The Iraqi Republic (Arabic: الجمهورية العراقية al-Jumhūrīyah al-'Irāqīyah) was a state forged in 1958 under the rule of President Muhammad Najib ar-Ruba'i and Prime Minister Abd al-Karim Qasim. ar-Ruba'i and Qasim first came to power through the 14 July Revolution in which the Kingdom of Iraq's Hashemite monarchy was overthrown. As a result, the Kingdom and the Arab Federation were dissolved and the Iraqi republic established. The era ended with the Ba'athist rise to power in 1968.
and largest city
Christianity (Catholicism, Iraqi Reformed Church), Zoroastrianism and Yazdanism
|Government||One-party state under a military junta|
|Abdul Salam Arif|
|Abdul Rahman Arif|
• 1958-1963 (first)
|Abd al-Karim Qasim|
• 1967-1968 (last)
|Legislature||Revolutionary Command Council|
|Historical era||Cold War|
|14 July 1958|
|8 February 1963|
|10–11 November 1963|
|17 July 1968|
|1968||438,317 km2 (169,235 sq mi)|
|Currency||Iraqi dinar (IQD)|
|ISO 3166 code||IQ|
|Today part of||Iraq|
Iraq reverted to control over the territory of the former Kingdom of Iraq and Jordan again became an independent entity.
Qasim specifically sited the north-south territorial limits from its highest point in the North and lowest point in the South identified in the regime's popular slogan as being "From Zakho in the North to Kuwait in the South", Zakho referring to the border then-and-now between Iraq and Turkey. The Qasim government in Iraq and its supporters supported Kurdish irredentism towards what they called "Kurdistan that is annexed to Iran", implying that Iraq supported unification of Iranian Kurdistan into Iraqi Kurdistan. The Qasim government did not hold territorial claims to Kurdish territories in Turkey, as the Qasim government roughly defined what it considered Iraq's borders in the regime's popular slogan: "From Zakho in the North to Kuwait in the South", Zakho referring to the border then-and-now between Iraq and Turkey. The Qasim government held an irredentist claim to Khuzestan. It held irredentist claims to Kuwait.
Abd al-Karim Qasim promoted a civic Iraqi nationalism that recognized Iraq's Arabs and Kurds as equal partners in the state of Iraq, Kurdish language was not only formally legally permitted in Iraq under the Qassim government, but the Kurdish version of the Arabic alphabet was adopted for use by the Iraqi state and the Kurdish language became the medium of instruction in all educational institutions, both in the Kurdish territories and in the rest of Iraq. Under Qassim, Iraqi cultural identity based on Arabo-Kurdish fraternity was stressed over ethnic identity, Qassim's government sought to merge Kurdish nationalism into Iraqi nationalism and Iraqi culture, stating: "Iraq is not only an Arab state, but an Arabo-Kurdish state...[T]he recognition of Kurdish nationalism by Arabs proves clearly that we are associated in the country, that we are Irakians first, Arabs and Kurds later". The Qassim government and its supporters supported Kurdish irredentism towards what they called "Kurdistan that is annexed to Iran", implying that Iraq held irredentist claims on Iran's Kurdish populated territories that it supported being united with Iraq. The Qassim government's pro-Kurdish policies including a statement promising "Kurdish national rights within Iraqi unity" and open attempts by Iraq to coopt Iranian Kurds to support unifying with Iraq resulted in Iran responding by declaring Iran's support for the unification of all Kurds who were residing in Iraq and Syria, into Iran. Qassim's initial policies towards Kurds were very popular amongst Kurds across the Middle East whom in support of his policies called Qassim "the leader of the Arabs and the Kurds".
Kurdish leader Mustafa Barzani during his alliance with Qassim and upon Qassim granting him the right to return to Iraq from exile imposed by the former monarchy, declared support of the Kurdish people for being citizens of Iraq, saying in 1958 "On behalf of all my Kurdish brothers who have long struggled, once again I congratulate you [Qassim] and the Iraqi people, Kurds and Arabs, for the glorious Revolution putting an end to imperialism and the reactionary and corrupt monarchist gang". Barzani also commended Qassim for allowing Kurdish refugee diaspora to return to Iraq and declared his loyalty to Iraq, saying "Your Excellency, leader of the people: I take this opportunity to tender my sincere appreciation and that of my fellow Kurdish refugees in the Socialist countries for allowing us to return to our beloved homeland, and to join in the honor of defending the great cause of our people, the cause of defending the republic and its homeland."
Under the Qasim regime, the Iraqi government in its actions and documents on the economy promoted nine economic principles: (1) economic planning over the whole economy; (2) dismantling monopolies and strengthening the middle class; (3) liberating the economy from imperialism; (4) abolition of the land tenure system; (5) establishing trade with all countries; (6) closer economic ties with Arab countries; (7) expanding the public sector; (8) encouragement of the private sector; and (9) creating a higher rate of economic growth.
During and after World War II, the UK reoccupied Iraq due to the 1941 Iraqi coup d'état in which four nationalist Iraqi generals, with German intelligence and military assistance, overthrew Regent 'Abd al-Ilah and Prime Minister Nuri al-Said and installed Rashid Ali as Prime Minister of Iraq. Ali was eventually ousted by the British and 'Abd al-Ilah and al-Said retook power. In 1947, the Iraqis started to negotiate a British withdrawal, and finally negotiated the treaty at Portsmouth on January 15, 1948, which stipulated the creation of a joint British and Iraqi joint defense board that oversaw Iraqi military planning and British control of Iraqi foreign affairs.
Regional rivalries played a huge role in the 14 July Revolution. Pan-Arab and Arab Nationalist sentiment circulated in the Middle East and was proliferated by an anti-imperialist revolutionary, Gamal Abdel Nasser of Egypt. During and after World War II, The Hashemite Kingdom of Iraq was home to a number of Arab nationalist sympathizers. Arab nationalists viewed the Hashemite Monarchy as too beholden to British and Western interests. This anti-Hashemite sentiment grew from a politicized educational system in Iraq and an increasingly assertive and educated bourgeoisie. Iraqi Prime Minister Nuri al-Said expressed his interest in pursuing the idea of a federation of Arab States of the Fertile Crescent, and helped to create the Arab Federation of Iraq and Jordan, but reserved his enthusiasm about a Nasser espoused pan-Arab state. Al-Said joined the Arab league in 1944 on Iraq's behalf seeing it as a providing a forum for bringing together the Arab states, leaving the door open for a possible future federation. The charter of the League enshrined the principle of the autonomy for each Arab state and referenced pan-Arabism only rhetorically.
Iraq was just coming out of World War II, and as much of the rest of the world, was war torn. The war had caused a huge increase in inflation and a drop in the quality of life of the Iraqi people. Prime Minister Nuri Al-Said and the Arab Nationalist regent, Abd al-Ilah, continually clashed on economic policy. Instead of cooperating to improve the quality of life for the Iraqi people and cut inflation, the Prime Minister and the regent could not agree on a cohesive economic policy.
Educated elites in Iraq began dabbling in the ideals espoused by Nasser's pan-Arabism movement. Within the officer corps of the Iraqi military, pan-Arab nationalism began to take root. The policies of Al-Said were disliked by certain individuals within the Iraqi military, and opposition groups began to form, modeled upon the Egyptian Free Officers Movement which had overthrown the Egyptian monarchy in 1952.
On 14 July 1958, a group that identified as the "Free Officers", a secret military group led by General Abd al-Karim Qasim, overthrew the monarchy. This group was markedly Pan-Arab in character. King Faisal II, the Regent and Crown Prince Abd al-Ilah, and Nuri al-Said were all killed.
Opposition to Qasim from Arab Nationalist forces within the army culminated in the 1959 Mosul Uprising, which was an attempted coup launched with support from the United Arab Republic. Despite attracting support from local Arab tribes, the Mosul-based leadership of the coup was defeated in a number of days by loyal forces from within the Iraqi Army supported by the Iraqi Communist Party and local Kurdish tribes. Following the defeat of the coup Mosul was the scene of several days of unprecedented violence as all groups engaged in score-settling, using the post-coup chaos as a smokescreen, resulting in thousands of deaths.
Qasim's use of the Iraqi Communist Party to help put down the rebellion, and their growing strength within Iraq, convinced the Ba'ath Party in Iraq that the only way to stop the spread of the communists was to overthrow Qasim.
On 8 February 1963, Qasim was overthrown by a coup led by a mixture of the Ba'ath Party and sympathetic Arab Nationalist groups in the Iraqi Armed Forces. Qasim was unpopular in the Ba'ath Party and among Arab Nationalists largely for his focus on Iraqi Nationalism, as opposed to Arab Nationalism, and also because he was seen as being too close to the Iraqi Communist Party, which both groups viewed with a deep suspicion. Conflict between Qasim and certain officers of the Iraqi Armed Forces made them sympathetic to the idea of a coup.
Following Qasim's overthrow and execution members of the Ba'ath Party engaged in a house to house hunt for communists. Total deaths from the communist purge and the coup were around 5,000.
Although the Iraqi Communist Party had been greatly weakened by the anti-Leftists purges following the Ramadan Revolution, there still existed pockets of support for the party, particularly in Baghdad, which hosted some of the most militant party cells. A plan was eventually hatched and was put into action on 3 July 1963. The plan called for a mixture of 2,000 party members and rebel soldiers to take control over ar-Rashid army base in Baghdad, where 1,000 Qasim supporters and communists were being held, in the belief that the freed former officers could provide leadership and encourage other army units across Iraq to join the rebellion. The coup faced an unexpected level of opposition from the prison guards at the base, preventing them from releasing the officers and spreading the rebellion. The base was surrounded by forces from the Ba'ath Party National Guard Militia and the coup was put down.
The Convention concerning Discrimination in Respect of Employment and Occupation or Discrimination (Employment and Occupation) Convention (ILO Convention No.111) is an International Labour Organization Convention on anti-discrimination. It is one of eight ILO fundamental conventions. The convention requires states to enable legislation which prohibits all discrimination and exclusion on any basis including of race or colour, sex, religion, political opinion, national or social origin in employment and repeal legislation that is not based on equal opportunities.
This Convention is cited by International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination in 1969 and the ILO Workers with Famility Responsibilities Convention in 1981.Equal Remuneration Convention
The Convention concerning Equal Remuneration for Men and Women Workers for Work of Equal Value, or Equal Remuneration Convention is the 100th International Labour Organization Convention and the principal one aimed at equal remuneration for work of equal value for men and women. States parties may accomplish this through legislation, introduction of a system for wage determination and/or collective bargaining agreements. It is one of 8 ILO fundamental conventions.Final Articles Revision Convention, 1961
Final Articles Revision Convention, 1961 is an International Labour Organization Convention.
It was established in 1961, with the preamble stating:
Having decided upon the adoption of certain proposals with regard to the partial revision of the Conventions adopted by the General Conference of the International Labour Organisation at its first thirty-two sessions for the purpose of standardising the provisions regarding the preparation of reports by the Governing Body of the International Labour Office on the working of Conventions,...Genocide Convention
The Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 9 December 1948 as General Assembly Resolution 260. The Convention entered into force on 12 January 1951. It defines genocide in legal terms, and is the culmination of years of campaigning by lawyer Raphael Lemkin. All participating countries are advised to prevent and punish actions of genocide in war and in peacetime. As of December 2017, 149 states have ratified or acceded to the treaty, most recently Benin on 2 November 2017. One state, the Dominican Republic, has signed but not ratified the treaty.Hours of Work (Commerce and Offices) Convention, 1930
Hours of Work (Commerce and Offices) Convention, 1930 is an International Labour Organization Convention.
It was established in 1930:
Having decided upon the adoption of certain proposals with regard to the regulations of hours of work in commerce and offices,...Hours of Work (Industry) Convention, 1919
Hours of Work (Industry) Convention, 1919 is an International Labour Organization Convention.
It was established in 1919:
Having decided upon the adoption of certain proposals with regard to the "application of the principle of the 8-hour working day or of the 48-hours week"...Marking of Weight (Packages Transported by Vessels) Convention, 1929
Marking of Weight (Packages Transported by Vessels) Convention, 1929 is an International Labour Organization Convention.
It was established in 1929:
Having decided upon the adoption of certain proposals with regard to the marking of the weight on heavy packages transported by vessels,...Medical Examination of Young Persons (Non-Industrial Occupations) Convention, 1946
Medical Examination of Young Persons (Non-Industrial Occupations) Convention, 1946 is an International Labour Organization Convention.
It was established in 1946 with the preamble stating:
Having decided upon the adoption of certain proposals with regard to medical examination for fitness for employment in non-industrial occupations of children and young persons,...Medical Examination of Young Persons (Sea) Convention, 1921
Medical Examination of Young Persons (Sea) Convention, 1921 is an International Labour Organization Convention.
It was established in 1921:
Having decided upon the adoption of certain proposals with regard to the compulsory medical examination of children and young persons employed at sea,...Minimum Wage-Fixing Machinery Convention, 1928
Minimum Wage-Fixing Machinery Convention, 1928 is an International Labour Organization Convention.
It was established in 1928:
Having decided upon the adoption of certain proposals with regard to minimum wage-fixing machinery,...
The principles of the convention were modified and included in the Minimum Wage Fixing Machinery (Agriculture) Convention, 1951 and Minimum Wage Fixing Convention, 1970.Radiation Protection Convention, 1960
Radiation Protection Convention, 1960 is an International Labour Organization Convention to restrict workers from exposure of ionising radiation and to prohibit persons under 16 engaging in work that causes such exposure. (Article 6)
It was established in 1960, with the preamble stating:
Having decided upon the adoption of certain proposals with regard to the protection of workers against ionising radiations,...
Article 2. This Convention applies to all activities involving exposure of workers to ionising radiation in the course of their work.
Article 5. Every effort shall be made to restrict the exposure of workers to ionising radiation to the lowest protectable level.
Article 12 imposes undergoing further medical examinations at appropriate intervals, and Article 13 imposes the employer shall take any necessary remedial action on the basis of the technical findings and the medical advice.Right to Organise and Collective Bargaining Convention, 1949
The Right to Organise and Collective Bargaining Convention (1949) No 98 is an International Labour Organization Convention. It is one of eight ILO fundamental conventions.Its counterpart on the general principle of freedom of association is the Freedom of Association and Protection of the Right to Organise Convention (1949) No 87.Seamen's Articles of Agreement Convention, 1926
Seamen's Articles of Agreement Convention, 1926 is an International Labour Organization Convention.
It was established in 1926:
Having decided upon the adoption of certain proposals with regard to seamen's articles of agreement,...Unemployment Indemnity (Shipwreck) Convention, 1920
Unemployment Indemnity (Shipwreck) Convention, 1920 is an International Labour Organization Convention.
It was established in 1920:
Having decided upon the adoption of certain proposals with regard to the "supervision of articles of agreement; provision of facilities for finding employment for seamen; application to seamen of the Convention and Recommendations adopted at Washington in November last in regard to unemployment and unemployment insurance",...Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations
The Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations of 1961 is an international treaty that defines a framework for diplomatic relations between independent countries. It specifies the privileges of a diplomatic mission that enable diplomats to perform their function without fear of coercion or harassment by the host country. This forms the legal basis for diplomatic immunity. Its articles are considered a cornerstone of modern international relations. As of October 2018, it has been ratified by 192 states.Weekly Rest (Commerce and Offices) Convention, 1957
Weekly Rest (Commerce and Offices) Convention, 1957 is an International Labour Organization Convention.
It was established in 1957, with the preamble stating:
Having decided upon the adoption of certain proposals with regard to weekly rest in commerce and offices, ...Weekly Rest (Industry) Convention, 1921
Weekly Rest (Industry) Convention, 1921 is an International Labour Organization Convention on limitation of working time to eight-hour day and 48 hours for a week.
It was established in 1921:
Having decided upon the adoption of certain proposals with regard to the weekly rest day in industrial employment,...White Lead (Painting) Convention, 1921
White Lead (Painting) Convention, 1921 is an International Labour Organization Convention established in 1921 to advance the prohibition of using white lead in paint.
As of 2017 many leading global nations, including the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany, Japan, China and India remain outside the organization.Workmen's Compensation (Accidents) Convention, 1925
Workmen's Compensation (Accidents) Convention, 1925 is an International Labour Organization Convention.
It was established in 1925:
Having decided upon the adoption of certain proposals with regard to workmen's compensation for accidents, ...