Iolaus

For the butterfly genus, see Iolaus (butterfly).
Hercules and Iolaus mosaic - Anzio Nymphaeum
Heracles and his nephew, Iolaus. 1st century BC mosaic from the Anzio Nymphaeum, Rome

In Greek mythology, Iolaus (/aɪˈoʊlaʊs/; Ancient Greek: Ἰόλαος Iólaos) was a Theban divine hero, son of Iphicles and Automedusa.

He was famed for being Heracles' nephew and for helping with some of his Labors, and also for being one of the Argonauts. Through his daughter Leipephilene, he was considered to have fathered the mythic and historic line of the kings of Corinth, ending with Telestes.

A genus of Lycaenid butterfly has been named after him.

Relationship with Heracles

Heracles, Iolaus and Eros - Cista Ficoroni foot
Repoussé and engraved relief of Hercules (right), Eros (center) and Iolaus (left) on the Ficoroni cista.
4th century BC Etruscan ritual vessel

As a son of Iphicles, Iolaus was a nephew of Heracles. He often acted as Heracles' charioteer and companion. He was sometimes regarded as Heracles' lover, and the shrine to him in Thebes was a place where male couples worshiped and made vows.[1]

The Theban gymnasium was also named after him, and the Iolaia or Iolaea (Greek: Ιολάεια), an athletic festival consisting of gymnastic and equestrian events, was held yearly in Thebes in his honor.[2] The victors at the Iolaea were crowned with garlands of myrtle.[3]

Iolaus provided essential help to Heracles in his battle against the Hydra, his second labor. Seeing that Heracles was being overwhelmed by the multi-headed monster (the Lernaean Hydra), who grew two heads in place of each one cut off, Iolaus helped by cauterizing each neck as Heracles beheaded it.

Heracles gave his wife, Megara, age thirty three, to Iolaus, then only sixteen years old[4] – ostensibly because the sight of her reminded him of his murder of their three children. They had a daughter, Leipephilene. He was one of the Heraclidae.[5]

Upon Heracles' death, Iolaus lit the funeral pyre. However, according to some mythographers, this was Philoctetes instead. In Sophocles' Philoctetes, Philoctetes was given Herakles' bow and arrow as reward for lighting the funeral pyre.[6] In other versions, it is Poeas.

According to Diodorus Siculus, Iolaus was sent by Heracles to Sardinia, together with nine of the sons that he had with the fifty daughters of Thespius (the Thespiades), to colonize the island, giving rise to the Iolei people .[7]

Iolaus and the Thespians were buried in Sardinia.

Aristotle said that Sardinia had practiced the rite of incubation, which is the liberation ritual of the people who were affected by nightmares and obsessions. These rituals included that the persons suffering from nightmares should sleep next to the tombs of heroes.[8]

Simplicius of Cilicia adds, in the eight books of the Commentaries Aristotle, that "the places where they were deposited and preserved corpses of the nine heroes that Heracles got from the Thespians and who came to Sardinia with the colony of Iolaus, became the famous oracles."[9]

Solinus says: "The Iolians, so named by him (Iolaus), added a temple to his tomb, because he had freed Sardinia from many ills".[10]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Crompton, Louis, Homosexuality and Civilization, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2003, p. 123.
  2. ^ Pindar, Olympian Ode VIII, 84
  3. ^ Pindar, Isthmian Ode IV.
  4. ^ Plutarch, Moralia "The Dialogue on Love / Erotikos / Amatoria", Loeb, V. XII, p.339
  5. ^ Ovid, Metamorphoses IX, 394.
  6. ^ Sophocles Philoctetes
  7. ^ Diodorus Siculus, book IV, 29–30.
  8. ^ Aristotle, Physics, IV.
  9. ^ Simplicius, book IV.
  10. ^ Solinus, I-16: Iolenses ab eo dicti sepulcro eius templum addiderunt quod ... Malis plurimis Sardiniam liberasset.

External links

  • Media related to Iolaus at Wikimedia Commons
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Iolaus (butterfly)

Iolaus is a genus of butterflies in the family Lycaenidae. The genera Argiolaus, Epamera, Iolaphilus and Stugeta are often included in Iolaus. Iolaus species are found in the Afrotropic ecozone.

Iolaus alienus

Iolaus alienus, the brown-line sapphire, is a butterfly of the family Lycaenidae. It is found in most of Sub-Saharan Africa.

The wingspan is 33–37 mm for males and 35–40 mm for females. Adults are on wing from August to November (with a peak in September) and sometimes again from April to May in South Africa. There are two generations per year.Larvae have been reported on Loranthus species. The larvae of subspecies I. a. alienus feed on Tapinanthus brunneus, Tapinanthus subulatus, Oliverella rubroviridis and Helixanthera kirkii.

Iolaus bellina

Iolaus bellina, the white-spot sapphire, is a butterfly in the family Lycaenidae. It is found in Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Nigeria, Cameroon, São Tomé and Príncipe, Gabon, the Republic of the Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Uganda, Kenya and Tanzania. The habitat consists of forests.

Adults of both sexes have been observed feeding from flowers.

The larvae feed on Loranthus species.

Iolaus eurisus

Iolaus eurisus, the royal sapphire, is a butterfly in the family Lycaenidae. It is found in Senegal, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Nigeria, Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The habitat consists of forests and disturbed and dry areas.

Adult males mud-puddle.

Iolaus iasis

Iolaus iasis, the iasis sapphire, is a butterfly in the family Lycaenidae. It is found in Senegal, Gambia, Guinea, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Nigeria, Cameroon, Gabon, Angola, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Uganda and Kenya. The habitat consists of forests and savanna. The species has also been recorded in cocoa plantations.

The larvae feed on the flowers of Loranthus incanus and Tapinanthus bangwensis. Young larvae are pink or red. Later, they may become yellow or yellow orange.

Iolaus pallene

Iolaus pallene, the saffron sapphire, is a butterfly of the family Lycaenidae. It is found from southern Sudan, Angola, southern Democratic Republic of the Congo (Shaba) and Kenya to South Africa. In South Africa it is found from the thorn belt of KwaZulu-Natal and Swaziland to Mpumalanga, Gauteng, Limpopo and North West.

The wingspan is 30–35 mm for males and 34–38 mm for females. Adults are on wing year round in warmer areas with peaks in spring and late summer. In the cooler south-western part of its range adults are on wing from September to February.The larvae feed on Ximenia caffra and Ximenia americana.

Iolaus sidus

Iolaus sidus, the red-line sapphire or red-line sapphire blue, is a butterfly of the family Lycaenidae. It is found from South Africa to Mozambique, Zambia, Zimbabwe and then to Kenya and Uganda. In South Africa it is found from the coastal woodland in the Eastern Cape to Tongaland and Bedford, the thorn belt of KwaZulu-Natal and then to Swaziland and Mpumalanga.

The wingspan is 28–31 mm for males and 29-32.5 mm for females. Adults are on wing year round with peaks in summer.The larvae feed on Moquinella rubra, Tieghemia quinquenervia, Tapinanthus oleifolius, Tapinanthus kraussianus, Tapinanthus brunneus and Tapinanthus subulatus.

Lernaean Hydra

The Lernaean Hydra or Hydra of Lerna (Greek: Λερναῖα Ὕδρα, Lernaîa Hýdra), more often known simply as the Hydra, is a serpentine water monster in Greek and Roman mythology. Its lair was the lake of Lerna in the Argolid, which was also the site of the myth of the Danaïdes. Lerna was reputed to be an entrance to the Underworld, and archaeology has established it as a sacred site older than Mycenaean Argos. In the canonical Hydra myth, the monster is killed by Heracles (Hercules) as the second of his Twelve Labors.According to Hesiod, the Hydra was the offspring of Typhon and Echidna. It had poisonous breath and blood so virulent that even its scent was deadly. The Hydra possessed many heads, the exact number of which varies according to the source. Later versions of the Hydra story add a regeneration feature to the monster: for every head chopped off, the Hydra would regrow two heads. Heracles required the assistance of his cousin Iolaus to cut off all of the monster's heads and burn the neck using sword and fire.

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This is a list of butterflies of Kenya. About 559 species are known from Kenya, 34 of which are endemic.

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Protesilaus

In Greek mythology, Protesilaus (; Ancient Greek: Πρωτεσίλᾱος Prōtesilāos) was a hero in the Iliad who was venerated at cult sites in Thessaly and Thrace. Protesilaus was the son of Iphiclus, a "lord of many sheep"; as grandson of the eponymous Phylacos, he was the leader of the Phylaceans. Hyginus surmised that he was originally known as Iolaus—not to be confused with Iolaus, the nephew of Heracles—but was referred to as "Protesilaus" after being the first (πρῶτος, protos) to leap ashore at Troy, and thus the first to die in the war.

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