For the international organization, see Indian Ocean Rim Association
For the Australian Aboriginal people of the Sydney region, see Eora
Common Iora
Common iora (Aegithina tiphia)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Passeriformes
Family: Aegithinidae
G. R. Gray, 1869
Genus: Aegithina
Vieillot, 1816

See text

The ioras are a small family, Aegithinidae, of four passerine bird species found in Pakistan and southeast Asia. The family is composed of a single genus, Aegithina. They were formerly grouped with the leafbirds and fairy-bluebirds, in the family Irenidae.

Taxonomy and systematics

The common iora was the first species of iora described, in 1758 by Carl Linnaeus, but there was a lot of confusion about the nature of bird Linnaeus was referring to when he described as Motacilla Tiphia. Early taxonomists considered it to variously be a warbler, flycatcher, finch or babbler. When G. R. Gray erected the family Aegithinidae in 1869 he included a number of babbler genera in it with the ioras. Edward Blyth, working in the 1850s, was the first to connect the ioras with the leafbirds and fairy-bluebirds, and included all these with the bulbuls.[1]

Species of Aegithinidae

Image Common Name Scientific name Distribution
Common Iora Common iora Aegithina tiphia tropical Indian subcontinent
Marshall's Iora nbr MG 1386 GarimaBhatia Marshall's iora Aegithina nigrolutea India and Sri Lanka.
Green Iora (Aegithina viridissima) Green iora Aegithina viridissima Thai-Malay Peninsula, Sumatra and Borneo
Great iora Aegithina lafresnayei Cambodia, China, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand, and Vietnam.


The ioras are small to medium small sized passerines, ranging from 11.5 to 15.5 cm (4.5–6.1 in) in length. Overall the males are larger than the females.[2] These are reminiscent of the bulbuls, but whereas that group tends to be drab in colouration, the ioras are more brightly coloured. The group exhibits sexual dimorphism in its plumage, with the males being brightly plumaged in yellows and greens. Unlike the leafbirds, ioras have thin legs, and their bills are proportionately longer. Calls are strident whistles; songs are musical to human ears.[3][4]

Habitat and distribution

Aegithina nigrolutea
There is some evidence that Marshall's ioras may be migratory in some of their range

Their habitats include acacia scrub, forest edge, and closed forests, as well as agricultural land and (in the common iora) gardens.[3] They are generally lowland birds, with most reaching only as high as the submontane forests. They are generally highly arboreal and usually occur in the tree canopy, with only very rare records of this family coming down to the ground. The family is overwhelmingly non-migratory, although in West India there is some evidence that Marshall's ioras and common ioras are partly migratory in the seasonal semi-desert fringe.[2]

Behaviour and ecology

Ioras eat insects and spiders, which they find by nimbly gleaning the leaves of the slenderest outer twigs.[3]

In the two species whose male courtship displays are known, they are elaborate, culminating in the males' parachute-style descent looking like "green balls of fluff". The nests are compact open cups felted to branches with spiderweb. Females lay 2 or 3 eggs, which have pinkish speckles and red and purple lines. They incubate at night; the males, by day. Incubation lasts about 14 days.[3] Both parents are responsible for brooding and feeding the chicks.[2]

Relationship with humans

Ioras will commonly live close to humans and even lives in the suburbs of cites like Singapore. They are mostly not threatened by human activities, although the green iora is listed as near threatened by the IUCN, habitat loss being responsible for its decline. Unlike many other passerines they are not common species in the cage bird trade.


  1. ^ Wells, D (2018). del Hoyo, Josep; Elliott, Andrew; Sargatal, Jordi; Christie, David A; de Juana, Eduardo (eds.). "Ioras (Aegithinidae)". Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Barcelona: Lynx Edicions. Retrieved 4 August 2018.
  2. ^ a b c Wells, David (2005), "Family Aegithinidae (Ioras)", in del Hoyo, Josep; Elliott, Andrew; Christie, David (eds.), Handbook of the Birds of the World. Volume 10, Cuckoo-shrikes to Thrushes, Barcelona: Lynx Edicions, pp. 278–290, ISBN 84-87334-72-5
  3. ^ a b c d Mead, Christopher J.; Wells, D. R. (2003). "Ioras". In Perrins, Christopher (ed.). The Firefly Encyclopedia of Birds. Firefly Books. p. 507. ISBN 1-55297-777-3.
  4. ^ Hume, AO (1877). "Remarks on the genus Iora". Stray Feathers. 5: 420–452.

External links

2017 IORA Summit

2017 Indian-Ocean Rim Association (IORA) Summit was scheduled on March 5–7, 2017 in Jakarta Convention Centre, Indonesia. It was the first IORA Summit and the 20th IORA meeting, previous meetings were only minister level. Leaders attending the summit included President of South Africa Jacob Zuma and President of Sri Lanka Maithripala Sirisena. China and Japan also attended the summit as dialogue partners. Some 12,000 security personnel, both the police and military, were deployed to secure the event.

Bangladesh–India relations

Bangladesh and India are South Asian neighbours. Relations have been friendly, although sometimes there are border disputes. The historic land boundary agreement was signed on 6 June 2015 which opened a new era in the relations and further stopped all irritants in ties. They are common members of SAARC, BIMSTEC, IORA and the Commonwealth. The two countries share many cultural ties. In particular, Bangladesh and the east Indian state of West Bengal are Bengali-speaking. Bangladesh has a high commission in New Delhi with consulates in Mumbai and Kolkata. India has a high commission in Dhaka with a consulate in Chittagong. In 1971, the Bangladesh Liberation War broke out between East Pakistan and West Pakistan; India intervened in December 1971 on behalf of East Pakistan and helped secure East Pakistan's independence from Pakistan as the country of Bangladesh. In a 2014 survey, 70% of Bangladeshis expressed a favorable opinion and perception of India. Indo-Bangladesh bilateral trade surged by 24% to reach US$9.3 billion in the year 2018 from about US$7.52 billion in the preceding year.

Common iora

The common iora (Aegithina tiphia)(ফটিকজল in Bengali) is a small passerine bird found across the tropical Indian subcontinent with populations showing plumage variations, some of which are designated as subspecies. A species found in scrub and forest, it is easily detected from its loud whistles and the bright colours. During the breeding season, males display by fluffing up their feathers and spiral in the air appearing like a green, black, yellow and white ball.

Comoros–India relations

Comoros–India relations refers to the international relations that exist between Comoros and India. The Embassy of India in Antananarivo, Madagascar is concurrently accredited to Comoros. India also maintains an Honorary Consulate General in Moroni. Comoros maintains an Honorary Consulate in New Delhi.

Dharug language

The Sydney language, also referred to as Darug or Iyora (Eora) English, is an Australian Aboriginal language of the Yuin–Kuric group that was traditionally spoken in the region of Sydney, New South Wales. It is the traditional language of the Darug and Eora peoples.

The term Dharug, which can also be spelt "Darug", Dharukk, Dharoog, Dharrag, and Dararrug, etc., came from the word for yam: midyini. Dharug is the root, or the midyini, of the languages of the Sydney basin. The Darug population was greatly diminished since the onset of colonisation.Darug people recognise Sir William Dawes of the first fleet and flagship the Sirius as the first to record the original traditional tongue of the elder people of Sydney Darugule-wayaun. Dawes was returned to England in December 1791, after disagreements with Governor Phillip on, among other things, the punitive expedition launched following the wounding of the Government gamekeeper, allegedly by Pemulwuy.

During the 1990s and the new millennium some descendants of the Darug clans in Western Sydney have been making considerable efforts to revive Dharug as a spoken language. Today some modern Dharug speakers have given speeches in the Dharug language and younger members of the community visit schools and give demonstrations of spoken Dharug.Bowern (2011) lists Dharuk and Iyora as separate languages.

George Frederick Leycester Marshall

Major General George Frederick Leycester Marshall (27 March 1843 Bridgnorth, Salop - 7 March 1934) was the son of William Marshall (a clergyman) and his wife Louisa Sophia, also brother of C. H. T. Marshall and uncle of Guy Anstruther Knox Marshall. He became a Colonel in the Indian Army and was a naturalist interested in the birds and butterflies of India. Marshall described several new species of butterflies, along with Lionel de Nicéville, and discovered the white-tailed iora, sometimes referred to as Marshall's iIora. He wrote The butterflies of India, Burmah and Ceylon.

Marshall retired from the Royal (late Bengal) Engineers in November 1897. Marshall married Elizabeth Huntley Muir (1851, Agra - 1913) at Allahabad in 1874. One son George Leycester Knox (born 1875) died young at Simla on 20 July 1883. Marshall was made CIE in the 1893 New Year Honours.

Great iora

The great iora (Aegithina lafresnayei) is a species of bird in the Aegithinidae family.

It is found in Cambodia, China, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand, and Vietnam.

Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests.

Green iora

The green iora (Aegithina viridissima) is a species of bird in the family Aegithinidae. It is found in the Thai-Malay Peninsula, Sumatra and Borneo. Its habitats include lowland forests, secondary forest and mangrove forest. It is threatened by habitat loss, and the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) has assessed it as near-threatened.

Indian-Ocean Rim Association

The Indian Ocean Rim Association (IORA), formerly known as the Indian Ocean Rim Initiative and Indian Ocean Rim Association for Regional Cooperation (IOR-ARC), is an international organisation consisting of coastal states bordering the Indian Ocean. The IORA is a regional forum, tripartite in nature, bringing together representatives of Government, Business and Academia, for promoting co-operation and closer interaction among them. It is based on the principles of Open Regionalism for strengthening Economic Cooperation particularly on Trade Facilitation and Investment, Promotion as well as Social Development of the region. The Coordinating Secretariat of IORA is located at Ebene, Mauritius.

Kirsten Haglund

Kirsten Iora Haglund (born September 14, 1988) is a public speaker, eating disorder awareness activist, commentator, and president of the Kirsten Haglund Foundation. She served as Miss America 2008.


Mahatha is a genus of freshwater crabs endemic to Sri Lanka. Four of the six species are critically endangered due to habitat loss, and two are listed as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List.

Marc-David Munk

Marc-David Munk (born 1973) is an American Canadian physician and healthcare executive.

Marshall's iora

The white-tailed iora or Marshall's iora (Aegithina nigrolutea), is a songbird in the genus Aegithina found in parts of India and Sri Lanka.

Nothopegia beddomei

Nothopegia beddomei is a species of plant in the family Anacardiaceae. It is found in India and Sri Lanka. It is threatened by habitat loss.

Sajnakhali Wildlife Sanctuary

Sajnakhali Wildlife Sanctuary is a 362 km2 area in the northern part of the Sundarbans delta in South 24 Parganas district, West Bengal, India. The area is mainly mangrove scrub, forest and swamp. It was set up as a sanctuary in 1976. It is home to a rich population of different species of wildlife, such as water fowl, heron, pelican, spotted deer, rhesus macaques, wild boar, tigers, water monitor lizards, fishing cats, otters, Olive ridley turtle, crocodiles, Batagur terrapins, and migratory birds.

Santiphap Park

Santiphap Park (Thai: สวนสันติภาพ, RTGS: Suan Santiphap, literally "Peace Park") is an 8-acre (0.032 km2) park in Bangkok, Thailand. It is located between Ratchawithi Road and Rang Nam Road in Ratchathewi district.

The land on which Santiphap Park is built is leased from the Crown Property Bureau by the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration (BMA). It was previously the site of subsidized housing overseen by the National Housing Authority. The BMA obtained a 30-year lease, beginning in October 1990. Construction on the park began in 1997.Santiphap Park was opened to the public on August 18, 1998. The name Santiphap, meaning "peace", as well as the date of the park's opening, commemorate the end of World War II, which took place 53 years earlier.The dove is the symbol of Santiphap Park. A blackened bronze sculpture situated in the park's central pond depicts a dove carrying in its beak an olive branch with five blossoms, representing the spread of peace throughout the world. The sculpture is based on a drawing by Pablo Picasso.The entrance signs to Santiphap Park are a facsimile of the handwriting of Buddhadasa Bhikkhu, a renowned Buddhist monk, philosopher and pacifist.Over 30 species of birds have been recorded in the park since its creation. Birds most often seen or heard there: rock pigeon, spotted dove, zebra dove, plaintive cuckoo, common koel, coppersmith barbet, Asian palm-swift, streak-eared bulbul, black-naped oriole, large-billed crow, oriental magpie-robin, pied fantail, black-collared starling, Asian pied starling, common myna, white-vented myna, olive-backed sunbird, scarlet-backed flowerpecker, Eurasian tree sparrow. Common winter (October-March) visitors: barn swallow, red-breasted flycatcher, inornate warbler. Species which are seen there less often (but all year round): Chinese pond-heron, little egret, striated heron, painted stork, house swift, common iora, common tailorbird, yellow-vented bulbul, red-whiskered bulbul, house sparrow. Less common winter visitors: ashy drongo, brown shrike. In the wasteland on which the park was later constructed, white-breasted waterhen, black-capped kingfisher, and verditer flycatcher were also recorded. Much more unusually for central Bangkok,

orange-headed thrush and laced woodpecker have been recorded in a quieter condominium garden 50 m from the park.

The park contains a public address system which is used to broadcast a numbered list of park rules at 07:00, 08:00, 15:00, and 18:00; the national anthem at 08:00 and 18:00; and Thai music 07:00-10:00 and 15:00-18:00 most days. The rules and anthem are often audible from over a block away. Complaints by local residents have been ignored by the park management. The central circular paved area in the park is used for aerobics 18:00-18:45, weather permitting.

Santiphap Park is open from 05:00 until 21:00, and is used by 2-3,000 people on working days, and 3-4,000 on holidays.

Sibley-Monroe checklist 13

The Sibley-Monroe checklist was a landmark document in the study of birds. It drew on extensive DNA-DNA hybridisation studies to reassess the relationships between modern birds.

Tufts Health Plan

Tufts Health Plan is a Massachusetts-based health insurance company under Tufts Associated Health Plans, Inc. with headquarters in Watertown.As of March 31, 2016, the nonprofit health insurer had over 1 million members. The Tufts Health Plan network includes 91 hospitals and 29,000 health care providers. The health plan offers products for employers as well as individuals enrolled in Medicare, Medicaid and the Health Insurance Exchange.

Turntable Health

Turntable Health was a direct primary care clinic in Downtown Las Vegas, Nevada. It began as part of Zappos CEO Tony Hsieh’s $350 million economic revitalization project in Downtown Las Vegas. The clinic was founded by Zubin Damania, known by his YouTube screen name as ZDoggMD, who Hsieh recruited from the Bay Area in 2012. The clinic was made in partnership with Iora Health.The clinic did not use the fee-for-service model and instead charged per patient per month capitation to sponsors (or membership fees to members). Individuals could gain access to Turntable as a benefit offered by an employer, through insurance, and directly as a subscription. There were plans to expand and build new locations as the clinic approaches a capacity of 5,000 patients. Turntable Health had been featured on TheNextWeb as one of "eight startups changing the healthcare industry." Turntable Health shut down on January 31, 2017.


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