Ionians

The Ionians (/aɪˈoʊniənz/; Greek: Ἴωνες, Íōnes, singular Ἴων, Íōn) were one of the four major tribes that the Greeks considered themselves to be divided into during the ancient period; the other three being the Dorians, Aeolians, and Achaeans.[2] The Ionian dialect was one of the three major linguistic divisions of the Hellenic world, together with the Dorian and Aeolian dialects.

When referring to populations, “Ionian” defines several groups in Classical Greece. In its narrowest sense, the term referred to the region of Ionia in Asia Minor. In its broadest sense, it could be used to describe all speakers of the Ionic dialect, which in addition to those in Ionia proper also included the Greek populations of Euboea, the Cyclades, and many cities founded by Ionian colonists. Finally, in the broadest sense it could be used to describe all those who spoke languages of the East Greek group, which included Attic.

The foundation myth which was current in the Classical period suggested that the Ionians were named after Ion, son of Xuthus, who lived in the north Peloponnesian region of Aigialeia. When the Dorians invaded the Peloponnese they expelled the Achaeans from the Argolid and Lacedaemonia. The displaced Achaeans moved into Aegilaus (thereafter known as Achaea), in turn expelling the Ionians from the Aegilaus.[3] The Ionians moved to Attica and mingled with the local population of Attica, and many later emigrated to the coast of Asia Minor founding the historical region of Ionia.

Unlike the austere and militaristic Dorians, the Ionians are renowned for their love of philosophy, art, democracy, and pleasure – Ionian traits that were most famously expressed by the Athenians.[4]

Xerxes I tomb Ionian soldier circa 470 BCE cleaned up
Ionian soldier (Old Persian cuneiform 𐎹𐎢𐎴, Yaunā)[1] of the Achaemenid army, circa 480 BCE. Xerxes I tomb relief.
Phocaea map
The location of ancient Ionia on the coast of modern-day Turkey.

Name

Unlike "Aeolians" and "Dorians", "Ionians" appears in the languages of different civilizations around the eastern Mediterranean and as far east as the Indian subcontinent. They are not the earliest Greeks to appear in the records; that distinction belongs to the Danaans and the Achaeans. The trail of the Ionians begins in the Mycenaean Greek records of Crete.

Mycenaean

A fragmentary Linear B tablet from Knossos (tablet Xd 146) bears the name i-ja-wo-ne, interpreted by Ventris and Chadwick[5] as possibly the dative or nominative plural case of *Iāwones, an ethnic name. The Knossos tablets are dated to 1400 or 1200 B.C. and thus pre-date the Dorian dominance in Crete, if the name refers to Cretans.

The name first appears in Greek literature in Homer as Ἰάονες, iāones,[6] used on a single occasion of some long-robed Greeks attacked by Hector and apparently identified with Athenians, and this Homeric form appears to be identical with the Mycenaean form but without the *-w-. This name also appears in a fragment of the other early poet, Hesiod, in the singular Ἰάων, iāōn.[7]

Biblical

In the Book of Genesis[8] of the English Bible, Javan is a son of Japheth. Javan is believed nearly universally by Bible scholars to represent the Ionians; that is, Javan is Ion. The Hebrew is Yāwān, plural Yəwānīm.[9]

Additionally, but less surely, Japheth may be related linguistically to the Greek mythological figure Iapetus.[10]

The locations of Biblical tribal countries have been the subjects of centuries of scholarship and yet remain to various degrees open questions. The Book of Isaiah[11] gives what may be a hint by listing "the nations... that have not heard my fame" including Javan and immediately after "the isles afar off." Are the isles in apposition to Javan or the last item in the series? If the former, the expression is typically used of the population of the islands in the Aegean Sea.

The date of the Book of Isaiah cannot precede the date of the man Isaiah, in the 8th century BC.

Assyrian

Some letters of the Neo-Assyrian Empire in the 8th century BC record attacks by what appear to be Ionians on the cities of Phoenicia:

For example, a raid by the Ionians (ia-u-na-a-a) on the Phoenician coast is reported to Tiglath-Pileser III in a letter from the 730s BC discovered at Nimrud.[12]

The Assyrian word, which is preceded by the country determinative, has been reconstructed as *Iaunaia.[13] More common is ia-a-ma-nu, ia-ma-nu and ia-am-na-a-a with the country determinative, reconstructed as Iamānu.[14] Sargon II related that he took the latter from the sea like fish and that they were from "the sea of the setting sun."[15] If the identification of Assyrian names is correct, at least some of the Ionian marauders came from Cyprus:[16]

Sargon's Annals for 709, claiming that tribute was sent to him by 'seven kings of Ya (ya-a'), a district of Yadnana whose distant abodes are situated a seven-days' journey in the sea of the setting sun', is confirmed by a stele set up at Citium in Cyprus 'at the base of a mountain ravine ... of Yadnana.'

Indic

Siria, seleucidi, Antioco II, tetradracma di seleucia sul tigri, 261-146 ac ca
The Seleucid king Antiochos ("Aṃtiyako Yona Rājā" ("The Yona king Antiochos")) is named as a recipient of Ashoka's medical treatments, together with his Hellenistic neighbours, in the Edicts of Ashoka (circa 250 BCE).[17]
Amtiyako Yona Raja in Major Rock Edicts No2 in Girnar
"Aṃtiyako Yona Rājā" ("The Greek king Antiochos"), mentioned in Major Rock Edict No.2, here at Girnar. Brahmi script.[18]

Ionians appear in Indic literature and documents as Yavana and Yona. In documents, these names refer to the Indo-Greek Kingdoms; that is, the states formed by the Macedonians, either Alexander the Great or his successors on the Indian subcontinent. The earliest such documentation is the Edicts of Ashoka, dated to 250 BC, within 10 or 20 years.

Before then, the Yavanas appear in the Vedas with reference to the Vedic period, which could be as early as the 2nd millennium BC. The Vedas are to be distinguished from the much earlier Vedic period. In the Vedas, the Yavanas are a kingdom of Mlechhas, or barbarians, to the far west, out of the line of descent of Indic culture, in the same category as the Sakas, or Skythians (who spoke Iranian), and thus probably were already Greek. The Ionians of the Aegean are the identity customarily assigned to them.

Iranian

Ionians appear in a number of Old Persian inscriptions of the Achaemenid Empire as Yaunā (𐎹𐎢𐎴𐎠),[19] a nominative plural masculine, singular Yauna;[20] for example, an inscription of Darius on the south wall of the palace at Persepolis includes in the provinces of the empire "Ionians who are of the mainland and (those) who are by the sea, and countries which are across the sea; ...."[21] At that time the empire probably extended around the Aegean to northern Greece.

Other languages

Most modern Middle Eastern languages use the terms "Ionia" and "Ionian" to refer to Greece and Greeks. That is true of Hebrew (Yavan 'Greece' / Yevani fem. Yevania 'a Greek'),[22] Armenian (Hunastan 'Greece'[23] / Huyn 'a Greek'), and the Classical Arabic words (al-Yūnān 'Greece' / Yūnānī fem. Yūnāniyya pl. Yūnān 'a Greek',[24] probably from Aramaic Yawnānā[25]) are used in most modern Arabic dialects including Egyptian and Palestinian[26] as well as being used in modern Persian (Yūnānestān 'Greece' / Yūnānī pl. Yūnānīhā/Yūnānīyān 'Greek')[27] and Turkish too via Persian (Yunanistan 'Greece' / Yunanlı 'a Greek person' pl. Yunanlılar 'Greek people').[28]

Etymology

The etymology of the word Ἴωνες/Ἰάϝoνες is uncertain.[29] Both Frisk and Beekes isolate an unknown root, *Ia-, pronounced *ya-.[30] There are, however, some theories:

  • From an unknown early name of an eastern Mediterranean island population represented by Ha-nebu, an ancient Egyptian name for the people living there.[31]
  • From ancient Egyptian 'iwn "pillar, tree trunk" extended into iwnt "bow" (of wood?) and 'Iwntyw "bowmen, archers."[32] This derivation is analogous on the one hand to the possible derivation of Dorians and on the other fits the Egyptian concept of "nine bows" with reference to the Sea Peoples.
  • From a Proto-Indo-European onomatopoeic root *wi- or *woi- expressing a shout uttered by persons running to the assistance of others; according to Pokorny, *Iawones would mean "devotees of Apollo", based on the cry iē paiōn uttered in his worship.[33]
  • From a Proto-Indo-European root *uiH-, meaning "power."[34]

Ionic language

Ionic Greek was a subdialect of the Attic–Ionic or Eastern dialect group of Ancient Greek.

Pre-Ionic Ionians

The literary evidence of the Ionians leads back to mainland Greece in Mycenaean times before there was an Ionia. The classical sources seem determined that they were to be called Ionians along with other names even then. This cannot be documented with inscriptional evidence, and yet the literary evidence, which is manifestly at least partially legendary, seems to reflect a general verbal tradition.

Herodotus

Herodotus of Halicarnassus asserts:[35]

all are Ionians who are of Athenian descent and keep the feast Apaturia.

He further explains:[36]

The whole Hellenic stock was then small, and the last of all its branches and the least regarded was the Ionian; for it had no considerable city except Athens.

The Ionians spread from Athens to other places in the Aegean Sea: Sifnos and Serifos,[37] Naxos,[38] Kea[39] and Samos.[40] But they were not just from Athens:[41]

These Ionians, as long as they were in the Peloponnesus, dwelt in what is now called Achaea, and before Danaus and Xuthus came to the Peloponnesus, as the Greeks say, they were called Aegialian Pelasgians. They were named Ionians after Ion the son of Xuthus.

Achaea was divided into 12 communities originally Ionian:[42] Pellene, Aegira, Aegae, Bura, Helice, Aegion, Rhype, Patrae, Phareae, Olenus, Dyme and Tritaeae. The most aboriginal Ionians were of Cynuria:[43]

The Cynurians are aboriginal and seem to be the only Ionians, but they have been Dorianized by time and by Argive rule.

Strabo

In Strabo's account of the origin of the Ionians, Hellen, son of Deucalion, ancestor of the Hellenes, king of Phthia, arranged a marriage between his son Xuthus and the daughter of king Erechtheus of Athens. Xuthus then founded the Tetrapolis ("Four Cities") of Attica, a rural district. His son, Achaeus, went into exile in a land subsequently called Achaea after him. Another son of Xuthus, Ion, conquered Thrace, after which the Athenians made him king of Athens. Attica was called Ionia after his death. Those Ionians colonized Aigialia changing its name to Ionia also. When the Heracleidae returned the Achaeans drove the Ionians back to Athens. Under the Codridae they set forth for Anatolia and founded 12 cities in Caria and Lydia following the model of the 12 cities of Achaea, formerly Ionian.[44]

Ionian School of philosophy

During the 6th century BC, Ionian coastal towns, such as Miletus and Ephesus, became the focus of a revolution in traditional thinking about Nature. Instead of explaining natural phenomena by recourse to traditional religion/myth, the cultural climate was such that men began to form hypotheses about the natural world based on ideas gained from both personal experience and deep reflection. These men—Thales and his successors—were called physiologoi, those who discoursed on Nature. They were skeptical of religious explanations for natural phenomena and instead sought purely mechanical and physical explanations. They are credited as being of critical importance to the development of the 'scientific attitude' towards the study of Nature.

Notes

  1. ^ Darius I, DNa inscription, Line 28
  2. ^ Apollodorus I, 7.3
  3. ^ Pausanias VII, 1.7
  4. ^ Kōnstantinos D. Paparrēgopulos, Historikai Pragmateiai - Volume 1, 1858
  5. ^ Ventris, Michael; John Chadwick (1973). Documents in Mycenaean Greek: Second Edition. Cambridge University Press. pp. 547 in the "Glossary" under i-ja-wo-ne. ISBN 0-521-08558-6.
  6. ^ Homer. Iliad, Book XIII, Line 685.
  7. ^ Hes. fr. 10a.23 M-W: see Glare, P. G. W. (1996). Greek-English Leicon: Revised Supplement. Oxford University Press. p. 155.
  8. ^ Book of Genesis, 10.2.
  9. ^ Bromiley, Geoffrey William (General Editor) (1994). The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia: Volume Two: Fully Revised: E-J: Javan. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. p. 971. ISBN 0-8028-3782-4.
  10. ^ "Iapetus". The Encyclopædia Britannica: a Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, Literature and General Information. 14 (11 ed.). Cambridge, England and New York (printed): Cambridge University Press, Online Encyclopedia. 1910–1911. p. 215. Retrieved 9 January 2008.
  11. ^ Book of Isaiah 66.19.
  12. ^ Malkin, Irad (1998). The Return of Odysseus: Colonization and Ethnicity. Berkeley: University of California Press. p. 148. ISBN 0-520-21185-5.
  13. ^ Foley, John Miles (2005). A Companion to Ancient Epic. Malden, Ma.: Blackwell Publishing. p. 294. ISBN 1-4051-0524-0.
  14. ^ Muss-Arnolt, William (1905). A Concise Dictionary of the Assyrian Language: Volume I: A-MUQQU: Iamānu. Berlin; London; New York: Reuther & Reichard; Williams & Morgate; Lemcke & Büchner. p. 360.
  15. ^ Kearsley, R.A. (1999). "Greeks Overseas in the 8th Century B.C.: Euboeans, Al Mina and Assyrian Imperialism". In Tsetskhladze, Gocha R. (ed.). Ancient Greeks West and East. Leiden, Boston, Köln: Brill. pp. 109–134. ISBN 90-04-10230-2. See pages 120-121.
  16. ^ Braun, T.F.R.G. (1925). "The Greeks in the Near East: IV. Assyrian Kings and the Greeks". In Boardman, John; Hammond, N.G.L. (eds.). The Cambridge Ancient History: III Part 3: The Expansion of the Greek World Eighth to Sixth Centuries B.C. Cambridge University Press. pp. 14–24. ISBN 0-521-23447-6. See page 17 for the quote.
  17. ^ Kosmin, Paul J. (2014). The Land of the Elephant Kings. Harvard University Press. p. 57. ISBN 9780674728820.
  18. ^ Inscriptions of Asoka. New Edition by E. Hultzsch (in Sanskrit). 1925. p. 3.
  19. ^ Waters, Matt (2014). Ancient Persia: A Concise History of the Achaemenid Empire, 550–330 BCE. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 173. ISBN 978-1-10700-9-608.
  20. ^ Kent, Roland G. (1953). Old Persian: Grammar Texts Lexicon: Second Edition, Revised. New Haven, Connecticut: American Oriental Society. p. 204. ISBN 0-940490-33-1.
  21. ^ Kent, p. 136.
  22. ^ Dagut, M. (1990). Prof. Jerusalem: Kiryat-Sefer Ltd. p. 294. ISBN 9651701722.
  23. ^ Bedrossian, Matthias (1985). New Dictionary Armenian-English. Beirut: Librairie du Liban. p. 515.
  24. ^ Wehr, Hans (1971). Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag. p. 1110. ISBN 0879500018.
  25. ^ Rosenthal, Franz (2007). Encyclopedia of Islam Vol XI (2nd ed.). Leiden: Brill. p. 344. ISBN 9789004161214.
  26. ^ Elihai, Yohanan (1985). Dictionnaire de l'arabe parlé palistinien Français-Arabe. Paris: Éditions Klincksieck. p. 203. ISBN 2252025115.
  27. ^ Turner, Colin (2003). A Thematic Dictionary of Modern Persian. London: Routedge. p. 92. ISBN 9780700704583.
  28. ^ Kornrumpf, H.-J. (1979). Langenscheidt's Universan Dictionary Turkish-English English-Turkish. Berlin: Langenscheidt. ISBN 0340000422.
  29. ^ R. S. P. Beekes, Etymological Dictionary of Greek, Brill, 2009, pp. 608–609.
  30. ^ "Indo-European Etymological Dictionary". Leiden University, the IEEE Project. Archived from the original on 27 September 2006. To find the full presentation in H. J. Frisk's Grieschisches Woeterbuch search on page 1,748, being sure to include the comma. For a similar presentation in Beekes' A Greek Etymological Dictionary search on Ionian in Etymology. Both linguists state a full panoply of "Ionian" words with sources.
  31. ^ Partridge, Eric (1983). Origins: A Short Etymological Dictionary of Modern English: Ionian. New York: Greenwich House. ISBN 0-517-41425-2.
  32. ^ Bernal, Martin (1991). Black Athena: The Afroasiatic Roots of Classical Civilization: Volume I: The Fabrication of Ancient Greece 1785-1985. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press. pp. 83–84. ISBN 0-8135-1277-8.
  33. ^ "Indo-European Etymological Dictionary". Leiden University, the IEEE Project. Archived from the original on 27 September 2006. In Pokorny's Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959), p. 1176.
  34. ^ Nikolaev, Alexander S. (2006), "Ἰάoνες", Acta Linguistica Petropolitana, 2(1), pp. 100–115.
  35. ^ Herodotus. Histories. Book I, Chapter 147.
  36. ^ Herodotus. Histories. Book I, Chapter 143.
  37. ^ Herodotus. Histories. Book 8, Section 48.1.
  38. ^ Herodotus. Histories. Book 8, Section 46.3.
  39. ^ Herodotus. Histories. Book 8, Section 46.2.
  40. ^ Herodotus. Histories. Book 6, Section 22.3.
  41. ^ Herodotus. Histories. Book 7, Chapter 94.
  42. ^ Herodotus. Histories. Book 1, Section 145.1.
  43. ^ Herodotus. Histories. Book 8, Section 73.3.
  44. ^ Strabo. Geography. Book 8, Section 7.1.

Further reading

  • J. A. R Munro. "Pelasgians and Ionians". The Journal of Hellenic Studies, 1934 (JSTOR).
  • R. M. Cook. "Ionia and Greece in the Eighth and Seventh Centuries B.C." The Journal of Hellenic Studies, 1946 (JSTOR).

External links

2002–03 National Division Three North

The 2002–03 National Division Three North was the third season (fifteenth overall) of the fourth division (north) of the English domestic rugby union competition using the name National Division Three North. New teams to the division included Preston Grasshoppers and Waterloo who were relegated from the 2001–02 National Division Two while promoted teams included Broadstreet who came up as champions of Midlands Division 1 while Halifax (champions) and Hull Ionians (playoffs) came up from North Division 1. The league system was 2 points for a win and 1 point for a draw with the promotion system changing for this season with a playoff system being introduced. The champions of both National Division Three North and National Division Three South would automatically go up but the runners up of these two divisions would meet each other in a one off match (at the home ground of the side with the superior league record) to see who would claim the third and final promotion place to National Division Two for the following season.

By the end of the season Nuneaton would finish as champions, just edging out runners up New Brighton by virtue of an extra win and gaining promotion to the 2003–04 National Division Two. New Brighton would go into a promotion playoff away at the 2002–03 National Division Three South runners up Lydney but were unable to join Nuneaton as Lydney won 21 - 7 to claim the final promotion slot. At the other end of the table, Scunthorpe were the first team to be relegated with just one win all season while Hull Ionians, Broadstreet and Bedford Athletic were the other teams to go down at a later date with Bedford Athletic just one point off safety. Hull Ionians would drop to North Division 1 while Scunthorpe, Broadstreet and Bedford Athletic would drop to Midlands Division 1.

2013–14 National League 1

The 2013–14 National League 1, known for sponsorship reasons as the SSE National League 1 is the fifth season of the third tier of the English domestic rugby union competitions, since the professionalised format of the second tier RFU Championship was introduced. After being relegated last season, Doncaster Knights are the champions and became the first team to be promoted straight back to the RFU Championship for the 2014-15 season. The teams promoted last season from 2012–13 National League 2 South and 2012–13 National League 2 North, Henley Hawks, Hull Ionians and Worthing Raiders finished in the bottom three places with Henley and Worthing to join the 2014–15 National League 2 South and Ionians to the 2014–15 National League 2 North.

2014–15 National League 2 North

The 2014–15 National League 2 North is the sixth season (28th overall) of the fourth tier of the English domestic rugby union competitions since the professionalised format of the second division was introduced. New teams to the division include Hull Ionians (relegated from National League 1 2013–14), Broadstreet (promoted from National League 3 Midlands), Huddersfield and Stockport (both promoted from National League 3 North). Ampthill was also transferred back to the division after spending the 2013–14 season in National League 2 South. At the end of the season the champions are promoted to National League 1 while the second placed team will play against the runners-up from the 2014–15 National League 2 South, with the winner also promoted. The bottom three teams, depending on geographical location, are usually relegated to either National League 3 North or National League 3 Midlands (in some cases teams may be relegated to the southern regional leagues).

Hull Ionians claimed the title and promotion to National League One on the last day of the season, with Ampthill finishing as runners-up and having to be content with a promotion play-off. Both Hull Ionians and Ampthill were head and shoulders over the other teams in the division, with Ionians narrow 7 – 6 victory over Ampthill on the 24 January ultimately being the deciding factor in who would end up as champions.While the title chase was tight, the fight against relegation was even tighter. Apart from Stockport, who were relegated way before the end of the season, the next two relegation spots were contested up until the very last game with four teams in danger of the drop. In the end Hull's defeat to fellow relegation rivals Preston Grasshoppers meant they went straight down, while Birmingham & Solihull's bonus point victory was not enough due to Luctonians narrow win over Leicester Lions, meaning that Luctonians stayed up instead. On paper Birmingham & Solihull had a better attack and defence than Luctonians but were unable to translate this to enough wins over the course of the season. Stockport and Hull would drop down to National League 3 North while Birmingham & Solihull would go into National League 3 Midlands.As runner-up, Ampthill played in the divisional play-off for the second year in a row (they lost the play-off in 2013–14 against Darlington Mowden Park). This year they played at home to National League 2 South runner-up Bishop's Stortford. The final result was 19 – 10 to Ampthill at Dillingham Park, and they join Hull Ionians in the 2015–16 National League 1.

2016–17 National League 1

The 2016–17 National League 1, known for sponsorship reasons as the SSE National League 1 was the eighth season of the third tier of the English rugby union system, since the professionalised format of the second tier RFU Championship was introduced; and was the 30th season since league rugby began in 1987.

Hartpury College were crowned the champions on 11 March 2017 after winning their 25th match and maintaining their 100% record. The college side went on break more National League 1 records by winning all 30 games and gaining promotion to the highest level in the club's history. Other records by Hartpury included most league points in a season (143), most points scored (1,455), as well as tying with Ealing Trailfinders (2014–15) for most bonus points gained in a season (28).

Due to London Welsh going into liquidation in January 2017 and being expelled from the RFU Championship, only two teams were relegated from National League 1. On 1 April 2017 newly promoted Macclesfield were the first team to be relegated after they lost 18–21 at home to Plymouth Albion. The second relegation spot was keenly contested and went to the last game of the season with 14th placed Hull Ionians 3 points ahead of 15th placed Blaydon. In the end Blaydon lost their final game while Hull Ionians won theirs to finish 6 points clear. It ended a run of 10 years in the 3rd tier for Blaydon.

2017–18 National League 1

The 2017–18 National League 1, known for sponsorship reasons as the SSE National League 1 is the ninth season of the third tier of the English rugby union system, since the professionalised format of the second tier RFU Championship was introduced; and is the 31st season since league rugby began in 1987.

Following defeat at Blackheath on 10 March, Fylde are the first team to be relegated. A week later Coventry became the league champions with five games to go after beating Caldy away on the 17 March. On 21 April Old Albanian became the second team to go down with a game to go, losing 21-24 away to Plymouth Albion. The third and final relegation spot went to the taken by Hull Ionians who lost 21-38 away to champions Coventry on 28 April 2018 in front of a divisional record attendance of 3,758. As champions, Coventry are promoted into the 2018–19 RFU Championship, while relegated sides Fylde and Hull Ionians drop to the 2018–19 National League 2 North, and Old Albanian into the 2018–19 National League 2 South.

Of further interest were a number of divisional records set or equalled during the course of the season. These included a record crowd (3,758 at Coventry) and record overall league average attendance (653), while Coventry's promotion meant they now had 3 tier titles (equal with Otley). Ampthill also equalled a more obscure record of four league draws previously achieved by both Wharfedale and Richmond.

Abantes

The Abantes or Abantians (Greek: Άβαντες, Ábantes) were an ancient Greek tribe and specifically an Ionian one. Their home was Euboea.

Achaeans (tribe)

The Achaeans (; Greek: Ἀχαιοί, Akhaioi) were one of the four major tribes into which the people of Classical Greece divided themselves (along with the Aeolians, Ionians and Dorians). According to the foundation myth formalized by Hesiod, their name comes from Achaeus, the mythical founder of the Achaean tribe, who was supposedly one of the sons of Xuthus, and brother of Ion, the founder of the Ionian tribe. Xuthus was in turn the son of Hellen, the mythical patriarch of the Greek (Hellenic) nation.Historically, the members of the Achaean tribe inhabited the region of Achaea in the northern Peloponnese. The Achaeans played an active role in the Greek colonization of southern Italy, founding the city of Kroton (Κρότων) in 710 BC. The city was to gain fame later as the place where the Pythagorean School was founded. Unlike the other major tribes (Ionians, Dorians and Aeolians), the Achaeans did not have a separate dialect in the Classical period, instead using a form of Doric.

Aeolians

The Aeolians (; Greek: Αἰολεῖς) were one of the four major tribes in which Greeks divided themselves in the ancient period (along with the Achaeans, Dorians and Ionians).

Hull Ionians

Hull Ionians is a rugby union club in the East Riding of Yorkshire, England. The first team play in English rugby's National League 1, the third tier of the English rugby union system, following their promotion from National League 2 North as champions at the end of the 2018-19 season. Their home ground is Brantingham Park which opened in September 1995 and is situated in the village of Brantingham, off the A63 road between Brough and South Cave.

Ionia

Ionia (; Ancient Greek: Ἰωνία, Iōnía or Ἰωνίη, Iōníē) was an ancient region on the central part of the western coast of Anatolia in present-day Turkey, the region nearest İzmir, which was historically Smyrna. It consisted of the northernmost territories of the Ionian League of Greek settlements. Never a unified state, it was named after the Ionian tribe who, in the Archaic Period (600–480 BC), settled mainly the shores and islands of the Aegean Sea. Ionian states were identified by tradition and by their use of Eastern Greek.

Ionia proper comprised a narrow coastal strip from Phocaea in the north near the mouth of the river Hermus (now the Gediz), to Miletus in the south near the mouth of the river Maeander, and included the islands of Chios and Samos. It was bounded by Aeolia to the north, Lydia to the east and Caria to the south. The cities within the region figured large in the strife between the Persian Empire and the Greeks.

According to Greek tradition, the cities of Ionia were founded by colonists from the other side of the Aegean. Their settlement was connected with the legendary history of the Ionic people in Attica, which asserts that the colonists were led by Neleus and Androclus, sons of Codrus, the last king of Athens. In accordance with this view the "Ionic migration", as it was called by later chronologers, was dated by them one hundred and forty years after the Trojan War, or sixty years after the return of the Heracleidae into the Peloponnese.

Ionian Revolt

The Ionian Revolt, and associated revolts in Aeolis, Doris, Cyprus and Caria, were military rebellions by several Greek regions of Asia Minor against Persian rule, lasting from 499 BC to 493 BC. At the heart of the rebellion was the dissatisfaction of the Greek cities of Asia Minor with the tyrants appointed by Persia to rule them, along with the individual actions of two Milesian tyrants, Histiaeus and Aristagoras. The cities of Ionia had been conquered by Persia around 540 BC, and thereafter were ruled by native tyrants, nominated by the Persian satrap in Sardis. In 499 BC, the tyrant of Miletus, Aristagoras, launched a joint expedition with the Persian satrap Artaphernes to conquer Naxos, in an attempt to bolster his position. The mission was a debacle, and sensing his imminent removal as tyrant, Aristagoras chose to incite the whole of Ionia into rebellion against the Persian king Darius the Great.

In 498 BC, supported by troops from Athens and Eretria, the Ionians marched on, captured, and burnt Sardis. However, on their return journey to Ionia, they were followed by Persian troops, and decisively beaten at the Battle of Ephesus. This campaign was the only offensive action by the Ionians, who subsequently went on the defensive. The Persians responded in 497 BC with a three pronged attack aimed at recapturing the outlying areas of the rebellion, but the spread of the revolt to Caria meant that the largest army, under Daurises, relocated there. While initially campaigning successfully in Caria, this army was annihilated in an ambush at the Battle of Pedasus. This resulted in a stalemate for the rest of 496 BC and 495 BC.

By 494 BC the Persian army and navy had regrouped, and they made straight for the epicentre of the rebellion at Miletus. The Ionian fleet sought to defend Miletus by sea, but was decisively beaten at the Battle of Lade, after the defection of the Samians. Miletus was then besieged, captured, and its population was brought under Persian rule. This double defeat effectively ended the revolt, and the Carians surrendered to the Persians as a result. The Persians spent 493 BC reducing the cities along the west coast that still held out against them, before finally imposing a peace settlement on Ionia which was generally considered to be both just and fair.

The Ionian Revolt constituted the first major conflict between Greece and the Persian Empire, and as such represents the first phase of the Greco-Persian Wars. Although Asia Minor had been brought back into the Persian fold, Darius vowed to punish Athens and Eretria for their support of the revolt. Moreover, seeing that the myriad city states of Greece posed a continued threat to the stability of his Empire, according to Herodotus, Darius decided to conquer the whole of Greece. In 492 BC, the first Persian invasion of Greece, the next phase of the Greco-Persian Wars, began as a direct consequence of the Ionian Revolt.

Javan

Javan (Hebrew יָוָן, Standard Hebrew Yavan, Tiberian Hebrew Yāwān) was the fourth son of Noah's son Japheth according to the "Generations of Noah" (Genesis chapter 10) in the Hebrew Bible. Josephus states the traditional belief that this individual was the ancestor of the Greeks.

Also serving as the Hebrew name for Greece or Greeks in general, יָוָן Yavan or Yāwān has long been considered cognate with the name of the eastern Greeks, the Ionians (Greek Ἴωνες Iōnes, Homeric Greek Ἰάονες Iáones; Mycenaean Greek *Ιαϝονες Iawones). The Greek race has been known by cognate names throughout the Eastern Mediterranean, Near East and beyond: see Sanskrit Yona & Sanskrit (यवन yavana) or proto Aryan languages Sanskrit probably originated. In Greek mythology, the eponymous forefather of the Ionians is similarly called Ion, a son of Apollo. The opinion that Javan is synonymous with Greek Ion and thus fathered the Ionians is common to numerous writers of the early modern period including Sir Walter Raleigh, Samuel Bochart, John Mill and Jonathan Edwards, and is still frequently encountered today.

Javan is also found in apocalyptic literature in the Book of Daniel, 8:21-22 and 11:2, in reference to the King of Greece (יון)—most commonly interpreted as a reference to Alexander the Great.While Javan is generally associated with the ancient Greeks and Greece (cf. Gen. 10:2, Dan. 8:21, Zech. 9:13, etc.), his sons (as listed in Genesis 10) have usually been associated with locations in the Northeastern Mediterranean Sea and Anatolia: Elishah (modern Cyprus), Tarshish (Tarsus in Cilicia, but after 1646 often identified with Tartessus in Spain), Kittim (modern Cyprus), and Dodanim (alt. 1 Chron. 1:7 'Rodanim,' the island of Rhodes, west of modern Turkey between Cyprus and the mainland of Greece).

List of ancient Greek tribes

The ancient Greek tribes (Ancient Greek: Ἑλλήνων ἔθνη) were groups of Greek-speaking populations living in Greece, Cyprus, and the various Greek colonies. They were primarily divided by geographic, dialectal, political, and cultural criteria, as well as distinct traditions in mythology and religion. Some groups were of mixed origin, forming a syncretic culture through absorption and assimilation of previous and neighboring populations into the Greek language and customs. Greek word for tribe was Phylē (sing.) and Phylai (pl.), the tribe was further subdivided in Demes (sing. Demos, pl. Demoi) roughly matching to a clan.

With the dominion of land passing on from one tribe to the other, cultural exchange through art and trade, and frequent alliances toward common goals, the ethnic character of the different tribes had become primarily political by the dawn of the Hellenistic period. The Roman conquest of Greece, the subsequent division of the Roman Empire into Greek East and Latin West, as well as the advent of Christianity, molded the common ethnic and political Greek identity once and for all to the subjects of the Greek world by the 3rd century AD.

Myrmekion

Myrmēkion (Greek: Μυρμήκιον, Russian: Мирмекий) was an ancient Greek colony in the Crimea. The settlement was founded in the eastern part of the modern city Kerch, 4 km NE of ancient Panticapaeum on

the bank of the Kerch bay near the cape Karantinny. The settlement was founded by Ionians in the first half of the 6th c. BC.In the 5th century BC, the town specialized in winemaking and minted its own coinage. It was surrounded by towered walls, measuring some 2.5 metres thick. Myrmekion fell into the hands of the Bosporan kings in the 4th century BC and gradually dwindled into insignificance in the shadow of their capital, Panticapaeum. Regular excavations began in 1934 undertaken by an expedition led by V.F. Gaidukevich. The site was excavated by Polish archaeologists, led by Kazimierz Michałowski, in the 1950s. Between 1982 and 1994 an expedition led by Yu.A. Vinogradov was working at the site. In 1999 an archaeological expedition of the State Hermitage Museum began work at the site.

National League 1

National League 1, (which was known before September 2009 as National Division Two), is the third level of domestic rugby union competition in England. It was known as Courage League National Division Three when founded in 1987. This is the lowest level of the English rugby union league system which is nationwide. The league consists of sixteen teams with all the teams playing each other on a home and away basis to make a total of thirty matches each. There is one promotion place and three relegation places. The champions are promoted to the Greene King IPA Championship and the bottom three teams are relegated to either National League 2 North or National League 2 South (formerly National Division Three North and South) depending on the geographical location of the team.

National League 2 North

National League 2 North, (which before September 2009 was known as National Division Three North) is a level four league in the English rugby union system and provides mostly amateur competition for teams in the northern half of England. From 2009–10 the RFU restructured the league system in England, and this league was expanded from fourteen to sixteen teams. Participating clubs are from the English Midlands and Northern England. Each team plays thirty league games on a home and away basis. The champion club is promoted to National League 1 and the runner-up participates in a one-off play-off with the runner-up of National League 2 South for promotion. Relegation is to either the Midlands Premier or North Premier leagues depending on where the teams are based.

Proto-Ionians

The Proto-Ionians are the hypothetical earliest speakers of the Ionic dialects of Ancient Greek, chiefly in the works of Jean Faucounau. The relation of Ionic to the other Greek dialects has been subject to some debate. It is mostly grouped with Arcadocypriot as opposed to Doric, reflecting two waves of migration into Greece following the Proto-Greek period, but sometimes also as separate from Arcadocypriot on equal footing with Doric, suggesting three distinct waves of migration.

Tabalus

Tabalus the Persian (Greek: Τάβαλος) was the first satrap of Sardis. Cyrus the Great of Persia put him in place after conquering Lydia, c.546 BC. Herodotus mentions him in his histories (Hdt 1. 153-4):

Presently, entrusting Sardis to a Persian called Tabalus, and charging Pactyes, a Lydian, to take charge of the gold of Croesus and the Lydians, he (Cyrus the Great) himself marched away to Agbatana, taking with him Croesus, and at first making no account of the Ionians. For he had Babylon on his hands and the Bactrian nation and the Sacae and Egyptians; he was minded to lead an army himself against these and to send another commander against the Ionians.

This was the same Tabalus whom Pactyes the Lydian trapped in the acropolis when he revolted and marched upon Sardis later that year:

But no sooner had Cyrus marched away from Sardis than Pactyes made the Lydians to revolt from Tabalus and Cyrus; and he went down to the sea, where, as he had all the gold of Sardis, he hired soldiers and persuaded the men of the coast to join his army. Then marching to Sardis he penned Tabalus in the citadel and besieged him there.

Teos

Teos (Ancient Greek: Τέως) or Teo was an ancient Greek city on the coast of Ionia, on a peninsula between Chytrium and Myonnesus. It was founded by Minyans from Orchomenus, Ionians and Boeotians, but the date of its foundation is unknown. Teos was one of the twelve cities which formed the Ionian League. The city was situated on a low hilly isthmus. Its ruins are located to the south of the modern town Sığacık in the Seferihisar district of Izmir Province, Turkey.

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