Ionic Greek

Ionic Greek was a subdialect of the Attic–Ionic or Eastern dialect group of Ancient Greek.

Ionic Greek
Erac. 1000–300 BC
Language codes
ISO 639-3
AncientGreekDialects (Woodard) en
Distribution of Greek dialects in Greece in the classical period.[2]
Western group: Central group:
Eastern group:


The Ionic dialect appears to have originally spread from the Greek mainland across the Aegean at the time of the Dorian invasions, around the 11th century BC during the early Greek Dark Ages.

By the end of Archaic Greece and early Classical Greece in the 5th century BC, the central west coast of Asia Minor, along with the islands of Chios and Samos, formed the heartland of Ionia proper. The Ionic dialect was also spoken on islands across the central Aegean and on the large island of Euboea north of Athens. The dialect was soon spread by Ionian colonization to areas in the northern Aegean, the Black Sea, and the western Mediterranean.

The Ionic dialect is generally divided into two major time periods, Old Ionic (or Old Ionian) and New Ionic (or New Ionian). The transition between the two is not clearly defined, but 600 BC is a good approximation.

The works of Homer (The Iliad, The Odyssey, and the Homeric Hymns) and of Hesiod were written in a literary dialect called Homeric Greek or Epic Greek, which largely comprises Old Ionic, with some borrowings from the neighboring Aeolic dialect to the north. The poet Archilochus wrote in late Old Ionic.

The most famous New Ionic authors are Anacreon, Theognis, Herodotus, Hippocrates, and, in Roman times, Aretaeus, Arrian, and Lucian.

Ionic acquired prestige among Greek speakers because of its association with the language used by both Homer and Herodotus and the close linguistic relationship with the Attic dialect as spoken in Athens. This was further enhanced by the writing reform implemented in Athens in 403 BC, whereby the old Attic alphabet was replaced by the Ionic alphabet, as used by the city of Miletus. This alphabet eventually became the standard Greek alphabet, its use becoming uniform during the Koine era. It was also the alphabet used in the Christian Gospels and the book of Acts.



Proto-Greek ā > Ionic ē; in Doric, Aeolic, ā remains; in Attic, ā after e, i, r, but ē elsewhere.[3]

  • Attic νενίς neāās, Ionic νεηνίης neēēs "young man"
  • original and Doric (ᾱ) ā > Attic-Ionic è "the" (feminine nominative singular)
  • original and Doric μτηρ māter > Attic-Ionic μητήρ mētér "mother"

Proto-Greek e, o > Ionic ei, ou:[note 1] compensatory lengthening after loss of w in the sequences enw-, erw-, onw-, orw-. In Attic, e, o is not lengthened.[4]

  • Proto-Greek *kórwā[5] > Attic κόρη kóre, Ionic κούρη koúre "girl"
  • *órwos > ὄρος óros, οὔρος oúros "mountain"
  • *ksénwos > ξένος xénos, ξεῖνος xeĩnos "guest, stranger"

Ionic sometimes removes initial aspiration (Proto-Greek hV- > Ionic V-).[6]

  • Proto-Greek *hāwélios > Attic hēlios, Homeric (early Ionic) ēélios "sun"

Ionic contracts less often than Attic.[7]

  • Ionic γένεα génea, Attic γένη génē "family" (neuter nominative plural)


Proto-Greek *kʷ before a, o > Ionic k, Attic p.[note 2]

  • Proto-Greek *oō > Ionic ὄκως ókos, Attic ὅπως opos "in whatever way, in which way"

Proto-Greek *ťť > Ionic ss, Attic tt.[8] This Ionic feature made it into Koine Greek.

  • Proto-Greek *táťťō > Ionic τάσσω sso, Attic τάττω tatto "I arrange"


Word order

  • Ionic had a very analytical word-order, perhaps the most analytical one within ancient Greek dialects.


  • ἄβδης ábdês scourge ( Hipponax .98)
  • ἄεθλον áethlon (Attic ἆθλον athlon prize)
  • ἀειναῦται aeinaûtai archontes in Miletus and Chalcis (aeí always + naûtai sailors)
  • ἀλγείη algeíē illness (Cf.Attic ἀλγηδών algēdṓn pain) Algophobia
  • ἄμπωτις ámpōtis ebb, being sucked back, i.e. of sea (Attic anápōtis, verb anapínō) (Koine, Modern Greek ampotis)
  • ἄνου anou (Attic ἄνω ánō, up)
  • Απατούρια Apatoúria Pan-ionic festival ( see also Panionium )
  • ἀππαλλάζειν appallázein (Attic ἐκκλησιάζειν ekklesiázein gather together,decide) (Doric apellazein)
  • ἀχάντιον achántion (Attic ἀκάνθιον akánthion small thorn acanthus)
  • βάθρακοι báthrakoi (Attic βάτραχοι bátrachoi, frogs) in Pontus babakoi
  • βροῦκος broûkos species of locust (Attic akrís) (Cypriots call the green locust βρούκα broúka)
  • βυσσός byssós (Attic βυθός bythós depth,bottom,chaos)
  • γάννος gánnos Ephesian (Attic huaina (glanos Aristotle.HA594a31.) (Phrygian and Tsakonian ganos
  • εἴδη eídē (Attic ὕλη hýle forest) (Aeolic Greek eide also) (Greek Eidos)
  • ἐνθαῦτα enthaûta here (entoutha also) (Attic ἐνταῦθα entaûtha) (Elean ἐνταῦτα entaûta)
  • ἐργύλος ergýlos (Attic ἐργάτηςergátēs worker)
  • ἑστιᾶχος hestiâchos ionic epithet for Zeus, related to Hestia (oikourós, housekeeper, οἰκῶναξ oikônax)
  • ἠγός ēgós (Attic εὐδαίμων eudaímon happy) (Hesychius s.v. εὐηγεσίη) (τ 114)
  • ἠέλιος êélios (Attic hḗlios sun) (Cretan abelios)
  • Ἰαστί Iastí, "the ionic way" ( Ἰάονες, Iáones, Ionians; Ἰάς, Iás, old name of Attica, Strabo IX, 1.5 )
  • ἴδη ídē forested mountain (Attic δρυμῶν ὄρος drymôn óros) (Herodotus 4,109,2) (Mount Ida)
  • ἰητρός iētrós,iētēr (Attic iatrós,iatēr doctor)
  • ἴκκος íkkos (Attic ἵππος híppos, horse) (Mycenaean i-qo )
  • κάρη kárē head (Common kara) (Poetic kras)
  • κιθών kithṓn (Attic χιτών chitṓn)
  • κοεῖν koeîn (Attic νοεῖν noeîn to think) noesis
  • κοῖος koîos (Attic ποῖος poîos who?)
  • κύθρη kýthrē (Attic χύτρα chýtra cooking pot)
  • μύτταξ mýttax (Attic πώγων pṓgōn beard)
  • Ξουθίδαι Xouthidai Ionians from Xuthus
  • ὀδμή odmḗ (Attic ὀσμή osmḗ scent, smell)
  • πηλός pēlós thick wine, lees (Attic πηλός pelós mud, silt) (proverbial phrase mê dein ton Oinea Pêlea poiein, don't make wine into lees, Ath.9.383c, cf. Demetr.Eloc.171)
  • ῥηχίη rhêchíê flood-tide, loanword to Attic as ῥαχία rhachía (Homeric,Koine,Modern Greek πλημμυρίς plêmmurís -ída)
  • σαβακός sabakís (Attic σαθρός sathrís decayed) Chian
  • σάρμοι sármoi lupins (Attic θέρμοιthermoi} Carystian
  • σκορπίζω skorpízô scatter, disperse (probably from skorpios scorpion and an obsolete verb skerpô, penetrate)
  • ταῦροι[9] taûuroi (Attic tauroi bulls) (Ephesian word, the youths who acted as cupbearers at the local festival of Poseidon)
  • φοινικήια phoinikḗia grámmata Lydians and Ionians called so the letters
  • χλοσσός chlossós (Attic ἰχθύς ichthús fish)
  • ὦ οἰοῖ ô oioî exclamation of discontent ἐπιφώνημα σχετλιαστικὸν παρ' Ἴωσι

See also


  1. ^ Among Greek dialects, Ionic was the fondest of long vowels and was thus considered especially suited to solo singing; the more austere, broad-sounding Doric was preferred in choral singing.
  2. ^ A similar divergence occurred in the Celtic languages between Gaelic and P-Celtic languages (including Welsh), and in the Italic languages between Latin and Oscan.


  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Ionic". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. ^ Roger D. Woodard (2008), "Greek dialects", in: The Ancient Languages of Europe, ed. R. D. Woodard, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p. 51.
  3. ^ Smyth, par. 30 and note, 31: long a in Attic and other dialects
  4. ^ Smyth, par. 37 note: Ionic compensatory lengthening after loss of w
  5. ^ κόρη. Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert; A Greek–English Lexicon at the Perseus Project.
  6. ^ Smyth, par. 9 note: early loss of rough breathing in Ionic of Asia Minor
  7. ^ Smyth, par. 59 note: contraction in dialects
  8. ^ Smyth, par. 112, 78: ky, khy > tt; = ss in non-Attic dialects
  9. ^ Athenaeus Deipnosophists 10 425c


  • A History of Ancient Greek: From the Beginnings to Late Antiquity by A. Panayotou; Ionic and Attic
  • A Grammar of the Greek Language by Benjamin Franklin Fisk; Ionic

Further reading

  • Bakker, Egbert J., ed. 2010. A companion to the Ancient Greek language. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.
  • Christidis, Anastasios-Phoivos, ed. 2007. A history of Ancient Greek: From the beginnings to Late Antiquity. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
  • Colvin, Stephen C. 2007. A historical Greek reader: Mycenaean to the koiné. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Horrocks, Geoffrey C. 1987. "The Ionian epic tradition: Was there an Aeolic phase in its development?" Minos 20–22: 269–94.
  • ––––. Greek: A history of the language and its speakers. 2nd ed. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.
  • Palmer, Leonard R. 1980. The Greek language. London: Faber & Faber.
  • West, Martin L. 1974. Studies in Greek elegy and iambus. Berlin: de Gruyter.

In Greek mythology, Adrasteia (; Greek: Ἀδράστεια (Ionic Greek: Ἀδρήστεια), "inescapable"; also spelled Adrastia, Adrastea, Adrestea, Adastreia or Adrasta) was a Cretan nymph, and daughter of Melisseus, who was charged by Rhea with nurturing the infant Zeus in secret, to protect him from his father Cronus.Adrastea may be interchangeable with Cybele, a goddess also associated with childbirth. The Greeks cultivated a patronic system of gods who served specific human needs, conditions or desires to whom one would give praise or tribute for success in certain arenas such as childbirth.


Anacreon (; Greek: Ἀνακρέων ὁ Τήϊος; c. 582 – c. 485 BC) was a Greek lyric poet, notable for his drinking songs and hymns. Later Greeks included him in the canonical list of nine lyric poets. Anacreon wrote all of his poetry in the ancient Ionic dialect. Like all early lyric poetry, it was composed to be sung or recited to the accompaniment of music, usually the lyre. Anacreon's poetry touched on universal themes of love, infatuation, disappointment, revelry, parties, festivals and the observations of everyday people and life.


Anacreontea (Greek: Ἀνακρεόντεια) is the title given to a collection of some 60 Greek poems on the topics of wine, beauty, erotic love, Dionysus, etc. The poems date to between the 1st century BC and the 6th century AD, and are attributed pseudepigraphically to Anacreon. The collection is preserved in the same 10th-century manuscript as the Anthologia Palatina (Palatinus gr. 23), together with some other poetry. Henri Estienne published them in 1554.

The collection of poems by numerous, anonymous imitators was long believed to be the works of Anacreon himself. It was preserved in a 10th-century manuscript which also included the Palatine Anthology. The poems were published in 1554 with a Latin translation by Henry Estienne, known as Stephanus, but little is known about the origins of the manuscript. Salmasius reports seeing the Anacreontea in the Palatine Library in Heidelberg in 1607. In 1623, it was given to Pope Gregory XV after the sacking of Heidelberg. It was later taken from the Vatican City by Napoleon in 1797, who had it rebound as two separate volumes. One of those volumes was returned to Heidelberg but the other remained in the Bibliothèque Nationale in Paris.

In the 17th century, Thomas Stanley translated the Anacreontea into English verse. A few poems were also translated by Robert Herrick and Abraham Cowley. The poems themselves appear to have been composed over a long period of time, from the time of Alexander the Great until the time that paganism gave way in the Roman Empire. They reflect the light hearted elegance of much of Anacreon's genuine works although they were not written in the same Ionic Greek dialect that Anacreon used. They also display literary references and styles more common to the time of their actual composition.

Aretaeus of Cappadocia

Aretaeus (Greek: Ἀρεταῖος) is one of the most celebrated of the ancient Greek physicians, of whose life, however, few particulars are known. He presumably was a native or at least a citizen of Cappadocia, a Roman province in Asia Minor (modern day Turkey), and most likely lived around first century CE. He is generally styled "the Cappadocian" (Καππάδοξ).


Democrates (; Ancient Greek: Δημοκράτης) was a Pythagorean philosopher about whom little is known. Apollonius of Tyana wrote at least one letter to a Democrates, Epistle 88.

A collection of moral maxims, called the Golden Sentences (γνῶμαι χρυσαῖ) has come down to us under his name. However, many scholars argue that these maxims all originate from an original collection of sayings of Democritus, though others believe that there was a different little-known Democrates whose name became confused with the much better-known Democritus.The maxims are written in the Ionic dialect, from which some scholars have inferred, that they were written at a very early period. Others think it more probable that they are the production of the age of Julius Caesar. But nothing can be said with certainty, for want of both external and internal evidence. Some of these sentences are quoted by Stobaeus, and are found in some manuscripts under the name of Democritus.

Diogenes of Apollonia

Diogenes of Apollonia (; Greek: Διογένης ὁ Ἀπολλωνιάτης; fl. 5th century BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher, and was a native of the Milesian colony Apollonia in Thrace. He lived for some time in Athens. His doctrines are known chiefly from Diogenes Laërtius and Simplicius. He believed air to be the one source of all being, and, as a primal force, to be intelligent. All other substances are derived from it by condensation and rarefaction. Aristotle has preserved a long passage by Diogenes concerning the organization of the blood vessels.


Hippocrates of Kos (; Greek: Ἱπποκράτης ὁ Κῷος, translit. Hippokrátēs ho Kṓos; c. 460 – c. 370 BC), also known as Hippocrates II, was a Greek physician of the Age of Pericles (Classical Greece), who is considered one of the most outstanding figures in the history of medicine. He is often referred to as the "Father of Medicine" in recognition of his lasting contributions to the field as the founder of the Hippocratic School of Medicine. This intellectual school revolutionized medicine in ancient Greece, establishing it as a discipline distinct from other fields with which it had traditionally been associated (theurgy and philosophy), thus establishing medicine as a profession.However, the achievements of the writers of the Corpus, the practitioners of Hippocratic medicine and the actions of Hippocrates himself were often commingled; thus very little is known about what Hippocrates actually thought, wrote, and did. Hippocrates is commonly portrayed as the paragon of the ancient physician, and credited with coining the Hippocratic Oath, which is still relevant and in use today. He is also credited with greatly advancing the systematic study of clinical medicine, summing up the medical knowledge of previous schools, and prescribing practices for physicians through the Hippocratic Corpus and other works.

Hippocratic Oath

The Hippocratic Oath is an oath of ethics historically taken by physicians. It is one of the most widely known of Greek medical texts. In its original form, it requires a new physician to swear, by a number of healing gods, to uphold specific ethical standards. The oath is the earliest expression of medical ethics in the Western world, establishing several principles of medical ethics which remain of paramount significance today. These include the principles of medical confidentiality and non-maleficence. As the seminal articulation of certain principles that continue to guide and inform medical practice, the ancient text is of more than historic and symbolic value. Swearing a modified form of the oath remains a rite of passage for medical graduates in many countries.

Hippocrates is often called the father of medicine in Western culture. The original oath was written in Ionic Greek, between the fifth and third centuries BC. It is usually included in the Hippocratic Corpus.


Hipponax (Ancient Greek: Ἱππῶναξ; gen.: Ἱππώνακτος), of Ephesus and later Clazomenae, was an Ancient Greek iambic poet who composed verses depicting the vulgar side of life in Ionian society in the sixth century BC. He was celebrated by ancient authors for his malicious wit (especially for his attacks on some contemporary sculptors, Bupalus and Athenis), and he was reputed to be physically deformed (a reputation that might have been inspired by the nature of his poetry). Little of his work survives despite its interest to Alexandrian scholars, who collected it in two or three books. He influenced Alexandrian poets searching for alternative styles and uses of language, such as Callimachus and Herodas, and his colourful reputation as an acerbic, social critic also made him a popular subject for verse, as in this epigram by Theocritus:

Here lies the poet Hipponax. If you are a scoundrel, do not approach the tomb; but if you are honest and from worthy stock, sit down in confidence and, if you like, fall asleep.Ancient literary critics credited him with inventing literary parody and "lame" poetic meters suitable for vigorous abuse, as well as with influencing comic dramatists such as Aristophanes. His witty, abusive style appears for example in this quote by Herodian, who however was mainly interested in its linguistic aspects (many of the extant verses were preserved for us by lexicographers and grammarians interested in rare words):

τίς ὀμφαλητόμος σε τὸν διοπλῆγα

ἔψησε κἀπέλουσεν ἀσκαρίζοντα;What navel-snipper wiped and washed you as you squirmed about, you crack-brained creature?where 'navel-snipper' signifies a midwife.

Histories (Herodotus)

The Histories (Greek: Ἱστορίαι; Ancient Greek: [historíai̯]; also known as The Histories) of Herodotus is considered the founding work of history in Western literature. Written in 440 BC in the Ionic dialect of classical Greek, The Histories serves as a record of the ancient traditions, politics, geography, and clashes of various cultures that were known in Western Asia, Northern Africa and Greece at that time. Although not a fully impartial record, it remains one of the West's most important sources regarding these affairs. Moreover, it established the genre and study of history in the Western world (despite the existence of historical records and chronicles beforehand).

The Histories also stands as one of the earliest accounts of the rise of the Persian Empire, as well as the events and causes of the Greco-Persian Wars between the Achaemenid Empire and the Greek city-states in the 5th century BC. Herodotus portrays the conflict as one between the forces of slavery (the Persians) on the one hand, and freedom (the Athenians and the confederacy of Greek city-states which united against the invaders) on the other.

The Histories was at some point divided into the nine books that appear in modern editions, conventionally named after the nine Muses.

Homeric Greek

Homeric Greek is the form of the Greek language that was used by Homer in the Iliad and Odyssey and in the Homeric Hymns. It is a literary dialect of Ancient Greek consisting mainly of Ionic and Aeolic, with a few forms from Arcadocypriot, and a written form influenced by Attic. It was later named Epic Greek because it was used as the language of epic poetry, typically in dactylic hexameter, by poets such as Hesiod and Theognis of Megara. Compositions in Epic Greek may date from as late as the 3rd century BC, though its decline was inevitable with the rise of Koine Greek.

Movable nu

In Ancient Greek grammar, movable nu, movable N or ephelcystic nu (Ancient Greek: νῦ ἐφελκυστικόν nû ephelkustikón, literally "nu dragged onto" or "attracted to") is a letter nu (written ν; the Greek equivalent of the letter n) placed on the end of some grammatical forms in Attic or Ionic Greek. It is used to avoid two vowels in a row (hiatus) and to create a long syllable in poetic meter.


Nemea (; Ancient Greek: Νεμέα; Ionic Greek: Νεμέη) is an ancient site in the northeastern part of the Peloponnese, in Greece. Formerly part of the territory of Cleonae in ancient Argolis, it is today situated in the regional unit of Corinthia. The small village of Archaia Nemea (formerly known as "Koutsoumadi" and then "Iraklion") is immediately southwest of the archaeological site, while the new town of Nemea lies to the west.

Here in Greek mythology Heracles overcame the Nemean Lion of the Lady Hera, and here during Antiquity the Nemean Games were played, in three sequence, ending about 235 BCE, celebrated in the eleven Nemean odes of Pindar.

On the Syrian Goddess

On the Syrian Goddess (Greek: Περὶ τῆς Συρίης Θεοῦ; Latin: De Dea Syria) is the conventional Latin title of a Greek treatise of the second century AD, which describes religious cults practiced at the temple of Hierapolis Bambyce, now Manbij, in Syria. The work is written in a Herodotean-style of Ionic Greek, and has been traditionally ascribed to the Hellenized Syrian essayist Lucian of Samosata.


Oreus or Oreos (Ancient Greek: Ὠρεός, romanized: Ōreos), prior to the 5th century BCE called Histiaea or Histiaia (Ἱστίαια), also Hestiaea or Hestiaia (Ἑστίαια), was a town near the north coast of ancient Euboea, situated upon the river Callas, at the foot of Mount Telethrium, and opposite Antron on the Thessalian coast. From this town the whole northern extremity of Euboea was named Histiaeotis (Ἱστιαιῶτις, Ionic Greek: Ἱστιαιῆτις) According to some it was a colony from the Attic deme of Histiaea; according to others it was founded by the Thessalian Perrhaebi. Another foundation story had it that the name Histiaea is said to derive from the mythical figure Histiaea, the daughter of Hyrieus. It was one of the most ancient of the Euboean cities. It occurs in the Catalogue of Ships in the Iliad, where Homer gives it the epithet of πολυστάφυλος (rich in grapes); and the Periplus of Pseudo-Scylax mentions it as one of the four cities of Euboea. It was an important city in classical antiquity due to its strategic location at the entrance of the North Euboean Gulf, in the middle of a large and fertile plain.After the Battle of Artemisium (480 BCE), when the Grecian fleet sailed southwards, Histiaea was occupied by the Persians. Upon the expulsion of the Persians from Greece, Histiaea, with the other Euboean towns, became subject to Attica. In the revolt of Euboea from Athens in 446 BCE, we may conclude that Histiaea took a prominent part, since Pericles, upon the reduction of the island, expelled the inhabitants from the city, and peopled it with 2000 Athenian colonists. The expelled Histiaeans were said by Theopompus to have withdrawn to Macedonia, or by Strabo to Thessaly thence they transferred the name Histiaeotis. From this time we find the name of the town changed to Oreus, which was originally a deme dependent upon Histiaea. It is true that Thucydides upon one occasion subsequently calls the town by its ancient name; but he speaks of it as Oreus, in relating the second revolt of Euboea in 411 BCE, where he says that it was the only town in the island that remained faithful to Athens. Its territory was called Oria (Ὡρία).At the end of the Peloponnesian War, Oreus became subject to Sparta; the Athenian colonists were doubtless expelled, and a portion at least of its ancient inhabitants restored; and accordingly we read that this town remained faithful to Sparta and cherished a lasting hatred against Athens. Neogenes, supported by Jason of Pherae, made himself tyrant of Oreus for a time; but he was expelled by Therippidas, the Lacedaemonian commander; and the Athenian Chabrias endeavoured in vain to obtain possession of the town. But shortly afterwards, before the Battle of Leuctra, Oreus revolted from Sparta. Demosthenes describes the conquest of Oreus by Philip II of Macedon in his 341 BC Third Philippic: in the war between Philip and the Athenians, a party in Oreus was friendly to Philip; and by the aid of this monarch Philistides became tyrant of the city; but the Athenians, at the instigation of Demosthenes, sent an expedition against Oreus, which expelled Philistides, and, according to Charax, put him to death.In consequence of its geographical position and its fortifications, Oreus became an important place in the subsequent wars. In the contest between Antigonus I Monophthalmus and Cassander it was besieged by the latter, who was, however, obliged to retire upon the approach of Ptolemy, the general of Antigonus. In the First Macedonian War between the Romans and Philip V of Macedon, it was betrayed to the former by the commander of the Macedonian garrison in 207 BCE. In the Second Macedonian War it was taken by the Romans by assault in 200 BCE. Soon afterwards, in 196 BCE, it was declared free by Titus Quinctius Flamininus along with the other Grecian states. Pliny the Elder mentions it among the cities of Euboea no longer existent in his time c. 77 CE, but it still occurs in the lists of Ptolemy writing in the second century CE, under the corrupt form of Σωρεός - Soreus or Soreos.Strabo says that Oreus was situated upon a lofty hill named Drymus. Livy describes it as having two citadels, one overhanging the sea and the other in the middle of the city.The present towns Oreoi and Istiaia in northern Euboea were named after this city. The city is the title of a titular see of the Roman Catholic Church.Its site is located near the kastro of the modern village of Oreoi.


Paraplegia is an impairment in motor or sensory function of the lower extremities. The word comes from Ionic Greek παραπληγίη "half-stricken". It is usually caused by spinal cord injury or a congenital condition that affects the neural (brain) elements of the spinal canal. The area of the spinal canal that is affected in paraplegia is either the thoracic, lumbar, or sacral regions. If four limbs are affected by paralysis, tetraplegia or quadriplegia is the correct term. If only one limb is affected, the correct term is monoplegia.

Spastic paraplegia is a form of paraplegia defined by spasticity of the affected muscles, rather than flaccid paralysis.

The American Spinal Injury Association classifies spinal cord injury severity. ASIA A being the complete loss of sensory function and motor skills below the injury. ASIA B is having some sensory function below the injury, but no motor function. ASIA C some motor function below level of injury, but half the muscles cannot move against gravity. ASIA D, more than half of the muscles below the level of injury can move against gravity. ASIA E which is the restoration of all neurologic function.


Perictione (Greek: Περικτιόνη Periktiónē; fl. 5th century BC) was the mother of the Greek philosopher Plato.

She was a descendant of Solon, the Athenian lawgiver. She was married to Ariston, and had three sons (Glaucon, Adeimantus, and Plato) and a daughter (Potone). After Ariston's death, she remarried Pyrilampes, an Athenian statesman and her uncle. She had her fifth child, Antiphon, with Pyrilampes. Antiphon appears in Plato's Parmenides.Two spurious works attributed to Perictione have survived in fragments, On the Harmony of Women and On Wisdom. The works do not date from the same time and are usually assigned to a Perictione I and a Perictione II. Both works are pseudonymous Pythagorean literature. On the Harmony of Women, concerns the duties of a woman to her husband, her marriage, and to her parents; it is written in Ionic Greek and probably dates to the late 4th or 3rd century BC. On Wisdom offers a philosophical definition of wisdom; it is written in Doric Greek and probably dates to the 3rd or 2nd century BC. There were also allegations of her husband Ariston treating her badly due to trouble and war. According to Ariston the god Apollo came to him in a dream and told him otherwise.


Tegea (; Greek: Τεγέα) was a settlement in ancient Arcadia, and it is also a former municipality in Arcadia, Peloponnese, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Tripoli, of which it is a municipal unit. The municipal unit has an area of 118.350 km2. Its seat was the village Stadio.

The reputed prehistoric founder of Tegea was Tegeates, a son of Lycaon.

Origin and genealogy
Writing systems
Promotion and study
Ages of Greek

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.