It was argued that it might replace composite rules shinty–hurling in Scotland-Ireland internationals. Unlike composite rules, it was to use a single type of stick for both sides, and also one goal design.
The stick was made in the traditional shinty style with a much large club face as in hurling but a longer shinty shaft. The goals used were shinty goals. It was designed also to be similar to the ground hurling that was once prevalent in Ireland, but has been superseded by the aerial variety.
Alba is a shinty team selected to represent Scotland and Scots Gaelic which plays annually in a composite rules international series with Míchael Breathnach CLG who represent the Irish Language. The prerequisite for playing in this team is that a player can speak Scots Gaelic.Amhlaoibh Ó Súilleabháin
Amhlaoibh Ó Súilleabháin (May 1780 – 1838) was an Irish language author, linen draper, politician, and one-time hedge school master. He is also known as Humphrey O'Sullivan.
He was deeply involved in Daniel O'Connell's Catholic Emancipation movement and in relief work among the poor of County Kilkenny. He was also an avid bird watcher and a collector of manuscripts in the Irish language.
His diary, published later as Cín Lae Amhlaoibh, was kept between 1827 and 1835. It remains one of the most important sources for 19th-century Irish life and one of the few surviving works from the perspective of the Roman Catholic lower and middle classes. (A translation has been published in English and an abridged and annotated edition in Irish, both edited by Tomás de Bhaldraithe.) Ó Súilleabháin also composed verse and stories.Composite rules shinty–hurling
Composite rules shinty–hurling (Irish: Rialacha chomhréiteach sinteag-iomáint)—sometimes known simply as shinty–hurling—is a hybrid sport which was developed to facilitate international matches between shinty players and hurling players.
Shinty–hurling is one of few team sports in the world without any dedicated clubs or leagues. It is currently played by both men's and women's teams only in tournaments or once-off internationals. The women's form of the game is called shinty/camogie.
Ireland are the leading team in the sport, having won sixteen of the thirty international series against Scotland to date.Cín Lae Amhlaoibh
Cín Lae Amhlaoibh is a diary written by Amhlaoibh Ó Súilleabháin (1780–1837) between the years 1827 to 1835.
It is invaluable for the insight it gives into life in rural Ireland in the early 19th century, and is a rare example of an early modern diary written in the Irish language. Amhlaoibh's original manuscript is currently in the possession of the Royal Irish Academy.Donamon Castle
Donamon, or more correctly, Dunamon Castle (Irish: Dún Iomáin) is one of the oldest inhabited buildings in Ireland and stands on raised ground overlooking the River Suck in County Roscommon.
There was a fort here from early times (hence the name Dún Iomáin, fort of Iomán), but the first recorded reference to "Dún Iomghain" is in the Annals of the Four Masters for the year 1154.
It was the seat of the Ó Fionnachta chief of Clann Chonnmhaigh, one of the two main branches of this Connacht family. In 1232, Adam de Staunton fortified the site further as part of the Norman conquest, but this were retaken and demolished by the native O'Connors the following year. The rebuilt castle was occupied in 1294 by de Oddingseles. He died the following year. The de Birminghams then took over but it was again destroyed by the O'Connors and 1307 they were supplanted by a branch of the Burkes, the head of which was known as MacDavid. The MacDavid Burkes occupied it for the next 300 years. During the seventeenth century wars of conquest and dispossession a junior branch of the Caulfeild family came to own the castle and surrounding territory. They continued to own it throughout the Protestant Ascendancy.
In late 1932, an IRA unit, under the command of Seán McCool and Mick Price, took over Donamon Castle to set up an IRA training camp.In 1939 the Divine Word Missionaries came to Ireland and purchased the castle from the Irish Land Commission. The Missionary Society constructed several new buildings to create a campus for training people before they went into the field. The Castle itself is still their home in Ireland. The training campus is now managed by the Irish Wheelchair Association as a National Holiday Centre.Dual (album)
Dual is an album by four acclaimed Irish and Scottish musicians: Éamonn Doorley, Muireann Nic Amhlaoibh (both prominently of Danú), Julie Fowlis and Ross Martin. (Its title means "to braid, to twine, inheritance or native" in both Irish Gaelic and Scottish Gaelic.)
The artists released the album in October 2008 on their official websites. The album was planned to project the similarities and differences between the Irish and Scottish Gaelic song traditions. The album features Scottish waulking songs such as Alasdair Mhic Cholla Ghasda, and an Irish Gaelic equivalent to the Gaidhlig Puirt a Beul. The songs are set in a traditional/folk accompaniment, very different from the recorded versions of a few of the songs by Capercaillie and Clannad.
The four musicians have been playing music together since a sing-song at the Tønder Festival in 2003. The four-piece has toured together twice a year both in Ireland and Scotland. Julie and Muireann have had very similar upbringings and found their music and languages shared many common threads. Hence the name, Dual, which means "to braid, to twine, inheritance or native" in both Irish Gaelic and Scottish Gaelic. The album features songs in Irish and Scots-Gaelic, and tunes from both cultures.Dun Darach
Dun Darach is an arcade adventure published in 1985 by Gargoyle Games for the ZX Spectrum and Amstrad CPC computers.
The background history is based on Celtic folklore about the hero Cuchulainn, and his battles against the people of Connachta in ancient Ireland. "Dun Darach" or "Dún na nDarach" means "Oak Fort" in the Irish language. The game is a prequel to the 1984 game Tir Na Nog as the story takes place before that game, when Cuchulainn was still alive.Hurling
Hurling (Irish: iománaíocht, iomáint) is an outdoor team game of ancient Gaelic and Irish origin. It is administered by the Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA). The game has prehistoric origins, and has been played for 4,000 years. One of Ireland's native Gaelic games, it shares a number of features with Gaelic football, such as the field and goals, the number of players, and much terminology. There is a similar game for women called camogie (camógaíocht). It shares a common Gaelic root with the sport of shinty (camanachd), which is played predominantly in Scotland.
The objective of the game is for players to use a wooden (ash) stick called a hurl (in Irish a camán, pronounced or ) to hit a small ball called a sliotar between the opponents' goalposts either over the crossbar for one point, or under the crossbar into a net guarded by a goalkeeper for one goal, which is equivalent to three points. The sliotar can be caught in the hand and carried for not more than four steps, struck in the air, or struck on the ground with the hurley. It can be kicked, or slapped with an open hand (the hand pass) for short-range passing. A player who wants to carry the ball for more than four steps has to bounce or balance the sliotar on the end of the stick, and the ball can only be handled twice while in his possession.
Provided that a player has at least one foot on the ground, a player may make a shoulder to shoulder charge on an opponent:
who is in possession of the ball
who is playing the ball
when both players are moving in the direction of the ball to play itNo protective padding is worn by players. A plastic protective helmet with a faceguard is mandatory for all age groups, including senior level, as of 2010. The game has been described as "a bastion of humility", with player names absent from jerseys and a player's number decided by his position on the field.Hurling is played throughout the world, and is popular among members of the Irish diaspora in North America, Europe, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Argentina, and South Korea. In many parts of Ireland, however, hurling is a fixture of life. It has featured regularly in art forms such as film, music and literature. The final of the All-Ireland Senior Hurling Championship was listed in second place by CNN in its "10 sporting events you have to see live", after the Olympic Games and ahead of both the FIFA World Cup and UEFA European Football Championship. After covering the 1959 All-Ireland Senior Hurling Championship Final between Kilkenny and Waterford for BBC Television, English commentator Kenneth Wolstenholme was moved to describe hurling as his second favourite sport in the world after his first love, football. In 2007, Forbes magazine described the media attention and population multiplication of Thurles town ahead of one of the game's annual provincial hurling finals as being "the rough equivalent of 30 million Americans watching a regional lacrosse game".UNESCO lists Hurling as an element of Intangible Cultural Heritage.Hybrid sport
A hybrid sport is one which combines two or more (often similar) sports in order to create a new sport, or to allow meaningful competition between players of those sports.
The most popular hybrid sport in terms of attendance and television viewers is international rules football.Kī-o-rahi
Kī-o-rahi is a ball sport played in New Zealand with a small round ball called a 'kī'. It is a fast-paced game incorporating skills similar to rugby union, netball and touch. Two teams of seven players play on a circular field divided into zones, and score points by touching the 'pou' (boundary markers) and hitting a central 'tupu' or target. The game is played with varying rules (e.g. number of people, size of field, tag ripping rules etc.) depending on the geographic area it is played in. A process called Tatu, before the game, determines which rules the two teams will use.
In 2005 kī-o-rahi was chosen to represent New Zealand by global fast-food chain McDonald's as part of its 'Passport to Play' programme to teach physical play activities in 31,000 American schools.
The programme will give instruction in 15 ethnic games to seven million primary school children.The New Zealand kī-o-rahi representative organisation, Kī-o-Rahi Akotanga Iho, formed with men's and women's national teams, completed a 14 match tour of Europe in September and October 2010. The men's team included 22-test All Black veteran Wayne Shelford who led the team to a 57–10 test win against Kī-o-Rahi Dieppe Organisation, the French Kī-o-Rahi federation.
Shelford's kī-o-rahi test jersey made him the first kī-o-rahi/rugby double international for NZ. The women's team coached by Andrea Cameron (Head of PE at Tikipunga High School) also won by 33–0. These were the first historic test matches between NZ and France.Míchael Breathnach CLG
Micheál Breathnach is a Gaelic Athletic Association club based in County Galway, Republic Of Ireland. The club is a member of the Galway GAA. Underage teams up to U-16's play in the Galway league and championships while further age groups compete in their respective competitions. Na Breathnaigh compete in the Galway Intermediate Football Championship yet they have not won the competition in their history.
Na Breathnaigh's Hurling squad represent Ireland in the Iomain Cholmcille shinty/hurling international for Gaelic speakers. They have defeated the Scots Gaelic team, Alba, twice in 2007 and 2008. They faced Alba again on 13 February 2010 in Portree but were defeated. 
The club is named after Irish-language writer, Mícheál Breathnach, who was connected to the area.Quidditch (sport)
Quidditch is a sport of two teams of seven players each mounted on broomsticks played on a hockey rink-sized pitch. It is based on a fictional game of the same name invented by author J. K. Rowling, which is featured in the Harry Potter series of novels and related media. The game is also sometimes referred to as muggle quidditch to distinguish it from the fictional game, which involves magical elements such as flying broomsticks and enchanted balls. In the Harry Potter universe, a "muggle" is a person without the power to use magic.
The pitch is rectangular with rounded corners 55 meters (60 yards) by 33 meters (36 yards) with three hoops of varying heights at either end. The sport was created in 2005 and is therefore still quite young. However, quidditch is played around the world and actively growing. The ultimate goal is to have more points than the other team by the time the snitch, a tennis ball inside a long sock hanging from the shorts of an impartial official dressed in yellow, is caught. Rules of the sport are governed by the International Quidditch Association, or the IQA, and events are sanctioned by either the IQA or that nation's governing body.
To score points, chasers or keepers must get the quaffle, a slightly deflated volleyball, into one of three of the opposing hoops which scores the team 10 points. To impede the quaffle from advancing down the pitch, chasers and keepers are able to tackle opposing chasers and keepers at the same time as beaters using their bludgers—dodgeballs—to take out opposing players. Once a player is hit by an opposing bludger, that player must dismount their broom, drop any ball being held, and return to and touch their hoops before being allowed back into play. The game is ended once the snitch is caught by one of the seekers, awarding that team 30 points.A team consists of minimum seven (maximum 21) players, of which six are always on the pitch, those being the three chasers, one keeper, and two beaters. Besides the seeker who is off-pitch, the six players are required to abide by the gender rule, which states that a team may have a maximum of four players who identify as the same gender, making quidditch one of the few sports that not only offers a co-ed environment but an open community to those who do not identify with the gender binary. Matches or games often run about 30 to 40 minutes but tend to be subject to varying lengths of time due to the unpredictable nature of the snitch catch. If the score at the end of the match including the 30 point snitch catch is tied (such that the team that caught the snitch was 30 points behind the other), the game moves to overtime where the snitch is constrained to the pitch's dimensions and the game ends after five minutes or when the snitch is legally caught.Rugby union in Ireland
Rugby union in Ireland is a popular team sport. Rugby union is organised on an all-Ireland basis with one national team, governing body and league for both the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland. Ireland is the third-oldest rugby nation after England and Scotland respectively, and the game was organised there fractionally before in Wales.Shinty
Shinty (Scottish Gaelic: camanachd, iomain) is a team game played with sticks and a ball. Shinty is now played mainly in the Scottish Highlands, and amongst Highland migrants to the big cities of Scotland, but it was formerly more widespread in Scotland, and was even played for a considerable time in northern England and other areas in the world where Scottish Highlanders migrated.While comparisons are often made with field hockey, the two games have several important differences. In shinty, a player is allowed to play the ball in the air and is allowed to use both sides of the stick, called a caman, which is wooden and slanted on both sides. The stick may also be used to block and to tackle, although a player may not come down on an opponent's stick, a practice called hacking. Players may also tackle using the body as long as it is shoulder-to-shoulder.
The game was derived from the same root as the Irish game of hurling and the Welsh game of bando, but has developed unique rules and features. These rules are governed by the Camanachd Association. A composite rules shinty–hurling game has been developed, which allows Scotland and Ireland to play annual international matches.
Another sport with common ancestry is bandy, which is played on ice. In fact, in Scottish Gaelic the name for bandy is "ice shinty" (camanachd-deighe) and once upon a time bandy and shinty (and shinney) could be used interchangeably in the English language.Shinty/Hurling International Series
The Shinty/Hurling International Series is a sports competition played annually between the Ireland national hurling team (selected by the Gaelic Athletic Association) and Scotland national shinty team (selected by the Camanachd Association). The series is conducted according to the rules of Shinty/Hurling, which is a hybrid sport consisting of a mixture of rules from the Scottish sport of Shinty and the Irish sport of Hurling.
Matches are played at men's senior, men's under 21 and women's levels, with Scotland having had the most success in recent years, winning the last three senior series.Women's shinty
Women's shinty is a sport, played almost entirely within Scotland, identical to the men's game – with the same rules, same sized pitch and same equipment. However, its history is significantly different. Social pressures – along with the broader game's self-image – resulted in a largely hidden history until comparatively recently.
It is administered by the Women's Camanachd Association (Camanachd nam Ban)
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