militia group formed in February 2013 by Wathiq al-Battat, a former senior official in the Hezbollah Brigades. Al-Battat pledged his loyalty to the Supreme Leader of Iran, Ayatollah Ali Khamenei. Al-Battat was arrested briefly on 2 January 2014 but was released despite still being a fugitive. He was apparently "accidentally assassinated" at point-blank range on 20 December 2014 at a fake police checkpoint in eastern Iraq by an unknown party.

Musab bin Umair mosque massacre

On 22 August 2014, Shia militants killed at least 73 people in an attack on the Sunni Musab bin Omair mosque in the Imam Wais village (north-east of Baghdad and south of the city of Baquba) of Diyala Province, Iraq. The attack occurred during Jumu'ah (Friday prayers) and at the time of the attack, there were about 150 worshippers at the mosque. The attack took place during the Northern Iraq offensive by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) against the Iraqi government. The attack was blamed on Shiite militias fighting alongside the Iraqi army against ISIL.

Nineveh Plain Forces

The Nineveh Plain Forces (Syriac: ܚܝ̈ܠܘܬܐ ܕܕܫܬܐ ܕܢܝܢܘܐ‎, romanized: Ḥaylawotho d'Deshto d'Ninwe) or NPF is a military organization that was formed on 6 January 2015 by indigenous Assyrian Christians in Iraq, in cooperation with Peshmerga, to defend against Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant. The Nineveh plains are a region at the heart of the Assyrian homeland. The militia is affiliated with the Bet-Nahrain Democratic Party and the Beth Nahrain Patriotic Union (HBA), the latter being part of the secular Dawronoye movement. It participated in the Battle of Mosul (2016–2017).

Nineveh Plain Protection Units

The Nineveh Plain Protection Units (Syriac: ܚܕܝ̈ܘܬ ܣܬܪܐ ܕܫܛܚܐ ܕܢܝܢܘܐ‎ Ḥḏāywāṯ Setārā d-Šṭāḥā d-Nīnwē; Arabic: وحدات حماية سهل نينوى‎) or NPU is a military organization that was formed late in 2014, largely but not exclusively by Assyrians in Iraq to defend themselves against Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant. The Nineveh plains is a region where Assyrians in Iraq have traditionally been concentrated.

Timeline of the Iraqi insurgency (2011–present)

The following is a timeline of major events during the Iraqi insurgency (2011–present):

Timeline of the Iraqi insurgency (2014)

Timeline of the Iraqi insurgency (2015)

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