Iranian calendars

The Iranian calendars (Persian: گاه‌شماری ایرانیGâh-Shomâriye Irâni) are a succession of calendars invented or used for over two millennia in Iran and formerly Persia. One of the longest chronological records in human history, the Iranian calendar has been modified time and time again during its history to suit administrative, climatic, and religious purposes.

As one of the few calendars designed in the era of accurate positional astronomy, the Persian calendar uses a very complex leap year structure which makes it the most accurate solar calendar in use today.[1]

The modern Iranian calendar is currently the official calendar in Iran. It begins at the midnight nearest to the instant of the vernal equinox as determined by astronomical calculations for the Iran Standard Time meridian (52.5°E or GMT+3.5h). It is, therefore, an observation-based calendar, unlike the Gregorian, which is rule-based.[2]

The Iranian year usually begins within a day of 21 March of the Gregorian calendar. To find the corresponding year of the Gregorian calendar, add 621 or 622 (depending on the time of the year) to a solar hijri year. A short table of year correspondences between the Persian and Gregorian calendars is provided below.

History

Ancient calendars

Although the earliest evidence of Iranian calendrical traditions is from the second millennium BCE, predating the appearance of the Iranian prophet Zoroaster, the first fully preserved calendar is that of the Achaemenids. Throughout recorded history, Persians have been keen on the idea and importance of having a calendar. They were among the first cultures to use a solar calendar and have long favoured a solar over lunar and lunisolar approaches. The sun has always been a symbol in Iranian culture and is closely related to the folklore regarding Cyrus the Great.[3]

Old Persian calendar

Old Persian inscriptions and tablets indicate that early Iranians used a 360-day calendar based on the solar observation directly and modified for their beliefs. Days were not named. The months had two or three divisions depending on the phase of the moon. Twelve months of 30 days were named for festivals or activities of the pastoral year. A 13th month was added every six years to keep the calendar synchronized with the seasons.

The following table lists the Old Persian months.[4]

Order Corresponding Julian months Old Persian Elamite spelling Meaning Corresponding Babylonian month
1 March–April Ādukanaiša Hadukannaš uncertain Nīsannu
2 April–May Θūravāhara Turmar Possibly "(Month of) strong spring" Ayyāru
3 May–June Θāigraciš Sākurriziš "Garlic-collecting month" Sīmannu
4 June–July Garmapada Karmabataš "Heat-station (month)" Du'ūzu
5 July–August Turnabaziš Ābu
6 August–September Karbašiyaš Ulūlū
7 September–October Bāgayādiš Bakeyatiš "(Month) of the worship of baga (god, perhaps Mithra)" Tašrītu
8 October–November *Vrkazana Markašanaš "(Month) of wolf killing" Arahsamna
9 November–December Āçiyādiya Hašiyatiš "(Month) of the worship of the fire" Kisilīmu
10 December–January Anāmaka Hanamakaš "Month of the nameless god(?)" Tebētu
11 January–February *Θwayauvā Samiyamaš "The terrible one" Šabāţu
12 February–March Viyax(a)na Miyakannaš "Digging-up (month)" Addāru

There were four farming festivals, symmetrical about maidyoshahem:

Festival Time from previous
hamaspathmaidyem 75 days
maidyoshahem 105 days
ayathrem 105 days
maidyarem 75 days

Two more festivals were later added, creating the six gahanbar:

Festival Time from previous
hamaspathmaidyem (end of retirement) 75 days
maidyozarem (spring) 45 days
maidyoshahem (mid-summer) 60 days
paitishahem (harvest) 75 days
ayathrem (end of the summer) 30 days
maidyarem 75 days

Zoroastrian calendar

The first calendars based on Zoroastrian cosmology appeared in the later Achaemenid period (650 to 330 BCE). They evolved over the centuries, but month names changed little until now.

The unified Achaemenid Empire required a distinctive Iranian calendar, and one was devised in Egyptian tradition, with 12 months of 30 days, each dedicated to a yazata (Eyzad), and four divisions resembling the Semitic week. Four days per month were dedicated to Ahura Mazda and seven were named after the six Amesha Spentas. Thirteen days were named after Fire, Water, Sun, Moon, Tiri and Geush Urvan (the soul of all animals), Mithra, Sraosha (Soroush, yazata of prayer), Rashnu (the Judge), Fravashi, Bahram (yazata of victory), Raman (Ramesh meaning peace), and Vata, the divinity of the wind. Three were dedicated to the female divinities, Daena (yazata of religion and personified conscious), Ashi (yazata of fortune) and Arshtat (justice). The remaining four were dedicated to Asman (lord of sky or Heaven), Zam (earth), Manthra Spenta (the Bounteous Sacred Word) and Anaghra Raocha (the 'Endless Light' of paradise).

The month names and their modern versions are given in the following table.

Order Avestan name of the Yazata (in the genitive) Approximate meaning of the name Pahlavi Middle Persian Modern Iranian Persian
Romanized English Romanized Native Script Romanized
1 Fravašinąm (Guardian spirits, souls of the righteous) Frawardīn فروردین Farvardīn
2 Ašahe Vahištahe "Best Truth" / "Best Righteousness" Ardwahišt اردیبهشت Ordībehešt
3 Haurvatātō "Wholeness" / "Perfection" Khordād خرداد Khordād
4 Tištryehe "Sirius" Tīr تیر Tīr
5 Amərətātō "Immortality" Amurdād امرداد A-Mordād
6 Xšaθrahe Vairyehe "Desirable Dominion" Shahrewar شهریور Shahrīvar
7 Miθrahe "Covenant" Mihr مهر Mehr
8 Apąm "Waters" Ābān آبان Ābān
9 Āθrō "Fire" Ādur آذر Āzar
10 Daθušō "The Creator" (i.e. Ahura Mazda) Day دی Dey
11 Vaŋhə̄uš Manaŋhō "Good Spirit" Wahman بهمن Bahman
12 Spəntayā̊ Ārmatōiš "Holy Devotion" Spandarmad اسپند|اسفند Espand / Esfand

The calendar had a significant impact on religious observance. It fixed the pantheon of major divinities, and also ensured that their names were uttered often, since at every Zoroastrian act of worship the yazatas of both day and month were invoked. It also clarified the pattern of festivities; for example, Mitrakanna or Mehregan was celebrated on Mithra day of Mithra month, and the Tiri festival (Tiragan) was celebrated on Tiri day of the Tiri month.

In 538 BC Cyrus the Great (uncertain if he was a Zoroastrian) conquered Babylon and the Babylonian luni-solar calendar came into use for civil purposes. Cambyses conquered Egypt in 525 BC. He was accompanied by Darius, a Zoroastrian who became ruler of the Persian empire in 517 BC. The Zoroastrians adopted the wandering Egyptian solar calendar of twelve months of thirty days plus five epagomenal days. As their year began in the spring (with the festival of norouz) the epagemonai were placed just before norouz.

In Egypt the star Sirius had significance since every 1460 years (the Sothic cycle) its heliacal rising (just before sunrise) marked the Egyptian new year and the inundation of the Nile. In Persia also the star had significance, since its heliacal rising there also coincided with the coming of the rain. The fourth Persian month was Tishtrya (Sirius, rain star). The vernal equinox at Greenwich fell on the first day of the first month from 487 to 483 BC (inclusive). Adopting S H Taqizadeh's date of 28 March 487 BC for the reform[5] the calendar for that year is as follows:

* denotes 1 Epagomene
Egyptian month First day Persian month First day
4 23 March 1 23*–28 March
5 22 April 2 27 April
6 22 May 3 27 May
7 21 June 4 26 June
8 21 July 5 26 July
9 20 August 6 25 August
10 19 September 7 24 September
11 19 October 8 24 October
12 18 November 9 23 November
1 18*–23 December 10 23 December
2 22 January 11 22 January
3 21 February 12 21 February

The fourth month includes 20 July, the date of the heliacal rising of Sirius. In the first year the people carried on using the old calendar, anticipating festival dates by five days. As each day is named after a god, it is important to observe the celebrations on the right day. Thus the fravasis festival, which in the old calendar was kept between sunset on 30 Spandarmad and sunrise on 1 Frawardin, was now observed throughout the epagemonai. In the second year of the reform, the old 30 Spandarmad was the new 25 Spandarmad, so from then on the festival covered eleven days, up to the new 1 Frawardin. Five days was considered enough for other festivals, however.

In all the lands where the Persian calendar was used the epagemonai were placed at the end of the year. To offset the difference between the agricultural year and the calendar year (the tax-gathering season began after the harvest) the start of the araji (land-tax) year was delayed by one month every 120 years. A Roman historian, Quintus Curtius Rufus, describing a ceremony in 333 BC, writes:

The magi were followed by three hundred and sixty-five young men clad in purple robes, equal in number to the days of a whole year; for the Persians also divided the year into that number of days.[6]

After the conquests by Alexander of Macedon and his death, the Persian territories fell to one of his generals, Seleucus (312 BCE), starting the Seleucid dynasty of Iran. Based on the Greek tradition, Seleucids introduced the practice of dating by era rather than by the reign of individual kings. Their era became known as that of Alexander, or later the Seleucid era. Since the new rulers were not Zoroastrians, Zoroastrian priests lost their function at the royal courts, and so resented the Seleucids. Although they began dating by eras, they established their own era of Zoroaster.

That was the first serious attempt to determine the dates associated with the prophet Zoroaster's life. Priests had no Zoroastrian historical sources, and so turned to Babylonian archives famous in the ancient world. From these they learned that a great event in Persian history took place 228 years before the era of Alexander. In fact, this was the conquest of Babylon by Cyrus the Great in 539 BCE. But the priests misinterpreted this date to be the time the "true faith" was revealed to their prophet, and since Avestan literature indicates that revelation happened when Zoroaster was 30 years old, 568 BCE was taken as his year of birth. The date entered written records as the beginning of the era of Zoroaster, and indeed, the Persian Empire. This incorrect date is still mentioned in many current encyclopedias as Zoroaster's birth date.

Modifications by Parthians, Ardashir I, Hormizd I, Yazdgerd III

The Parthians (Arsacid dynasty) adopted the same calendar system with minor modifications, and dated their era from 248 BCE, the date they succeeded the Seleucids. Their names for the months and days are Parthian equivalents of the Avestan ones used previously, differing slightly from the Middle Persian names used by the Sassanians. For example, in Achaemenid times the modern Persian month 'Day' was called Dadvah (Creator), in Parthian it was Datush and the Sassanians named it Dadv/Dai (Dadar in Pahlavi).

When in April of AD 224 the Parthian dynasty fell and was replaced by the Sasanid, the new king, Ardashir I, abolished the official Babylonian calendar and replaced it with the Zoroastrian. This involved a correction to the places of the gahanbar, which had slipped back in the seasons since they were fixed. These were placed eight months later, as were the epagemonai, the 'Gatha' or 'Gah' days after the ancient Zoroastrian hymns of the same name. Other countries, such as the Armenians and Choresmians, did not accept the change. The new dates were:

No. Name Achaemenid Choresmian Sasanian Time since previous
1 maidyozarem (11-) 15 ii (Ardawahisht) 15 v (11-) 15 x (Day) 45 days
2 maidyoshahem (11-) 15 iv (Tir) 15 vii (11-) 15 xii (Spandarmad) 60 days
3 paitishahem (26-) 30 vi (Shahrivar) 30 ix (26-) 30 ii (Ardawahisht) 75 days
4 ayathrem (26-) 30 vii (Mihr) 30 x (26-)30 iii (Khordad) 30 days
5 maidyarem (11-) 15 x (Day) 10 i (11-) 15 vi (Shahrewar) 75 days
6 hamaspathmaidyem (1-) 5 Epagomene 30 iii (1-) 5 Epagomene 80 days

In AD 224 the vernal equinox at Greenwich fell at noon on 21 March, which was 22 Shahrewar. Immediately after the reform 21 March corresponded to 27 Shahrewar. Here is the calendar for AD 225–6:

* = 1 Epagomene
Armenian
month
First day Egyptian
month
First day Persian
month
First day
1 26* September–1 October 4 26 September 1 26 September
2 31 October 5 26 October 2 26 October
3 30 November 6 25 November 3 25 November
4 30 December 7 25 December 4 25 December
5 29 January 8 24 January 5 24 January
6 28 February 9 23 February 6 23 February
7 30 March 10 25 March 7 25 March
8 29 April 11 24 April 8 24 April
9 29 May 12 24 May 9 24*–29 May
10 28 June 1 23*–28 June 10 28 June
11 28 July 2 28 July 11 28 July
12 27 August 3 27 August 12 27 August

The change caused confusion and was immensely unpopular. The new epagemonai were referred to as "robber days". The people now observed the "Great" nowruz on 6 Frawardin, which was Zoroaster's birthday and corresponded to 1 Frawardin in the old calendar. The new 1 Frawardin was observed as the "lesser" nowruz. Hormizd I (AD 272–273) made the intervening days into festivals as well. In AD 273 the vernal equinox at Greenwich fell at 5 AM on 21 March.

Yazdegerd I reigned from AD 399–420. In AD 400 the equinox fell about 19 March, which was 9 Aban. According to al-Biruni, in that reign there was a double adjustment of the start of the araji year. The tenth-century astronomer Abu'l-asan Kusyar noted that during the reign of Osrow II (AD 589–628) the sun entered Aries in Adur. This happened throughout his reign. An araji era was introduced dating from AD 621, and the Yazdegerdi era dates from 16 June AD 632, so the Yazdegerdi era is eleven years behind the araji.

Muslim conquest

The Muslim rulers who took over from the middle of the seventh century used the Islamic calendar for administration, which caused hardship because the year was shorter – i.e. a tax which was formerly collected after the harvest would now have to be paid before the harvest. Traditionally the caliph Omar reintroduced the Persian calendar for tax collection purposes.

In AD 895 there was another double readjustment of the start of the araji year. It moved from 1 Frawardin (12 April) to 1 Khordad (11 June). By AD 1006 the vernal equinox, 15 March, was again coinciding with nowruz, 1 Frawardin. In that year, therefore, the epagemonai were delayed four months, moving from the end of Aban to their old position at the end of Spandarmad. This is the calendar for AD 1006/7:

* denotes 1 Epagomene
Armenian
month
First day Old
Egyptian
month
First day Persian
month
First day
1 15*–20 March 4 15 March 1 10*–15 March
2 19 April 5 14 April 2 14 April
3 19 May 6 14 May 3 14 May
4 18 June 7 13 June 4 13 June
5 18 July 8 13 July 5 13 July
6 17 August 9 12 August 6 12 August
7 16 September 10 11 September 7 11 September
8 16 October 11 11 October 8 11 October
9 15 November 12 10 November 9 10 November
10 15 December 1 10*–15 December 10 10 December
11 14 January 2 14 January 11 9 January
12 13 February 3 13 February 12 8 February

The gahanbar didn't move quite to their old places, because the fifth moved to 20 Day, which was the old 15 Day, thus increasing the interval between the fourth and fifth to eighty days and reducing the interval between the fifth and sixth to 75 days. The new dates were:

No. Name Date Time since previous
1 maidyozarem (11-) 15 ii (Ardawahisht) 45 days
2 maidyoshahem (11-) 15 iv (Tir) 60 days
3 paitishahem (26-) 30 vi (Shahrivar) 75 days
4 ayathrem (26-) 30 vii (Mihr) 30 days
5 maidyarem (16-) 20 x (Day) 80 days
6 hamaspathmaidyem (1-) 5 Epagomene 75 days

Medieval era: Jalali calendar

In 1079 AD by the order of the Jalal Al Din Shah Seljuqi the Islamic Calendar which was and is based on the lunar system was replaced by the Khayyam Calendar and was called the Jalali Calendar. Khayyam and his team worked 8 years in Isfahan the capital of Iran during the Seljuq dynasty. The research and creation of Khayyam calendar was financially supported by the Jalal Al din Shah. Khayyam designed his calendar in which the beginning of the new year, season and month are aligned and he named the first day of the spring and the new year to be Norooz. Before Khayyam's Calendar Norooz was not a fixed day and each year could fall in late winter or early spring. Iranian owe the survival of the Norooz to Khayyam because he fixed the Norooz to be the first day of the Spring and the New Year and can not be changed. This has nothing to do with Zoroastrians. The credit goes to the genius of Khayyam and Financial support of Jalal Al Din Shah Seljuqi.

From 15 March AD 1079, when the calendar had slipped a further eighteen days, the araji calendar was reformed by repeating the first eighteen days of Frawardin. Thus 14 March was 18 Frawardin qadimi (old) or farsi and 15 March was 1 Frawardin jalali or maleki. This new calendar was astronomically calculated so that it did not have epagemonai – the months began when the sun entered a new sign of the zodiac.

About 120 years after the reform of AD 1006, when the vernal equinox was starting to fall in Ardawahisht, Zoroastrians made it again coincide with nowruz by adding a second Spandarmad. This Shensai calendar was a month behind the qadimi still used in Persia, being used only by the Zoroastrians in India, the Parsees. On 6 June 1745 (Old Style) some Parsees re-adopted the qadimi calendar, and in 1906 some adopted the Fasli calendar in which 1 Frawardin was equated with 21 March, so that there was a sixth epagomenal day every four years. In 1911 the jalali calendar became the official national calendar of Persia. In 1925 this calendar was simplified and the names of the months were modernised. 1 Farvardin is the day whose midnight start is nearest to the instant of vernal equinox. The first six months have 31 days, the next five thirty, and the twelfth has 29 days and 30 in leap years. Some Zoroastrians in Persia now use the Fasli calendar, having begun changing to it in 1930.

Modern calendar: Solar Hijri (SH)

Correspondence of Solar Hijri and Gregorian calendars (Solar Hijri leap years are marked *)[7]

33-year
cycle[8]
Solar Hijri year Gregorian year Solar Hijri year Gregorian year
1 1354* 21 March 1975 – 20 March 1976 1387* 20 March 2008 – 20 March 2009
2 1355 21 March 1976 – 20 March 1977 1388 21 March 2009 – 20 March 2010
3 1356 21 March 1977 – 20 March 1978 1389 21 March 2010 – 20 March 2011
4 1357 21 March 1978 – 20 March 1979 1390 21 March 2011 – 19 March 2012
5 1358* 21 March 1979 – 20 March 1980 1391* 20 March 2012 – 20 March 2013
6 1359 21 March 1980 – 20 March 1981 1392 21 March 2013 – 20 March 2014
7 1360 21 March 1981 – 20 March 1982 1393 21 March 2014 – 20 March 2015
8 1361 21 March 1982 – 20 March 1983 1394 21 March 2015 – 19 March 2016
9 1362* 21 March 1983 – 20 March 1984 1395* 20 March 2016 – 20 March 2017
10 1363 21 March 1984 – 20 March 1985 1396 21 March 2017 – 20 March 2018
11 1364 21 March 1985 – 20 March 1986 1397 21 March 2018 – 20 March 2019
12 1365 21 March 1986 – 20 March 1987 1398 21 March 2019 – 19 March 2020
13 1366* 21 March 1987 – 20 March 1988 1399* 20 March 2020 – 20 March 2021
14 1367 21 March 1988 – 20 March 1989 1400 21 March 2021 – 20 March 2022
15 1368 21 March 1989 – 20 March 1990 1401 21 March 2022 – 20 March 2023
16 1369 21 March 1990 – 20 March 1991 1402 21 March 2023 – 19 March 2024
17 1370* 21 March 1991 – 20 March 1992 1403* 20 March 2024 – 20 March 2025
18 1371 21 March 1992 – 20 March 1993 1404 21 March 2025 – 20 March 2026
19 1372 21 March 1993 – 20 March 1994 1405 21 March 2026 – 20 March 2027
20 1373 21 March 1994 – 20 March 1995 1406 21 March 2027 – 19 March 2028
21 1374 21 March 1995 – 19 March 1996 1407 20 March 2028 – 19 March 2029
22 1375* 20 March 1996 – 20 March 1997 1408* 20 March 2029 – 20 March 2030
23 1376 21 March 1997 – 20 March 1998 1409 21 March 2030 – 20 March 2031
24 1377 21 March 1998 – 20 March 1999 1410 21 March 2031 – 19 March 2032
25 1378 21 March 1999 – 19 March 2000 1411 20 March 2032 – 19 March 2033
26 1379* 20 March 2000 – 20 March 2001 1412* 20 March 2033 – 20 March 2034
27 1380 21 March 2001 – 20 March 2002 1413 21 March 2034 – 20 March 2035
28 1381 21 March 2002 – 20 March 2003 1414 21 March 2035 – 19 March 2036
29 1382 21 March 2003 – 19 March 2004 1415 20 March 2036 – 19 March 2037
30 1383* 20 March 2004 – 20 March 2005 1416* 20 March 2037 – 20 March 2038
31 1384 21 March 2005 – 20 March 2006 1417 21 March 2038 – 20 March 2039
32 1385 21 March 2006 – 20 March 2007 1418 21 March 2039 – 19 March 2040
33 1386 21 March 2007 – 19 March 2008 1419 20 March 2040 – 19 March 2041

See also

References

Citations

  1. ^ Harvard Mathematics Department (Calendar Converter page)
  2. ^ M. Heydari-Malayeri, A concise review of the Iranian calendar, Paris Observatory.
  3. ^ (Panaino 1990)
  4. ^ Encyclopaedia Iranica. Article "Calendars". By Antonio Panaino, Reza Abdollahy, Daniel Balland.
  5. ^ Taqizadeh S H: Old Iranian Calendars, Royal Asiatic Society (1938).
  6. ^ Curtius, iii, 10.
  7. ^ Oertel, Holger (30 May 2009). "Persian calendar by Holger Oertel". Ortelius.de. Archived from the original on 16 July 2012. Retrieved 2012-08-11.
  8. ^ The Persian calendar for 3000 years, (Kazimierz M Borkowski), Earth, Moon, and Planetsss, 74 (1996), No. 3, pp 223–230.

Bibliography

  • Panaino, Antonio (1990). "CALENDARS, i. Pre-Islamic calendars". Encyclopaedia Iranica. 4. ISBN 0-7100-9132-X.
  • Taqîzâda, Sayyid Ḥasan, Gâhshumârî dar Îrân-i qadîm, Tehran (Čapkhâna-yi Majlis) 1316/1937-1938, (reprinted with the author's notes appointed to the first edition in the 10th vol. of the Opera omnia, ed.by Î. Afshâr, Tehran, 1357/1978-79). Complete Italian ed.: H. Taqizadeh, Il computo del tempo nell'Iran antico, ed. and transl. by S. Cristoforetti, Roma (ISIAO), 2010. ISBN 978-88-6323-290-5

External links

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Programming
360-day calendar

The 360-day calendar is a method of measuring durations used in financial markets, in computer models, in ancient literature, and in prophetic literary genres.

It is based on merging the three major calendar systems into one complex clock, with the 360-day year derived from the average year of the lunar and the solar: (365.2425 (solar) + 354.3829 (lunar))/2 = 719.6254/2 = 359.8127 days, rounding to 360.

A 360-day year consists of 12 months of 30 days each, so to derive such a calendar from the standard Gregorian calendar, certain days are skipped.

Anahita

Anahita is the Old Persian form of the name of an Iranian goddess and appears in complete and earlier form as Aredvi Sura Anahita (Arədvī Sūrā Anāhitā), the Avestan name of an Indo-Iranian cosmological figure venerated as the divinity of "the Waters" (Aban) and hence associated with fertility, healing and wisdom. Aredvi Sura Anahita is Ardwisur Anahid or Nahid in Middle and Modern Persian, and Anahit in Armenian. An iconic shrine cult of Aredvi Sura Anahita was – together with other shrine cults – "introduced apparently in the 4th century BCE and lasted until it was suppressed in the wake of an iconoclastic movement under the Sassanids."The Greek and Roman historians of classical antiquity refer to her either as Anaïtis or identified her with one of the divinities from their own pantheons. 270 Anahita, a silicaceous S-type asteroid, is named after her. Based on the development of her cult, she was described as a syncretistic goddess, which was composed of two independent elements. The first is a manifestation of the Indo-Iranian idea of the Heavenly River who provides the waters to the rivers and streams flowing in the earth while the second is that of a goddess with an uncertain origin, though maintaining her own unique characteristics, became associated with the cult of the ancient Mesopotamian goddess Inanna-Ishtar. According to a theory, this is attributed partly to a desire to make Anahita part of Zoroastrianism after diffusing from the extreme northwest to the rest of Persia.According to H. Lommel, the proper name of the divinity in Indo-Iranian times was Sarasvatī, which also means “she who possesses waters”. In Sanskrit, the name आर्द्रावी शूरा अनाहिता means "of the waters, mighty, and immaculate". Like the Indian Sarasvatī, Anāhitā nurtures crops and herds; and she is hailed both as a divinity and as the mythical river which she personifies, “as great in bigness as all these waters which flow forth upon the earth” (Yasht 5.3).

Chaharshanbe Suri

Chaharshanbe Suri (Persian: چهارشنبه‌سوری‎, translit. čahâr-šambeh sūrī; usually pronounced Čāršamba-sūrī) is an Iranian festival celebrated on the eve of the last Wednesday before Nowruz (the Iranian New Year's day).

Daylight saving time in Asia

As of 2017, daylight saving time is used in the following Asian countries:

Cyprus: From last Sunday March to last Sunday October; follows European Union practice.

Iran: From March 21–22 to September 21–22 (1 Farvardin to 30 Shahrivar); Starts on the second or third day of Nowruz

Israel: From Friday before the last Sunday of March to last Sunday October

Jordan: From last Friday March to last Friday October

Lebanon: From last Sunday March to last Sunday October

Palestinian territories: From last Saturday March to last Saturday October

Syria: From last Friday March to last Friday October

Turkey: Currently year-round with no change in the winter.

Equinox

An equinox is commonly regarded as the instant of time when the plane (extended indefinitely in all directions) of Earth's equator passes through the center of the Sun. This occurs twice each year: around 20 March and 23 September. In other words, it is the moment at which the center of the visible Sun is directly above the Equator. In the northern hemisphere, the equinox in March is called the Vernal or Spring Equinox; the September equinox is called the Autumnal or Fall Equinox.

However, because the Moon (and to a lesser extent the other planets) cause the motion of the Earth to vary from a perfect ellipse, the equinox is now officially defined by the Sun's more regular ecliptic longitude rather than by its declination. The instants of the equinoxes are currently defined to be when the longitude of the Sun is 0° and 180°. There are tiny (up to 1¼ arcsecond) variations in the Sun's latitude (discussed below), which means the Sun's center is rarely precisely over the equator under the official definition. The two understandings of the equinox can lead to discrepancies of up to 69 seconds.

On the day of an equinox, daytime and nighttime are of approximately equal duration all over the planet. They are not exactly equal, however, due to the angular size of the Sun, atmospheric refraction, and the rapidly changing duration of the length of day that occurs at most latitudes around the equinoxes. The word is derived from the Latin aequinoctium, from aequus (equal) and nox (genitive noctis) (night).

Golodass

Golodass (Anwer Abad) is a village situated In District Ghizer Tehsil Punial Gilgit Baltistan. This village is at two hours distance from Gilgit City towards north west on inshkoman road. Golodass has an enriched culture with a divers society. Raja family is considered to be ruling family of the area. Raja of Punial, His Highness Raja Anwer Khan has repopulate this village after 1905. His palace is still situated in Golodass. Raja Mir Aman Khan was the first school teacher (Ustad) who started educating village people first time in the village. Most of the village people are his students. Languages spoken in Golodass are Burushaskhi, Shina, Khowar, and also Urdu. Nearby villages are Hatoon, Hasis, Gahkuch bala, Damas, and Silpi.

Golodass, previously named as “Golo koi” and its second name "Anwer Abad", with a population of 2500 (Approx) people, located in Punial Ghizer Gilgit Baltistan. The village was drowned in 1905 by heavy floods but resettled in 1935. Raja of Punial, His Highness Raja Anwer Khan extended the village by populating the barren upper portion of the village with help of Hub-e-Ali of Hunza in 1935. Raja Mir Aman Khan came here in 1960 and started to run its first school as only teacher in the village. The Residents of the village are all migrants from different parts of Gilgit region including Hunza, Punial region, Yasin, Gupis, Phandar, Darel, Chilas, and other areas. Due to different backgrounds, we find a mixture of culture and languages in the village. The natives can speak Brushaski of Hunza and Yasin, Shina, Khuwar and Gujrati. The village is called the Hub of all cultures due to its diversity in culture. Majority of population is from Hunza. Gujur are in second majority. Rajas are only few royal family members.

Hassan Taqizadeh

Sayyed Hasan Taqizādeh (Persian: سید حسن تقی‌زاده‎; September 27, 1878 in Tabriz, Iran – January 28, 1970 in Tehran, Iran) was an influential Iranian politician and diplomat, of Azeri origin, during the Qajar dynasty under the reign of Mohammad Ali Shah, as well as the Pahlavi dynasty under the reign of Reza Shah and Mohammad Reza Shah. Although in the modern political history Taqizadeh is known as a secular politician, who believed that "outwardly and inwardly, in body and in spirit, Iran must become Europeanized", he came from a traditional Islamic Sayyed-family (descendant of Muhammad). His father, Sayyed Taqi, was a clergyman and when Sayyed Hasan became a mullah, it seemed likely that he would follow in his father's footsteps. From an early age Taqizadeh showed interest in enlightened ideas and the Western concept of constitutionalism. This interest can be traced back to the socio-political sphere in which Taqizadeh became an adult. He grew up in Tabriz, the capital city of East Azerbaijan province, which was the gateway to the modern and progressive ideas coming from Russia and especially Western Europe. In the time of World War I, World War II and after, Taqizadeh was the most influential person in Iran who supported the interests of German Empire against Russia and Britain.

Iran Standard Time

Iran Standard Time (IRST) or Iran Time (IT) is the time zone used in Iran. Iran uses a UTC offset UTC+03:30. IRST is defined by the 52.5 degrees east meridian, the same meridian which defines the Iranian calendar and is the official meridian of Iran.

Between 2005 and 2008, by decree of President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, Iran did not observe daylight saving time (called Iran Daylight Time or IRDT). It was reintroduced from 21 March 2008.

List of calendars

This is a list of calendars. Included are historical calendars as well as proposed ones. Historical calendars are often grouped into larger categories by cultural sphere or historical period; thus O'Neil (1976) distinguishes the groupings Egyptian calendars (Ancient Egypt), Babylonian calendars (Ancient Mesopotamia), Indian calendars (Hindu and Buddhist traditions of the Indian subcontinent), Chinese calendars and Mesoamerican calendars.

These are not specific calendars but series of historical calendars undergoing reforms or regional diversification.

In Classical Antiquity, the Hellenic calendars inspired the Roman calendar, including the solar Julian calendar introduced in 45 BC. Many modern calendar proposals, including the Gregorian calendar itself, are in turn modifications of the Julian calendar.

List of festivals in Iran

The following is a list of festivals in Iran.

Mehregan

Mehregān (Persian: مهرگان‬‎ or Jašn-e Mehr جشن مهر‬ Mithra Festival) is a Zoroastrian and Persian festival celebrated to honor the yazata Mithra (Persian: Mehr‎), which is responsible for friendship, affection and love. It is also widely referred to as the Persian Festival of Autumn.

Solar Hijri calendar

The Solar Hijri calendar (Persian: گاه‌شماری هجری خورشیدی‎, translit. gāh-shomāri-ye hejri-ye khorshidi; Pashto: لمريز لېږدیز کلیز‎), also called the Solar Hejri calendar or Shamsi Hijri calendar, and abbreviated as SH, is the official calendar of Iran and Afghanistan. It begins on the March equinox (Nowruz) as determined by astronomical calculation for the Iran Standard Time meridian (52.5°E, UTC+03:30) and has years of 365 or 366 days.

Its determination of the start of each year is astronomically accurate year-to-year as opposed to the more fixed Gregorian calendar or "Common Era calendar" which, averaged out, has the same year length, achieving the same accuracy (a more simply patterned calendar of 365 days for three consecutive years plus an extra day in the next year, save for exceptions to the latter in three out of every four centuries). The start of the year and its number of days remain fixed to one of the two equinoxes, the astronomically important days which have the same duration of day as night. It results in less variability of all celestial bodies when comparing a specific calendar date from one year to others.Each of the twelve months corresponds with a zodiac sign. The first six months have 31 days, the next five have 30 days, and the last month has 29 days in usual years but 30 days in leap years. The New Year's Day always falls on the March equinox.

Solstice

A solstice is an event occurring when the Sun appears to reach its most northerly or southerly excursion relative to the celestial equator on the celestial sphere. Two solstices occur annually, around June 21 and December 21. The seasons of the year are determined by reference to both the solstices and the equinoxes.

The term solstice can also be used in a broader sense, as the day when this occurs. The day of a solstice in either hemisphere has either the most sunlight of the year (summer solstice) or the least sunlight of the year (winter solstice) for any place other than the Equator. Alternative terms, with no ambiguity as to which hemisphere is the context, are "June solstice" and "December solstice", referring to the months in which they take place every year. The word solstice is derived from the Latin sol ("sun") and sistere ("to stand still"), because at the solstices, the Sun's declination appears to "stand still"; that is, the seasonal movement of the Sun's daily path (as seen from Earth) stops at a northern or southern limit before reversing direction.

Young Earth creationism

Young Earth creationism (YEC) is a form of creationism, a religious belief, which holds that the universe, Earth, and all life on Earth were created by direct acts of God less than 10,000 years ago. Its primary adherents are Christians who subscribe to a literal interpretation of the creation narrative in the Bible's Book of Genesis and believe that God created the Earth in six 24-hour days. In contrast to YEC, old Earth creationism (OEC) is the belief in a metaphorical interpretation of the Book of Genesis and the scientifically determined estimated ages of the Earth and universe.Since the mid-20th century, young Earth creationists—starting with Henry Morris (1918–2006)—have devised and promoted a pseudoscientific explanation called "creation science" as a basis for a religious belief in a supernatural, geologically recent creation. Contemporary YEC movements arose in protest to the scientific consensus, established by numerous scientific disciplines, which demonstrates that the age of the universe is around 13.8 billion years, the formation of the Earth happened around 4.5 billion years ago, and the first appearance of life on Earth was at least 3.5 billion years ago.A 2017 Gallup creationism survey found 38 percent of adults in the United States held the view that "God created humans in their present form at one time within the last 10,000 years" when asked for their views on the origin and development of human beings, which Gallup noted was the lowest level in 35 years. This level of support could be even lower when poll results are adjusted after comparison with other polls with questions that more specifically account for uncertainty and ambivalence.

Zoroastrian calendar

Adherents of Zoroastrianism use three distinct versions of traditional calendars for liturgical purposes, all derived from medieval Iranian calendars, ultimately based on the Babylonian calendar as used in the Achaemenid empire.

"Qadimi" ("ancient") is a traditional reckoning introduced in 1006.

"Shahanshahi" ("imperial") is a calendar reconstructed from the 10th-century text Denkard.

"Fasli" is a term for a 1906 adaptation of the 11th-century Jalali calendar, following a proposal by Kharshedji Rustomji Cama made in the 1860s.

A number of Calendar eras are in use:

A tradition of counting years from the birth of Zoroaster was reported from India in the 19th century. There was a dispute between factions variously preferring an era of 389 BCE, 538 BCE or 637 BCE.

The "Yazdegerdi era" (also Yazdegirdi) counts from the accession of the last Sassanid ruler, Yazdegerd III (16 June 632 CE). This convention was proposed by Cama in the 1860s but has since also been used in conjunctions with "Qadimi" or "Shahanshahi" reckoning. An alternative "Magian era" (era Magorum or Tarikh al-majus) was set at the date of Yazdegerd's death, in 652.

"Z.E.R." or "Zarathushtrian Religious Era" is a convention introduced in 1990 by the "Zarathushtrian Assembly of California", set at vernal equinox (Nowruz) of 1737 BCE.

ʿAjā'ib al-makhlūqāt wa gharā'ib al-mawjūdāt

ʿAjā'ib al-makhlūqāt wa gharā'ib al-mawjūdāt, The Wonders of Creation (Arabic: عجائب المخلوقات وغرائب الموجودات‎, meaning Marvels of creatures and Strange things existing) is book in Arabic and an important work of cosmography by Zakariya al-Qazwini who was born in Qazwin year 600 (AH)/1203.

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