Invictarx

Invictarx is a genus of herbivorous nodosaurid dinosaur from New Mexico dating from the early Campanian epoch of the Late Cretaceous.

Invictarx
Temporal range: Late Cretaceous, 78 Ma
Invictarx zephyri holotype PeerJ e5435 fig 4
Thoracic osteoderms of Invitarx zephyri (part of the holotype)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Clade: Dinosauria
Order: Ornithischia
Family: Nodosauridae
Genus: Invictarx
McDonald and Wolfe, 2018
Type species
Invictarx zephyri
McDonald and Wolfe, 2018

Discovery and naming

Invictarx zephyri limb elements PeerJ e5435 fig 6
Limb elements of referred specimen

In May 2011, Dan Williamson discovered a fragmentary ankylosaurian skeleton in San Juan County, New Mexico. In October 2011, nearby a second skeleton was found by Andrew T. McDonald, followed by the discovery of a third skeleton in October 2015 by Keith Brockmann.[1]

The holotype of Invictarx zephyri, specimen WSC 16505, consists of an incomplete postcranial skeleton found in 2015, including six complete or nearly complete osteoderms, a dorsal rib, and fragments of additional osteoderms.[1] The two other additional partial skeletons have been referred. Specimen UMNH VP 28350 consists of three dorsal vertebrae, the distal end of a left ulna, proximal ends of left and right radii, an incomplete metatarsal, and additional osteoderms. Specimen UMNH VP 28351, the first found, contains dorsal vertebrae and osteoderms.[1]

The name Invictarx means "invincible/unconquerable fortress", in reference to the fact that Invictarx, like all other ankylosaurs, was protected from predators by armor.[1] The specific name, zephyri, is the genitive form of the Latin noun zephyrus, meaning (of the) western wind, referring to the "blustery conditions that prevail among the outcrops where the specimens were discovered".[1]

Paleobiology

Invictarx was found in the upper part of the Allison Member of the Menefee Formation, which is of early Campanian age. Archosaurs that co-existed with Invictarx include the tyrannosaurid Dynamoterror dynastes, the alligatoroid Brachychampsa sealeyi, and an unnamed centrosaurine ceratopsid.[2][3][4]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e McDonald, A.T.; Wolfe, D.G. (2018). "A new nodosaurid ankylosaur (Dinosauria: Thyreophora) from the Upper Cretaceous Menefee Formation of New Mexico". PeerJ: 6:e5435. doi:10.7717/peerj.5435. PMC 6110256.
  2. ^ McDonald, A.T.; Wolfe, D.G.; Dooley Jr, A.C. (2018). "A new tyrannosaurid (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from the Upper Cretaceous Menefee Formation of New Mexico". PeerJ: 6:e5749. doi:10.7717/peerj.5749.
  3. ^ Williamson TE. 1996. Brachychampsa sealeyi, sp. nov., (Crocodylia, Alligatoroidea) from the Upper Cretaceous (lower Campanian) Menefee Formation, northwestern New Mexico. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 16(3):421-431.
  4. ^ Williamson TE. 1997. A new Late Cretaceous (early Campanian) vertebrate fauna from the Allison Member, Menefee Formation, San Juan Basin, New Mexico. In: Lucas SG, Estep JW, Williamson TE, Morgan GS, eds. New Mexico’s Fossil Record 1. Albuquerque: New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin 11. 51-59.
Acantholipan

Acantholipan is a genus of herbivorous nodosaurid dinosaur from Mexico from the early Santonian age of the Late Cretaceous. It includes one species, Acantholipan gonzalezi.

Ankylosaurinae

Ankylosaurinae is a subfamily of ankylosaurid dinosaurs, existing from the Early Cretaceous about 105 million years ago until the end of the Late Cretaceous, about 66 mya. Many genera are included in the clade, such as Ankylosaurus, Pinacosaurus, Euoplocephalus, and Saichania.

Bienosaurus

Bienosaurus (meaning "Bien's lizard") is a genus of thyreophoran dinosaur from the Lower Jurassic (probably Sinemurian) Lower Lufeng Formation in Yunnan Province in China.

Bissektipelta

Bissektipelta is a genus of herbivorous ankylosaurid dinosaur from the Upper Cretaceous of Uzbekistan. Bissektipelta is monospecific, containing only the species B. archibaldi.

Chuanqilong

Chuanqilong is an extinct genus of ankylosaurid dinosaur from the Early Cretaceous of China. It is known from the type species, Chuanqilong chaoyangensis. It lived during the Aptian stage of early Cretaceous period (125 - 112 mya) and was about 4.5 meters long. Its weight is estimated at some 450 kg.

Craterosaurus

Craterosaurus (meaning krater reptile or bowl reptile) was a genus of stegosaurid dinosaur. It lived during the Early Cretaceous (Valanginian to Barremian stages) around 145-136 million years ago. Its fossils were found in the Woburn Sands Formation of England. Craterosaurus may actually be a junior synonym of Regnosaurus, but only one fossil, a partial vertebra, was recovered.

The type (and only known) species is Craterosaurus pottonensis, described in 1874 by Harry Seeley. The specific name refers to the Potton bonebed. Seeley mistook the fossil, holotype SMC B.28814, for the base of a cranium. Franz Nopcsa in 1912 correctly identified it as the front part of a neural arch. Craterosaurus was placed in Stegosauria by Galton, although subsequent authors did not recognize Craterosaurus as a distinct, valid taxon.

Dongyangopelta

Dongyangopelta is an extinct genus of nodosaurid ankylosaurian dinosaur known from the "middle" Cretaceous Chaochuan Formation (Albian or Cenomanian stage) of Dongyang, Zhejiang Province, China. Dongyangopelta was first named by Rongjun Chen, Wenjie Zheng, Yoichi Azuma, Masateru Shibata, Tianliang Lou, Qiang Jin and Xingsheng Jin in 2013 and the type species is Dongyangopelta yangyanensis. It differs from Zhejiangosaurus, the second nodosaurid from southeast China, in the characters of presacral rod, ilium, and femur. Donyangopelta is distinguishable from Zhejiangosaurus only on the basis of the morphology of its pelvic shield.

Menefee Formation

The Menefee Formation is a Campanian geologic formation of New Mexico, United States.

Mongolostegus

Mongolostegus is a genus of stegosaur from the Early Cretaceous (Aptian-Albian) of Mongolia. The type and only species is M. exspectabilis, known from a single specimen previously under the nomen nudum Wuerhosaurus mongoliensis.

Niobrarasaurus

Niobrarasaurus (meaning "Niobrara lizard") is an extinct genus of nodosaurid ankylosaur which lived during the Cretaceous 87 to 82 million years ago. Its fossils were found in the Smoky Hill Chalk Member of the Niobrara Formation, in western Kansas, which would have been near the middle of Western Interior Sea during the Late Cretaceous. It was a nodosaurid, an ankylosaur without a clubbed tail. It was closely related to Nodosaurus.

The type species, Niobrarasaurus coleii, was discovered and collected in 1930 by a geologist named Virgil Cole. It was originally described by Mehl in 1936 and named Hierosaurus coleii. It was then re-described as a new genus by Carpenter et al. in 1995. In 2002 the type specimen was transferred to the Sternberg Museum of Natural History, Hays, Kansas.

Nodosauridae

Nodosauridae is a family of ankylosaurian dinosaurs, from the Late Jurassic to the Late Cretaceous period of what are now North America, Europe, Asia, Africa, and Antarctica.

Nodosaurinae

Nodosaurinae is a group of ankylosaurian dinosaurs named in 1919 by Othenio Abel.

Nodosaurus

Nodosaurus (meaning "knobbed lizard") is a genus of herbivorous ankylosaurian dinosaur from the Late Cretaceous, the fossils of which are found in North America.

Scelidosauridae

Scelidosauridae is a group of basal thyreophoran dinosaurs that lived during the Early Jurassic in what are now England, China, and North America with possible additional remains known from Portugal. The group was named in 1869 by Thomas Henry Huxley. Today it is generally considered paraphyletic, although Benton (2004) regards it as monophyletic.

Silvisaurus

Silvisaurus, from the Latin silva "woodland" and Greek sauros "lizard", is a nodosaurid ankylosaur from the middle Cretaceous period.

Tatisaurus

Tatisaurus is a genus of ornithischian dinosaur from the Early Jurassic from the Lower Lufeng Formation in Yunnan Province in China. Little is known as the remains are fragmentary.

Texasetes

Texasetes (meaning "Texas resident") is a genus of ankylosaurian dinosaurs from the late Lower Cretaceous of North America. This poorly known genus has been recovered from the Paw Paw Formation (late Albian) near Haslet, Tarrant County, Texas, which has also produced the nodosaurid ankylosaur Pawpawsaurus. Texasetes is estimated to have been 2.5–3 m (8–10 ft) in length. It was named by Coombs in 1995.

Tianzhenosaurus

Tianzhenosaurus (Tianzhen + Greek sauros="lizard") is a genus of ankylosaurid dinosaurs discovered in Tianzhen County, at Kangdailiang near Zhaojiagou Village, in Shanxi Province, China, in the Late Cretaceous Huiquanpu Formation. Thus far, a virtually complete skull and postcranial skeleton have been assigned to the genus, which is monotypic (T. youngi Pang & Cheng, 1998).

This was a medium-sized ankylosaurian, the skull measuring 28 cm (11 in) in length, with a total body length around 4 m (13 ft).

Vickaryous et al. (2004) placed Tianzhenosaurus within the Ankylosauridae, nested as the sister group to Pinacosaurus. Some authors have suggested that Tianzhenosaurus is actually a junior synonym of Saichania chulsanensis.

Tsagantegia

Tsagantegia (; meaning "of Tsagan-Teg"; Tumanova, 1993) is a genus of medium-sized ankylosaurid dinosaur from the Late Cretaceous of Mongolia, during the Cenomanian stage.

The holotype specimen (GI SPS N 700/17), a complete skull, was recovered from the Bayan Shireh Formation (Cenomanian-Santonian), at the Tsagan-Teg ("White Mountain") locality, Dzun-Bayan, in the southeastern Gobi Desert, Mongolia. The genus is monotypic, including only the type species, T. longicranialis.

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