Invasion of Yugoslavia

The invasion of Yugoslavia, also known as the April War[a] or Operation 25,[b] was a German-led attack on the Kingdom of Yugoslavia by the Axis powers which began on 6 April 1941 during World War II. The order for the invasion was put forward in "Führer Directive No. 25", which Adolf Hitler issued on 27 March 1941, following the Yugoslav coup d'état.[11]

The invasion commenced with an overwhelming air attack on Belgrade and facilities of the Royal Yugoslav Air Force (VVKJ) by the Luftwaffe (German Air Force) and attacks by German land forces from southwestern Bulgaria. These attacks were followed by German thrusts from Romania, Hungary and the Ostmark. Italian forces were limited to air and artillery attacks until 11 April, when the Italian army attacked towards Ljubljana (in modern-day Slovenia) and through Istria and Lika and down the Dalmatian coast. On the same day, Hungarian forces entered Yugoslav Bačka and Baranya, but like the Italians they faced practically no resistance. A Yugoslav attack into the northern parts of the Italian protectorate of Albania met with initial success, but was inconsequential due to the collapse of the rest of the Yugoslav forces.

Scholars have proposed several theories for the Royal Yugoslav Army's sudden collapse, including poor training and equipment, generals eager to secure a quick cessation of hostilities, and a sizeable Croatian nationalist fifth column. The invasion ended when an armistice was signed on 17 April 1941, based on the unconditional surrender of the Yugoslav army, which came into effect at noon on 18 April. Yugoslavia was then occupied and partitioned by the Axis powers. Some areas of Yugoslavia were annexed by neighboring Axis countries, some areas remained occupied, and in other areas Axis puppet states such as the Independent State of Croatia (Serbo-Croatian: Nezavisna Država Hrvatska, or NDH) were created during the invasion on 10 April. Along with Italy's stalled invasion of Greece on 28 October 1940, and the German-led invasion of Greece (Operation Marita) and invasion of Crete (Operation Merkur), the invasion of Yugoslavia was part of the German Balkan Campaign (German: Balkanfeldzug).

Background

In October 1940, Fascist Italy had attacked the Kingdom of Greece only to be forced back into Albania. German dictator Adolf Hitler recognised the need to go to the aid of his ally, Italian dictator Benito Mussolini. Hitler did this not only to restore diminished Axis prestige, but also to prevent Britain from bombing the Romanian Ploesti oilfields from which Nazi Germany obtained most of its oil.[12]

In 1940 and early 1941, Hungary, Romania, and Bulgaria all agreed to adhere to the Tripartite Pact and thus join the Axis. Hitler then pressured Yugoslavia to join as well.[13] The Regent, Prince Paul, yielded to this pressure, and declared Yugoslavia's accession to the Pact on 25 March 1941.[14] This move was highly unpopular with the Serb-dominated officer corps of the military and some segments of the public: a large part of the Serbian population, as well as liberals and Communists.[15] Military officers (mainly Serbs) executed a coup d'état on 27 March 1941, and forced the Regent to resign, while King Peter II, though only 17, was declared of age.[16]

Preparation

Upon hearing news of the coup in Yugoslavia, Hitler called his military advisers to Berlin on 27 March. On the same day as the coup he issued Führer Directive 25, which called for Yugoslavia to be treated as a hostile state.[17] Hitler took the coup as a personal insult, and was so angered that he was determined, in his words, "to destroy Yugoslavia militarily and as a state" (Jugoslawien militärisch und als Staatsgebilde zu zerschlagen),[18] and to do so "with pitiless harshness"[19] and "without waiting for possible declarations of loyalty of the new government".[20]

Hungary had joined the Tripartite Pact on 20 November 1940. On 12 December it also concluded a treaty with the Kingdom of Yugoslavia calling for "permanent peace and eternal friendship".[21] The Hungarian leadership was split after Germany's War Directive 25 was delivered on 27 March 1941. Regent Miklós Horthy and the military favoured taking part in the invasion of Yugoslavia and mobilized the following day. Prime Minister Pál Teleki sought to prevent German troops passing through Hungary and cited the peace treaty with Yugoslavia as an impediment to cooperation with the Germans.[22]

On 1 April Yugoslavia redesignated its Assault Command as the Chetnik Command, after the Serb guerrilla forces from World War I which had resisted the Central Powers. The command was intended to lead a guerrilla war should the country be occupied.[23] Its headquarters was transferred from Novi Sad to Kraljevo in south-central Serbia on 1 April.[23]

On 2 April, the German ambassador having already been recalled for "talks", the remaining embassy staff were ordered to leave the capital and to warn the embassies of friendly nations to likewise evacuate. This sent the unmistakable message that Yugoslavia was about to be invaded.[24]

On 3 April, Hitler issued War Directive 26 detailing the plan of attack and command structure for the invasion as well as promising Hungary territorial gains.[25] The same day Teleki killed himself. Horthy, seeking a compromise, informed Hitler that evening that Hungary would abide by the treaty, though it would likely cease to apply should Croatia secede and Yugoslavia cease to exist.[26] Upon the proclamation of an Independent State of Croatia in Zagreb on 10 April this scenario was realized and Hungary joined the invasion, its army crossing into Yugoslavia the following day.[26]

Opposing forces

Axis order of battle

The invasion was spearheaded by the German 2nd Army with elements of the 12th Army, First Panzer Group, and an independent panzer corps combined with overwhelming Luftwaffe support. The 19 German divisions included five panzer divisions, two motorised infantry divisions and two mountain divisions. The German force also included three well-equipped independent motorised infantry regiments and was supported by over 750 aircraft. The Italian 2nd Army and 9th Army committed a total of 22 divisions and 666 aircraft to the operation. The Hungarian 3rd Army also participated in the invasion, with support available from over 500 aircraft.

Aspangberg-St.Peter Aufnahmsgebaeude
The goods station at Mönichkirchen was Hitler's headquarters, Frühlingssturm, during the invasion.

During the April War, the Führer Headquarters (FHQ) was codenamed Frühlingssturm (Spring Storm) and consisted of the Führersonderzug (Special Führer's Train) codenamed "Amerika" stationed in Mönichkirchen alongside the special train "Atlas" of the Armed Forces Operations Staff (Wehrmachtführungsstabes, WFSt). "Atlas" did not arrive at Mönichkirchen until 11 April, well after operations were underway, and "Amerika" only arrived the following day. Mönichkirchen was chosen because a nearby rail tunnel could provide shelter in the event of air attack. Both trains returned to Berlin on 26 April.[27][28]

After the Italian invasion in the northwest began, King Victor Emmanuel III moved to a villa owned by the Pirzio Biroli family at Brazzacco, near Moruzzo, in order to be close to the front.[29]

Germany attacked Yugoslavia from bases in three countries besides itself: Hungary, Romania, and Bulgaria. German troops entered each of these countries under different pretenses and at different times. The first country to receive a German military mission was Romania. Ostensibly to train the Romanian armed forces, its real purpose was to protect Romania's petroleum resources and prepare for an attack on the Soviet Union. The Wehrmacht entered Bulgaria more circumspectly, first with the intention of provided aerial defense against any force attacking Romania's oilfields and later with that of invading Greece in support of Italy. German troops did not enter Hungary until the attack on Yugoslavia was already planned and Hungary's participation had been secured.

Deployment in Romania

King Carol II of Romania, starting from the cession of Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina to the Soviet Union, proposed in a letter to Adolf Hitler on 2 July 1940 that Germany send a military mission to Romania.[30] The Romanian government asked that a mission be sent urgently on 7 September 1940, the day after Carol's abdication.[31] The decision to aid Romania was taken on 19 September, and Hungary was asked to provide transit to German soldiers on 30 September.[32] The first troops entered Romania on 10 October.[33] They entered Bucharest two days later (12 October) to shouts of Heil![34] The official explanation for the presence of German troops was that they were there to train the Romanian army. Hitler's directive to the troops on 10 October had stated that "it is necessary to avoid even the slightest semblance of military occupation of Romania."[31] In the second half of October, the Romanian leader, Ion Antonescu, asked that the military mission be expanded. The Germans happily obliged the request, since the oil fields and refineries at Ploiești were vital to their war effort. Romania was also an important launching point for an attack on the Soviet Union, which made the presence of German troops a violation of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of 23 August 1939.[35]

By the middle of November the 13th Motorised Infantry Division had been assembled in Romania, and reinforced by the 4th Panzer Regiment, engineers and signal troops, as well as six fighter and two reconnaissance Luftwaffe squadrons, and some antiaircraft artillery.[36] A total of seventy batteries of artillery were moved into Romania.[31] On 23 November, Romania signed the Tripartite Pact. At the time Germany informed Romania that she would not be expected to participate in an attack on Greece, but that Germany wanted to use Romanian territory to provide a base for a German attack. On 24 November, Antonescu met with Wilhelm Keitel, chief of the Oberkommando der Wehrmacht, to discuss common defense. As a result of this meeting, the 16th Panzer Division was sent to Romania in late December. The 12th Army and First Panzer Group, along with heavy bridging equipment for the planned crossing of the Danube, followed in January 1941.[36] By January 1941 the total number of German effectives in Romania was 170,639.[31] Those elements of the 12th Army that were to invade Yugoslavia from Romania assembled near Timișoara (Temeschwar).

Between November 1940 and February 1941 the Luftwaffe gradually moved 135 fighters and reconnaissance aircraft into Romania (in 22–26 squadrons). In early April 1941 they moved a further 600 aircraft from France, Africa, and Sicily into Romania and Bulgaria in a period of ten days. The fighter and reconnaissance craft were sent to fields in Arad, Deva, and Turnu Severin.[37] On 12 February Britain broke off diplomatic relations with Romania on the grounds that it was an enemy-occupied country.[38]

Deployment in Bulgaria

Two events in early November 1940 convinced Hitler of the need to station troops, especially the Luftwaffe, in Bulgaria. The first was false reports that the British were constructing an airfield on Lemnos, from which they could bomb Ploiești. The second was the beginning of British air raids originating from Greek bases against Italian shipping on 6 November. Planning for the German invasion of Greece from Bulgaria began on 12 November.[39]

Already on 13 November, the Soviets were (incorrectly) accusing the Germans of having troops in neutral Bulgaria. On 18 November, Tsar Boris III of Bulgaria met with Hitler and promised to participate in an attack on Greece, but only at the last moment.[40] Shortly thereafter a secret German team under Colonel Kurt Zeitzler entered Bulgaria to establish fuel depots, arrange for troop billeting and scout the terrain. They were soon followed by hundreds of Luftwaffe personnel to establish air observation stations. By the end of December over a thousand German troops in civilian clothing were active in Bulgaria, although the latter's government continued to deny it.[39] Bombers and dive-bombers were also gradually moved into Bulgaria, beginning in November. By the end of March 1941, the Luftwaffe had 355 aircraft in the country.[37]

On 17 February 1941, Bulgaria signed a non-aggression pact with Turkey, paving the way for its adherence to the Tripartite Pact, which was signed by Prime Minister Bogdan Filov in Vienna on 1 March.[41] When Ivan V. Petrov, member of the National Assembly from Yablanitsa, asked why the Assembly had not been consulted, Filov pointed out that the constitution only required parliamentary approval prior to ratification. The signing was ratified by a vote in the Assembly of 140 to 20.[41] The first German troops crossed the Danube from Romania on 28 February, a day before Bulgaria joined the pact.[42] The greater part of the 12th Army, augmented by VIII. Fliegerkorps, crossed the Danube on 2 March. They were welcomed by the Russophile population, who believed that Germany and the Soviet Union were allied.[43] The 12th Army was originally deployed solely for an attack on Greece. After receiving Directive No. 25, which projected an invasion of Yugoslavia in the direction of Belgrade on 8 April, the force was redeployed in three groups: one along the Turkish border, one along the Greek border and one along the Yugoslav border. Motorized transport was brought in from Romania to achieve this feat in a few days.[44]

Deployment in Hungary

Although German troops had been refused the right to transit Hungary for the invasion of Poland in 1939, they were permitted to pass through Hungary as civilians on their way to Romania in 1940. In September 1940 the Hungarian legation in Berlin had granted over 6,500 transit visas to Germans traveling to Romania.[45] On 30 September, shortly after the signing of the Tripartite Pact, Ribbentrop and General Keitel asked the Hungarian foreign minister, István Csáky, who was in Vienna, to grant the Germans use of transit facilities for German military "study groups" to pass through to Romania.[46] They were still awaiting final confirmation on 3 October.[32] The arrangement agreed was that six trains would pass through Hungary at night carrying German soldiers in sealed cars. They would not be allowed out, and they would not have any rail transportation officers (RTOs) or supply officers with them.[32]

According to György Barcza, the Hungarian ambassador in London, answering the British government's query, it was Romania that had made the request. In his notes, Barcza indicated that the British had declared that "if Hungary were to permit German troops to pass through Hungarian territory against Yugoslavia, Britain would break off diplomatic relations, indeed might declare war on us."[45] The first German troops began their passage through Hungary on 8 October. Despite some official denials, the troops movements were reported by Reuters and the American ambassador received a full report.[46] According to contemporary British intelligence, three divisions had passed through Hungary to Romania by 2 November. On 20 November, Hungarian Prime Minister Pál Teleki signed the Tripartite Pact after a meeting with Hitler in Berchtesgarden. At the meeting, Hitler spoke of his intention to aid Italy against Greece, thereby preparing the Hungarians for his future demands.[36]

On 13 December 1940—the day after the Hungaro-Yugoslav Non-Aggression Pact and the day Hitler issued Führer Directive No. 20—major German troop movements began. The Germans had initially promised to supply 180 locomotives for the transfers, but later the Hungarians were complaining that only 130 had arrived. On 24 December, István Horthy, President of Hungarian State Railways (HSR), demanded negotiations before implementing requested German increases, but Ambassador Otto von Erdmannsdorf informed him that it had all been settled in Vienna by Keitel and Csáky.[46] The German traffic was so large that on 28 December the HSR had to suspend travel on all its trains for several days on account of a shortage of coal. Hungarian officials tried to meet all German demands without going further than the governments had agreed. Even sabotage was used on occasion to prevent having to give the Germans more support than required.[47] On 18 January 1941 an agreement was reached to store German supplies in Hungarian warehouses under Hungarian guard, with only a German officer in Budapest to serve as a liaison. These supplies were to be used in the campaign against Greece.[46]

H Werth
Hungarian chief-of-staff Werth was a leading proponent and key planner of Hungary's involvement in the invasion.

On the day of the coup in Belgrade, Hitler informed the Hungarian ambassador, Döme Sztójay, that events in Yugoslavia might necessitate intervention and that Hungary's help would in such a case be desired. A Hungarian response was hammered out in council and delivered the following day (28 March). On 30 March, General Friedrich Paulus arrived in Budapest and met with Henrik Werth, chief of the Hungarian general staff, and Major General László Deseő. The Hungarians proposed they mobilize five divisions for the attack on Yugoslavia. Two were to be held in reserve, while the First, Fifth and Mobile Corps were to conduct the main attack on Subotica (Szabadka), with a secondary operation east of the river Tisza.[48] Because of Romania's request that Hungarian troops not operate in the Banat, Paulus modified the Hungarian plan and kept their troops west of the Tisza. This final plan "was put down in map form", according to Paulus' account, and must have been telephoned to Berlin immediately so as to make into Operational Order No. 25, issued by Walther von Brauchitsch that same day.[48]

This final plan committed one Hungarian corps of three brigades west of the Danube from Lake Balaton to Barcs, and twelve brigades (nine on the front and three in reserve) for an offensive in Bačka (Bácska). The Danube Flotilla was to cover the flanks, and the air force was to stand by for orders. The "Carpathian Group", composed of Eighth Corps, the 1st Mountain Brigade and the 8th Border Guard (Chasseur) Brigade, was mobilized on the Soviet border, with the Mobile Corps held in reserve.[49]

These arrangements were agreed to by Werth, he later claimed, "on the basis of the authorization received" on 28 April—although this was not the government's view of what had been authorized. Werth applied for permission to mobilize on 1 April, since a mobilization order had to be approved by the cabinet and issued by the regent over the signature of the minister of defense. Werth expected the Germans to begin operations, with the use of Hungarian territory and communications, on 12 April and the Hungarians to complete mobilization by 6 April and begin their offensive on the 15th.[49] A meeting of the Supreme Defense Council was convened for 1 April to discuss Werth's request. After a long debate, it approved his mobilization plan, but refused to place Hungarian troops under German command and restricted Hungarian operations to the occupation of territory abandoned by the Yugoslavs. On 2 April Germany responded that the Paulus–Werth agreement was final, and German staff officers began arriving in Budapest that day. That same the British informed Hungary that she would be treated as an enemy state if Germany made use of her territory or facilities in an attack on Yugoslavia.[50] On the morning of 3 April, Pál Teleki committed suicide; the regent immediately cancelled the mobilization order already given except for the Border Guard and the Mobile Corps, which prompted Werth to resign. Horthy then authorized the mobilization of the Fourth and Fifth Corps and the Mountain Brigade, and Werth withdrew his resignation.[51] This occurred so late in the day that zero hour for mobilization to begin was given as midnight of 5 April. On the morning of 3 April, German units, including tanks and aircraft, bound for Romania passed openly through Budapest.[52]

Deployment in Italy

The Italian 2nd Army and 9th Army committed a total of 22 divisions to the operation,[53] comprising around 300,000 troops.[54]

The Italian 2nd Army (Italian: 2° Armata) was commanded by Generale designato d’Armata (acting General) Vittorio Ambrosio,[55] and consisted of one fast (Italian: celere) corps (Celere Corps), one motorised corps (Motorised Corps) and three infantry corps (V Corps, VI Corps, and XI Corps), and was assembled in northeastern Italy, attacking from Istria and the Julian March along the border with Slovenia and Croatia.[56][57] The 2nd Army was supported by a motorised engineer regiment including three bridging battalions, a chemical battalion, fifteen territorial battalions, and two garrison battalions.[58]

V Corps support units included three motorised artillery regiments comprising thirteen battalions, four machine gun battalions (two motorised and two pack animal), three Blackshirt legions of battalion size, a motorised anti-aircraft battalion, a sapper assault battalion and a road construction battalion. VI Corps included four motorised artillery regiments with a total of sixteen battalions, two machine gun battalions (one motorised, one pack animal) and a motorised anti-aircraft regiment. XI Corps included one motorised artillery regiment comprising four battalions, three machine gun battalions (one motorised, one pack animal and one static), and six Blackshirt legions of battalion size. The Motorised Corps was supported by a motorised artillery regiment consisting of three battalions, and an motorised engineer battalion.[58]

In Albania, the elements of the Italian 9th Army (Italian: 9° Armata) that were involved in the campaign were commanded by Generale d’Armata (General) Alessandro Pirzio Biroli, and consisted of two infantry corps and some sector troops assembled in northern Albania.[59][60]

Alessandro Pirzio Biroli
Alessandro Pirzio Biroli

XIV Corps was supported by a cavalry regiment, three Border Guard battalions, a Finance Guard battalion and two military police (Italian: Carabinieri Reali) battalions. The XVII Corps included the Diamanti Blackshirt group which incorporated six Blackshirt regiments comprising two battalions each, the Albanian-raised Skanderbeg Blackshirt regiment of two battalions, another Blackshirt regiment of two battalions, a cavalry regiment, a Bersaglieri motorcycle battalion, three Border Guard battalions, one Finance Guard battalion, a motorised artillery regiment of three battalions, a military police battalion, and a tank company equipped with Fiat M13/40 light tanks. The Librazhd Sector included a motorised artillery regiment of four battalions, a bicycle-mounted Bersaglieri regiment, a cavalry regiment, the Biscaccianti Blackshirt group which incorporated two Blackshirt regiments with a total of five battalions, the regimental-sized Agostini Blackshirt Forest Militia, and the Briscotto group, a regimental-sized formation consisting of one Alpini battalion and two Finance Guard battalions.[61]

The Zara garrison numbered about 9,000 men under the overall command of Generale di Brigata (Brigadier) Emilio Giglioli.[62] The garrison consisted of two main groupings and an assortment of supporting units. The two main groupings were the regimental-sized Fronte a Terra (Land Front), which comprised three static machine gun battalions and a bicycle-mounted Bersaglieri battalion, and the battalion-strength Fronte a Mare (Sea Front), which consisted of two machine gun companies, an anti-aircraft battery, a coastal artillery battery and a naval artillery battery. Supporting units consisted of an artillery regiment of three battalions, two independent artillery battalions, a machine gun battalion, a motorised anti-aircraft battalion (less one battery), an engineer battalion, a company of Blackshirts, and a company of L3/35 tankettes.[63]

Royal Yugoslav armed forces

The Yugoslav forces consisted of more than 33 divisions of the Royal Yugoslav Army (Serbo-Croatian: Vojska Kraljevska Jugoslavije, VKJ), four air brigades of the Royal Yugoslav Air Force (Serbo-Croatian: Vazduhoplovstvo Vojske Kraljevine Jugoslavije, VVKJ) with more than 400 aircraft, and the small Royal Yugoslav Navy (Serbo-Croatian: Kraljevska Jugoslovenska Ratna Mornarica, KJRM) centred around four destroyers and four submarines based on the Adriatic coast and some river monitors on the Danube. The VKJ was heavily reliant on animal-powered transport, was only partly mobilised at the time of the invasion, and had only 50 tanks that could engage German tanks on an equal basis. The VVKJ was equipped with a range of aircraft of Yugoslav, German, Italian, French and British design, including less than 120 modern fighter aircraft.

Equipment and organization

Formed after World War I, the VKJ was still largely equipped with weapons and material from that era, although some modernization with Czech equipment and vehicles had begun. Of about 4,000 artillery pieces, many were aged and horse-drawn, but about 1,700 were relatively modern, including 812 Czech 37mm and 47mm anti-tank guns. There were also about 2,300 mortars, including 1600 modern 81mm pieces, as well as twenty-four 220 and 305mm pieces. Of 940 anti-aircraft guns, 360 were 15 mm and 20 mm Czech and Italian models. All of these arms were imported, from different sources, which meant that the various models often lacked proper repair and maintenance facilities.[64] The only mechanized units were six motorized infantry battalions in the three cavalry divisions, six motorized artillery regiments, two tank battalions equipped with 110 tanks, one of which had Renault FT models of First World War origin and the other 54 modern French Renault R35 tanks, plus an independent tank company with eight Czech SI-D tank destroyers. Some 1,000 trucks for military purposes had been imported from the United States of America in the months just preceding the invasion.[3]

Italian Black Shirt battalion entering Yugoslavia
Italian Black Shirt battalion entering Yugoslavia

Fully mobilized, the Yugoslav Army fielded 28 infantry divisions, three cavalry divisions, and 35 independent regiments. Of the independent regiments, 16 were in frontier fortifications and 19 were organized as combined regiments, or "Odred", around the size of a reinforced brigade. Each Odred had one to three infantry regiments and one to three artillery battalions, with three organised as "alpine" units.[65] The German attack, however, caught the army still mobilizing, and only some 11 divisions were in their planned defense positions at the start of the invasion. The Yugoslavs had delayed full mobilisation until 3 April in order not to provoke Hitler.[2] The units were filled to between 70 and 90 percent of their strength as mobilization was not completed. The Yugoslav Army was about 1,200,000 in total as the German invasion commenced.[65]

The VVKJ had a strength of 1,875 officers and 29,527 other ranks,[66] including some 2,000 pilots,[5] had over 460 front-line aircraft of domestic (notably the IK-3), German, Italian, French, and British origin, of which most were modern types. Organized into 22 bomber squadrons and 19 fighter squadrons, the main aircraft types in operational use included 73 Messerschmitt Bf 109 E, 47 Hawker Hurricane I (with more being built under licence in Yugoslavia), 30 Hawker Fury II, 11 Rogozarski IK-3 fighters (plus more under construction), 10 Ikarus IK-2, 2 Potez 63, one Messerschmitt Bf 110C-4 (captured in early April due to a navigational error) and one Rogozarski R 313 fighters, 69 Dornier Do 17 K (including 40 plus licence-built), 61 Bristol Blenheim I (including some 40 licence-built) and 40 Savoia Marchetti SM-79 K bombers. Army reconnaissance units consisted of seven Groups with 130 obsolete Yugoslav-built Breguet 19 and Potez 25 light bombers.[67] There were also some 400 trainer and auxiliary aircraft. The Naval Aviation units comprised 75 aircraft in eight squadrons equipped with, amongst other auxiliary types, 12 German-built Dornier Do 22 K and 15 Rogozarski SIM-XIV-H locally designed and built maritime patrol float-planes.[68]

The aircraft of the Yugoslav airline Aeroput, consisting mainly of six Lockheed Model 10 Electras, three Spartan Cruisers, and one de Havilland Dragon were mobilised to provide transport services to the VVKJ.[69]

The KJRM was equipped with one elderly ex-German light cruiser (suitable only for training purposes), one large modern destroyer flotilla leader of British design, three modern destroyers of French design (two built in Yugoslavia plus another still under construction), one seaplane tender, four modern submarines (two older French-built and two British-built) and 10 modern motor torpedo boats (MTBs), of the older vessels, there were six ex-Austrian Navy medium torpedo boats, six mine-layers, four large armoured river monitors and various auxiliary craft.[70]

Deployment

The Yugoslav Army was organized into three army groups and the coastal defense troops. The 3rd Army Group was the strongest with the 3rd, 3rd Territorial, 5th and 6th Armies defending the borders with Romania, Bulgaria and Albania. The 2nd Army Group with the 1st and 2nd Armies, defended the region between the Iron Gates and the Drava River. The 1st Army Group with the 4th and 7th Armies, composed mainly of Croatian troops, was in Croatia and Slovenia defending the Italian, German (Austrian) and Hungarian frontiers.[3][71]

The strength of each "Army" amounted to little more than a corps, with the Army Groups consisting of the units deployed as follows:

  • 3rd Army Group's 3rd Army consisted of four infantry divisions and one cavalry odred; the 3rd Territorial Army with three infantry divisions and one independent motorized artillery regiment; the 5th Army with four infantry divisions, one cavalry division, two odred and one independent motorized artillery regiment and the 6th Army with three infantry divisions, the two Royal Guards brigades (odred) and three infantry odred.
  • 2nd Army Group's 1st Army had one infantry and one cavalry division, three odred and six frontier defence regiments; the 2nd Army had three infantry divisions and one frontier defence regiment.
  • 1st Army Group consisted of the 4th Army, with three infantry divisions and one odred, whilst the 7th Army had two infantry divisions, one cavalry division, three mountain odred, two infantry odred and nine frontier defence regiments.
  • The Strategic, "Supreme Command" Reserve in Bosnia comprised four infantry divisions, four independent infantry regiments, one tank battalion, two motorized engineer battalions, two motorized heavy artillery regiments, 15 independent artillery battalions and two independent anti-aircraft artillery battalions.
  • Coastal Defence Force, on the Adriatic opposite Zadar comprised one infantry division and two odred, in addition to fortress brigades and anti-aircraft units at Šibenik and Kotor.[72]

On the eve of invasion, clothing and footwear were available for only two-thirds or so of the potential front-line troops and only partially for other troops; some other essential supplies were available for only a third of the front-line troops; medical and sanitary supplies were available for only a few weeks, and supplies of food for men and feed for livestock were available for only about two months. In all cases there was little or no possibility of replenishment.[73]

Beyond the problems of inadequate equipment and incomplete mobilization, the Yugoslav Army suffered badly from the Serbo-Croat schism in Yugoslav politics. "Yugoslav" resistance to the invasion collapsed overnight. The main reason was that none of the subordinate national groups, including Slovenes and Croats, were prepared to fight in defence of a Serbian Yugoslavia. Also, so that the Slovenes did not feel abandoned, defences were built on Yugoslavia's northern border when the natural line of defence was much further south, based on the rivers Sava and Drina. The only effective opposition to the invasion was from wholly Serbian units within the borders of Serbia itself.[74] The Germans, thrusting north-west from Skoplje, were held up at Kacanik Pass and lost several tanks (P39, Buckley C "Greece and Crete 1941" HMSO 1977). In its worst expression, Yugoslavia's defenses were badly compromised on 10 April 1941, when some of the units in the Croatian-manned 4th and 7th Armies mutinied,[75] and a newly formed Croatian government hailed the entry of the Germans into Zagreb the same day.[76] The Serbian General Staff were united on the question of Yugoslavia as a "Greater Serbia", ruled, in one way or another, by Serbia. On the eve of the invasion, there were 165 generals on the Yugoslav active list. Of these, all but four were Serbs.[77]

Operations

Operation25yu
Map of the Axis attack (See this map for unit locations and movements.)

Professor Jozo Tomasevich and others divide the invasion and resultant fighting into two phases.[78] The first phase encompasses the Luftwaffe's devastating air assault on Belgrade and airfields of the Royal Yugoslav Air Force of 6 April, and an initial thrust of the German XL Panzer Corps from Bulgaria towards Skopje that commenced the same day.[79] This was followed by the assault of the German XIV Panzer Corps from Bulgaria towards Niš on 8 April.[80] On 10 April, four more thrusts struck the Yugoslav Army; the XLI Panzer Corps from Romania towards Belgrade, the XLVI Panzer Corps from Hungary across the Drava,[81] the LI Infantry Corps from Austria towards Zagreb,[82] and the XLIX Mountain Corps from Austria towards Celje.[83] By the end of that day, the Yugoslav Army was disintegrating, and was in retreat or surrendering right across the country, with the exception of the forces on the Albanian frontier.[78] Italy and Hungary joined the ground offensive on 11 April. The Italian part in the ground offensive began when their 2nd Army attacked from northeastern Italy towards Ljubjana and down the Dalmatian coast, meeting virtually no resistance. On the same day, the Hungarian 3rd Army crossed the Yugoslav border and advanced toward Novi Sad, but like the Italians, they met no serious resistance. On 12 April, German troops captured Belgrade,[84] and Ljubljana fell to the Italians.[85] On 14 and 15 April, King Peter and the government flew out of the country,[86] and the Yugoslav Supreme Command was captured by the Germans near Sarajevo.[87] The surrender was signed on 17 April, and came into effect at noon on 18 April.[88]

Air operations

Following the Belgrade Coup on 25 March 1941, the Yugoslav armed forces were put on alert, although the army was not fully mobilised for fear of provoking Hitler. The VVKJ command decided to disperse its forces away from their main bases to a system of 50 auxiliary airfields that had previously been prepared. However, many of these airfields lacked facilities and had inadequate drainage which prevented the continued operation of all but the very lightest aircraft in the adverse weather conditions encountered in April 1941.[5]

Despite having, on paper at any rate, a substantially stronger force of relatively modern aircraft than the combined British and Greek air forces to the south, the VVKJ could simply not match the overwhelming Luftwaffe and Regia Aeronautica superiority in terms of numbers, tactical deployment and combat experience.[89]

The bomber and maritime force hit targets in Italy, Germany (Austria), Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, Albania and Greece, as well as attacking German, Italian and Hungarian troops. Meanwhile, the fighter squadrons inflicted not insignificant losses on escorted Luftwaffe bomber raids on Belgrade and Serbia, as well as upon Regia Aeronautica raids on Dalmatia, Bosnia, Herzegovina and Montenegro. The VVKJ also provided direct air support to the hard pressed Yugoslav Army by strafing attacking troop and mechanized columns in Croatia, Bosnia and Serbia (sometimes taking off and strafing the troops attacking the very base being evacuated).[90]

After a combination of air combat losses, losses on the ground to enemy air attack on bases and the overrunning of airfields by enemy troops, after 11 days the VVKJ almost ceased to exist. However, continued domestic aircraft production during the invasion supplied the VVKJ with an additional eight Hurricane Is, six Dornier Do 17Ks, four Blenheim Is, two Ikarus IK 2s, one Rogozarski IK-3 and one Messerschmitt Bf 109 from the local aeronautical industry's aircraft factories and workshops.[91]

At the beginning of the April war, the VVKJ was armed with some 60 German designed Do 17Ks, purchased by Yugoslavia in the autumn of 1938, together with a manufacturing licence. The sole operator was 3 vazduhoplovni puk (3rd bomber regiment) composed of two bomber groups; the 63rd Bomber Group stationed at Petrovec airfield near Skopje and the 64th Bomber Group stationed at Milesevo airfield near Priština. Other auxiliary airfields had also been prepared to aid in dispersal.[92]

During the course of hostilities, the State Aircraft Factory in Kraljevo managed to produce six more aircraft of this type. Of the final three, two were delivered to the VVKJ on 10 April and one was delivered on 12 April 1941.[91]

On 6 April, Luftwaffe dive-bombers and ground-attack fighters destroyed 26 of the Yugoslav Dorniers in the initial assault on their airfields, but the remaining aircraft were able to effectively hit back with numerous attacks on German mechanized columns and upon Bulgarian airfields.[93] By the end of the campaign total Yugoslav losses stood at four destroyed in aerial combat and 45 destroyed on the ground.[94] On 14 and 15 April, the seven remaining Do 17K flew to Nikšić airfield in Montenegro and took part in the evacuation of King Petar II and members of the Yugoslav government to Greece. During this operation, Yugoslav gold reserves were also airlifted to Greece by the seven Do 17s,[94] as well as by SM-79Ks and Lockheed Electra's but after completing their mission, five Do 17Ks were destroyed on the ground when Italian aircraft attacked the Greek-held Paramitia airfield. Only two Do 17Ks escaped destruction in Greece and later joined the British Royal Air Force (RAF) in the Kingdom of Egypt.[69]

At 16:00 on 15 April the C-in-C of Luftflotte 4, Generaloberst Alexander Löhr received orders from Hermann Göring to wind down the air-offensive and transfer the bulk of the dive-bomber force to support the campaign in Greece.[95]

A total of 18 bomber, transport and maritime patrol aircraft (two Dornier Do 17Ks, four Savoia Marchetti SM-79Ks, three Lockheed Electra's, eight Dornier Do-22Ks and one Rogozarski SIM-XIV-H) succeeded in escaping to the Allied base in Egypt at the end of the campaign.[69]

Bombing of Belgrade

Luftflotte 4 of the Luftwaffe, with a strength of seven Combat Formations (Kampfgruppen) had been committed to the campaign in the Balkans.[96] At 07:00 on 6 April the Luftwaffe opened the assault on Yugoslavia by conducting a saturation-type bombing raid on the capital, "Operation Retribution" (Unternehmen Strafgericht).[97] Flying in relays from airfields in Austria and Romania, 300 aircraft, of which a quarter were Junkers Ju 87 Stukas, protected by a heavy fighter escort began the attack.[98] The dive-bombers were to silence the Yugoslav anti-aircraft defences while the medium bombers consisting mainly Dornier Do 17s and Junkers Ju 88 attacked the city. The initial raid was carried out at 15-minute intervals in three distinct waves, each lasting for approximately 20 minutes. Thus, the city was subjected to a rain of bombs for almost one and a half hours. The German bombers directed their main effort against the center of the city, where the principal government buildings were located. The medium bomber Kampfgruppen continued their attack on the city for several days while the Stuka dive bomber wings (Stukageschwader) were soon diverted to Yugoslav airfields.[98]

When the attack was over, some 4,000 inhabitants lay dead under the debris. This blow virtually destroyed all means of communication between the Yugoslav high command and the forces in the field, although most of the elements of the general staff managed to escape to one of the suburbs.[99]

Having thus delivered the knockout blow to the Yugoslavian nerve center, the Luftwaffe was able to devote its maximum effort to military targets such as Yugoslav airfields, routes of communication, and troop concentrations, and to the close support of German ground operations.[100]

The VVKJ put up its Belgrade defence interceptors from the six squadrons of the 32nd and 51st Fighter Groups to attack each wave of bombers, although as the day wore on the four squadrons from the 31st and 52nd Fighter Groups, based in central Serbia, also took part. The Messerschmitt 109E, Hurricane Is and Rogozarski IK-3 fighters scored at least twenty "kills" amongst the attacking bombers and their escorting fighters on 6 April and a further dozen shot down on 7 April. The desperate defence by the VVKJ over Belgrade cost it some 20 fighters shot down and 15 damaged.[101]

Ground operations

Bundesarchiv Bild 146-1975-036-23, Jugoslawien, gefangene serbische Offiziere
Captured Yugoslavian officers before their deportation to Germany
Bundesarchiv Bild 146-1973-035-12, Jugoslawien, zerstörter jugosl. Panzer
Destroyed Yugoslavian Renault NC tank

Three-pronged drive on Belgrade

Bundesarchiv Bild 101I-770-0280-20, Jugoslawien, Panzer IV
German Panzer IV of the 11th Panzer Division advancing into Yugoslavia from Bulgaria as part of the Twelfth Army

The British, Greek and Yugoslav high commands intended to use Niš as the lynch-pin in their attempts to wear down German forces in the Balkans and it is for this reason that the locality was important. When the Germans broke through in this sector – a sector which was essential if stability was to be maintained on the front – The Yugoslav Supreme Command committed numerous forces from its strategic reserves, including the 2nd Cavalry Division, but these were harassed by the Luftwaffe during transit to the front and did not get through in any real quantities.[102]

Having reached Niš from its initial attacks from Bulgaria and broken the Yugoslav defences, the German 14th Motorised Corps headed north in the direction of Belgrade. The German 46th Panzer Corps had advanced across the Slavonian plain from Austria to attack Belgrade from the west, whilst the 41st Panzer Corps threatened the city from the north after launching its offensive drive from Romania and Hungary. By 11 April, Yugoslavia was criss-crossed by German armoured columns and the only resistance that remained was a large nucleus of the Yugoslav Army around the capital. On 11 April, a German Officer, Fritz Klingenberg with 5 men, moved into Belgrade to reconnoitre the city. However, after some scattered combat with Yugoslav troops, they entered the centre of the city, whereupon they bluffed about their size and incoming threats of bombardment. The city, represented by the Mayor, surrendered to them at 18:45 hours on 12 February[103][104][105] Later more forces moved to consolidate the position.[106][105] After a day of heavy fighting German armoured forces broke through these Yugoslav defences and Belgrade was occupied on the night of 12 April.

Italian offensive

In the opening days of the invasion, Italian forces on the Slovene border carried out minor actions in the Sava valley and in the Kastav area, capturing some Yugoslav positions on Mount Peč on 7 April, Kranjska Gora, Zavratec and Godz on 8 April, Kastav, the source of the Rječina river, Kalce and Logatec on 9 April, and repelling on 8 April a Yugoslav attack in the Cerkno Hills.[107] On 11 April, the 2nd Army launched its offensive, capturing Ljubljana, Sussak and Kraljevica on the same day.[108] On 12 April the 133rd Armoured Division Littorio and the 52nd Infantry Division Torino took Senj, on 13 April they occupied Otočac and Gradac, while Italian naval forces occupied several Dalmatian islands.[108] A scheduled Yugoslav attack against the Italian enclave of Zara did not materialize, and the city garrison's troops started to advance until they met the "Torino" Division near Knin, which was taken on the same day.[108] Split and Sibenik were taken on 15 and 16 April, respectively, and on 17 April the Motorized Corps took Dubrovnik, after covering 750 kilometers in six days.[109]

After repelling the Yugoslav offensive in Albania, the 18th Infantry Division Messina took Cetinje, Dubrovnik and Kotor on 17 April, meeting with the Italian units of the Motorized Corps.[109]

Hungarian offensive

On 12 April the Hungarian Third Army crossed the border with one cavalry, two motorized and six infantry brigades. The Third Army faced the Yugoslavian First Army. By the time the Hungarians crossed the border, the Germans had been attacking Yugoslavia for over a week. As a result, the Yugoslavian forces confronting them put up little resistance, except for the units in the frontier fortifications, who had held up the Hungarian advance for some time.[110] and inflicted some 350 casualties.[111] Units of the Hungarian Third Army advanced into southern Baranja, located between the rivers Danube and Drava, and occupied the Bačka region in Vojvodina with Hungarian relative majority. The Hungarian forces occupied only those territories which were part of Hungary before the Treaty of Trianon.

Yugoslav Albanian offensive

Bundesarchiv Bild 146-1975-036-24, Jugoslawien, serbische Gefangene
Yugoslav infantry surrendering

In accordance with the Yugoslav Army's war plan, R-41, a strategy was formulated that, in the face of a massive Axis attack, a retreat on all fronts except in the south be performed. Here the 3rd Yugoslav Army, in cooperation with the Greek Army, was to launch an offensive against the Italian forces in Albania. This was in order to secure space to enable the withdrawal of the main Yugoslav Army to the south. This would be via Albanian territory in order to reach Greece and the Allied forces to be based there. The strategy was based on the premise that the Yugoslav Army would, together with the Greek and British Armies, form a new version of the Salonika Front of World War I.[112]

On 8 April the hard-pressed VVKJ sent a squadron of fourteen Breguet 19 light bombers to the city of Florina in northern Greece to provide assistance to both the Yugoslav and Greek Armies on the Macedonian front.[113] The squadron performed numerous bombing and strafing missions during the course of the campaign.[114]

The 3rd Yugoslav Army of the 3rd Army Group was tasked with conducting offensive operations against the Italian army in northern Albania. For this purpose the 3rd Army had concentrated four infantry divisions and one combined regiment (Odred) in the Montenegro and Kosovo regions:

The strategic reserve of the 3rd Army Group, the 22nd Infantry Division "Ibarska", was situated around Uroševac in the Kosovo region.

In addition, offensive operations against the Italian enclave of Zara (Zadar) on the Dalmatian coast were to be undertaken by the 12th Infantry Division "Jadranska".[113]

The first elements of the 3rd Army launched their offensive operations in North Albania on 7 April 1941, with the Komski Odred covering the Gusinje-Prokletije mountains area advancing towards the village of Raja-Puka. The Kosovska Division crossed the border in the Prizren area of Kosovo and was advancing through the Drin River valley. The Vardarska Division gained some local success at Debar, while the rest of the army's units were still assembling.[115]

The next day, the 8th, found the Zetska Division steadily advancing along the PodgoricaShkodër road. The Komski cavalry Odred successfully crossed the dangerous Prokletije mountains and reached the village of Koljegcava in the Valjbone River Valley. South of them the Kosovska Division broke through the Italian defences in the Drin River Valley, but due to the fall of Skopje to the attacks by the German Army, the Vardarska Division was forced to stop its operations in Albania.[115]

There was little further progress for the Yugoslavs on 9 April 1941, because although the Zetska Division continued advancing towards Shkodër and the Komski Odred reached the Drin River, the Kosovska Division had to halt all combat activities on the Albanian Front due to the appearance of German troops in Prizren.

Bundesarchiv B 145 Bild-F016230-0009, Bersaglieri in Jugoslawien
Italian Bersaglieri during the invasion

On 10 April 1941 the Zetska Division was still steadily fighting its way towards Shkodër and had advanced 50 km in some places. These advances had been supported by aircraft of the VVKJ's 66th and 81st Bomber Groups, who attacked airfields and Italian troop concentrations around Shkodër, as well as the port of Durrës.[116]

The Komski Odred and the right column of the Kosovska Division advanced along the right bank of the Drin River towards Shkodër in order to link with Zetska Division, but the central and left column of the Kosovska Division were forced to take a defensive perimeter to hold off the increasing pressure by German troops.[110] The Servizio Informazioni Militare contributed to the eventual failure of the Yugoslav offensive in Albania; Italian code breakers had "broken" Yugoslav codes and penetrated Yugoslav radio traffic, transmitting false orders with the correct code key and thus causing confusion and disruption in the movements of the Yugoslav troops.[109]

Between 11–13 April 1941, with German and Italian troops advancing on its rear areas, the Zetska Division was forced to retreat back to the Pronisat River by the Italian 131st Centauro Armoured Division, where it remained until the end of the campaign on 16 April. The Centauro Division then advanced upon the Yugoslav fleet base of Kotor in Montenegro, also occupying Cettinje and Podgorica.[102]

Local uprisings

At the local level infighting by Yugoslav citizens started even prior to the arrival of Axis troops. Croats in the 108th Infantry Regiment of the 40th Infantry Division "Slavonska"[102] rebelled on the evening of 7–8 April near Grubišno Polje, taking command of the regiment from its Serb officers.[117] They were subsequently joined by the 40th Auxiliary Regiment and elements of the 42nd Infantry Regiment (also from the "Slavonska" Division).[117] With the deteriorating situation in the area, the Yugoslav 4th Army's headquarters was moved from Bjelovar to Popovača.[118] The rebelling regiments then entered Bjelovar, with the city's mayor Julije Makanec proclaiming an Independent State of Croatia on 8 April. Vladko Maček and ban Ivan Šubašić sent messages to the city urging the regiments to maintain their positions, but this was disobeyed by the rebelling military and civil officials who waited for the arrival of the German army.[119][120]

On 10 April there were clashes between Ustaša supporters and Yugoslav troops in Mostar, the former taking control of the city.[121] Several VVKJ aircraft were damaged and disabled on Jasenica airfield near Mostar, including several Dornier Do 17Ks and Savoia Marchetti SM-79 K bombers.[122]

On 11 April domestic Ustaša agents took power in Čapljina. They intercepted Yugoslav troops headed by rail from Mostar to Trebinje and disarmed them.[123] A backup Yugoslav force from Bileća was sent in which retook the town on 14 April, before the arrival of the Germans in the coming days.[123]

Naval operations

Bundesarchiv Bild 101I-185-0116-27A, Bucht von Kotor (-), jugoslawische Schiffe
Yugoslav Navy ships captured by the Italian Regia Marina in April 1941. They are, from left, a Malinska-class mine-layer, the light cruiser Dalmacija and the submarine depot ship Hvar.

When Germany and Italy attacked Yugoslavia on 6 April 1941, The Yugoslav Royal Navy had available three destroyers, two submarines and 10 MTBs as the most effective units of the fleet. One other destroyer, Ljubljana was in dry-dock at the time of the invasion and she and her anti-aircraft guns were used in defence of the fleet base at Kotor. The remainder of the fleet was useful only for coastal defence and local escort and patrol work.[124]

Kotor was close to the Albanian border and the Italo-Greek front there, but Zara (Zadar), an Italian enclave, was to the north-west of the coast and to prevent a bridgehead being established, the destroyer Beograd, four of the old torpedo boats and 6 MTBs were despatched to Šibenik, 80 km to the south of Zara, in preparation for an attack. The attack was to be co-ordinated with the 12th "Jadranska" Infantry Division and two "Odred" (combined regiments) of the Yugoslav Army attacking from the Benkovac area, supported by air attacks by the 81st Bomber Group of the VVKJ. The Yugoslav forces launched their attack on 9 April but by 13 April the Italian forces had counter-attacked and were in Benkovac by 14 April.[125] The naval prong to this attack faltered when the destroyer Beograd was damaged by near misses from Italian aircraft off Šibenik when her starboard engine was put out of action, after which she limped to Kotor, escorted by the remainder of the force, for repair.[126] Italian air raids on Kotor badly damaged the minelayer Kobac, that was beached to prevent sinking.[127]

The maritime patrol float-planes of the Royal Yugoslav Air Force flew reconnaissance and attack missions during the campaign, as well as providing air cover for mine-laying operations off Zara. Their operations included attacks on the Albanian port of Durrës, as well as strikes against Italian re-supply convoys to Albania. On 9 April, one Dornier Do 22K floatplane notably took on an Italian convoy of 12 steamers with an escort of eight destroyers crossing the Adriatic during the day, attacking single-handed in the face of intense AA fire.[128] No Italian ships, however, were sunk by Yugoslav forces;[127] an Italian tanker was claimed damaged by a near miss off the Italian coast near Bari.

The Royal Yugoslav Navy also had at its disposal four large, heavily armed and armoured river monitors in its riverine flotilla. They were used to patrol the Danube, Drava and Sava rivers in the northern parts of Yugoslavia and its border with Hungary. These monitors, Drava, Sava, Morava and Vardar, had been inherited from the Austrian Navy at the end of World War I. All were of around 400-500t with a main armament of two 120 mm guns, two or three 66 mm guns, 120 mm mortars, 40 mm AA guns and machine guns. At the start of the campaign they had carried out offensive operations by shelling the airfield at Mohács in Hungary on 6 April and again two days later, but had to begin withdrawing towards Novi Sad by 11 April after coming under repeated attack by German dive-bombers.[129]

Early in the morning of 12 April, a squadron of German Ju 87 dive-bombers attacked the Yugoslav monitors on the Danube. Drava, commanded by Aleksandar Berić,[130] was hit by several of them but they were unable to penetrate Drava's 300 mm thick deck armour, until, by chance, one put a bomb straight down the funnel, killing 54 of the 67-man crew. During the attack anti-aircraft gunners on the monitors claimed three dive-bombers shot down. The remaining three monitors were scuttled by their crews later on 12 April as German and Hungarian forces had occupied the bases and the river systems upon which they operated.[131]

Romanian involvement

While Romania did not take part in the actual invasion of Yugoslavia, it did provide artillery support for the German forces invading from its territory. Operating on orders from the 3rd Section of the Romanian General Staff, Romanian artillery opened fire against Yugoslav barges on the Danube on 6 April. Romanian and German units from the Romanian bank of the Danube repeatedly exchanged fire with Yugoslav forces between 6 and 11 April. The main Romanian force was at Liubcova, consisting in a battery of 120 mm/L10 naval howitzers in a fortified position. Nearby, there was also a section (2 pieces) of 120 mm/L35 naval howitzers as well as a section of 47 mm light naval guns.[132] The Yugoslavs retaliated with their Air Force. Two Bristol Blenheims raided Arad, badly damaging one of the German fighters stationed there before being both shot down.[133] For its contribution, Romania was rewarded with six ex-Yugoslav aircraft captured by the Germans. These machines, delivered free of charge, were however inoperative. The Romanians cannibalized three of them in order to make the other three operational. The three operational aircraft were all Hawker Hurricanes.[134]

Losses

German propaganda footage of the invasion of Yugoslavia and Greece

The losses sustained by the German attack forces were unexpectedly light. During the twelve days of combat the total casualty figures came to 558 men: 151 were listed as killed, 392 as wounded, and 15 as missing in action. During the XLI Panzer Corps drive on Belgrade, for example, the only officer killed in action fell victim to a civilian sniper's bullet. The Luftwaffe lost approximately 60 aircraft shot down over Yugoslavia, costing the lives of at least 70 aircrew. The Italian Army took heavier casualties in northern Albania from the Yugoslav offensive there (Italian casualties on all fronts during the invasion amounted to some 800 killed and 2,500 wounded[135]),[65] whilst the Italian Air Force lost approximately 10 aircraft shot down, with a further 22 damaged. The Hungarian Army suffered some 350 casualties (120 killed, 223 wounded and 13 missing in action) from the shelling by Yugoslav riverine forces of its frontier installations and in its attacks upon the Yugoslav frontier forces in Vojvodina,[111] with one quarter of a Hungarian parachute 'battalion' becoming casualties when a transport aircraft filled with 30 troops went down during an abortive drop on 12 April.[136] The Hungarians also lost five Fiat fighters and one Weiss WM-21 Sólyom reconnaissance aircraft during the fighting.

The Germans took between 254,000 and 345,000 Yugoslav prisoners (excluding a considerable number of ethnic Germans and Hungarians who had been conscripted into the Yugoslav Army and who were quickly released after screening) and the Italians took 30,000 more.[137][138]

Approximately 1,000 army and several hundred VVKJ personnel (including one mobile-workshop unit of six vehicles) escaped via Greece to Egypt.[139]

In their brief fight, the VVKJ suffered the loss of 49 aircraft to Axis fighters and anti-aircraft fire, with many more damaged beyond repair. These losses had cost the lives of 27 fighter pilots and 76 bomber aircrew. 85 more aircraft had been destroyed on the ground by air attack, while many others had been destroyed or disabled by their own crews, or had crashed during operations, or in evacuation flights.

Despite these losses, more than 70 Yugoslav aircraft escaped to Allied territory, mostly to Greece, but eight Dornier and Savoia Marchetti bombers set course for the USSR, with four making it safely. Several dozen of the escapee aircraft were destroyed in a devastating strafing attack by the Italian air force on Paramitia airfield in Greece, with nine bombers and transports making it to Egypt. More than 300 operational, auxiliary and training aircraft were captured and passed on to the newly created Air Force of the Independent State of Croatia,[7] Finland, Romania and Bulgaria.

The Italians captured most of the Yugoslav Navy (one of its four destroyers, the Ljubljana, had spent the campaign in dry-dock).[126] However, another destroyer, the Zagreb, was blown up at Kotor by two of its officers to prevent capture and one of the British-built submarines and two MTBs succeeded in escaping to Alexandria in Egypt to continue to serve with the Allied cause.[140] A fourth destroyer was captured while under construction in the Kotor shipyard, the Split, but the Regia Marina was not able to finish her before the armistice in 1943. Eventually, she was recovered after the war by the Yugoslavians and completed under the original name.[141] Ten Yugoslav Navy maritime patrol float-planes escaped to Greece, with nine making it to Egypt, where they formed a squadron under RAF command.[142]

Armistice and surrender

Axis occupation of Yugoslavia 1941-43
Occupation and partition of Yugoslavia 1941

The Axis victory was swift. As early as 14 April the Yugoslav high command had decided to seek an armistice and authorised the army and army group commanders to negotiate local ceasefires. That day the commanders of the 2nd and 5th Armies asked the Germans for terms, but were rejected. Only unconditional surrender could form the basis for negotiations they were told. That evening, the high command sent an emissary to the headquarters of Panzer Group Kleist to ask for armistice, and in response General von Kleist sent the commander of the 2nd Army, von Weichs, to Belgrade to negotiate terms. He arrived on the afternoon of 15 April and drew up an armistice based on unconditional surrender.[143]

On 16 April, a Yugoslav delegate arrived in Belgrade, but as he did not have authority to sign the document, he was given a draft of the agreement and an aircraft was placed at his disposal to bring in authorised representatives of the government. Finally, on 17 April, after only eleven days of fighting, the pre-coup Foreign Minister Aleksandar Cincar-Marković and General Milojko Janković signed the armistice and unconditionally surrendered all Yugoslav troops. It came into effect the following day (18 April) at noon.[143] At the signing, the Hungarians and Bulgarians were represented by liaison officers, but they did not sign the document because their countries were not officially at war with Yugoslavia.[143] The Italian representative, Colonel Luigi Buonofati, signed the document after noting that "the same terms are valid for the Italian army".[144]

Scholars have proposed a number of theories for the Royal Yugoslav Army's sudden collapse, including poor training and equipment, generals eager to secure a quick cessation of hostilities, and a sizeable Croatian and other non-Serb fifth column.[145][146][147][148] According to Tomasevich, the insistence of the Yugoslav Army on defending all the borders assured its failure from the start. After the surrender, Yugoslavia was subsequently divided amongst Germany, Hungary, Italy and Bulgaria, with most of Serbia being occupied by Germany. The Italian-backed Croatian fascist leader Ante Pavelić declared an Independent State of Croatia before the invasion was even over.[149]

Aftermath

Beginning with the forming of the first partisan battalion near Sisak, Croatia on 22 June and uprising in Serbia in July 1941, there was continuous resistance to the occupying armies in Yugoslavia until the end of the war. While in the beginning both Partisans and the Chetniks engaged in resistance, the Partisans became the main resistance force after Chetniks started to collaborate with the Axis forces in 1942, especially in Operation Trio.

Notes

  1. ^ Slovene: Aprilska vojna, Serbian: Априлски рат, Aprilski rat,[8] Croatian: Travanjski rat
  2. ^ German: Unternehmen 25[9] or Projekt 25[10]

References

Footnotes

  1. ^ Zajac 1993, p. 50.
  2. ^ a b Tomasevich 1975, p. 64.
  3. ^ a b c d Tomasevich 1975, p. 59.
  4. ^ a b c Zajac 1993, p. 47.
  5. ^ a b c Shores, Cull & Malizia 1987, p. 174.
  6. ^ Shores, Cull & Malizia 1987, p. 173.
  7. ^ a b Shores, Cull & Malizia 1987, p. 310.
  8. ^ Redžić 2005, p. 9.
  9. ^ Vogel 2006, p. 526, n. 158.
  10. ^ Chant 1986, p. 196.
  11. ^ Tomasevich 1975, p. 55.
  12. ^ Tomasevich 1969, p. 64.
  13. ^ Tomasevich 1975, p. 34.
  14. ^ Tomasevich 1975, p. 39.
  15. ^ Tomasevich 1975, p. 41.
  16. ^ Tomasevich 1975, p. 43–47.
  17. ^ Trevor-Roper 1964, p. 108.
  18. ^ Dedijer 1956, p. 3.
  19. ^ International Military Tribunal, The Trial of German Major War Criminals, Judgement: The Aggression Against Yugoslavia And Greece, p. 32.
  20. ^ Shirer 2002, p. 824.
  21. ^ Klajn 2007, p. 104.
  22. ^ Klajn 2007, p. 105.
  23. ^ a b Životić 2011, p. 41.
  24. ^ Tomasevich 1975, p. 51.
  25. ^ Trevor-Roper 1964, p. 109.
  26. ^ a b Klajn 2007, p. 106.
  27. ^ Short 2010, pp. 46–47.
  28. ^ Hoffmann 2000, p. 146.
  29. ^ Cervi 1972, p. 279.
  30. ^ Giurescu 2000, p. 36.
  31. ^ a b c d Giurescu 2000, p. 79.
  32. ^ a b c Macartney 1956, pp. 440–41.
  33. ^ Giurescu 2000, p. 71.
  34. ^ Schreiber 2006, pp. 408–09.
  35. ^ Vogel 2006, pp. 452–53.
  36. ^ a b c US Army 1986, pp. 10–11.
  37. ^ a b US Army 1986, p. 39.
  38. ^ Macartney 1956, p. 470.
  39. ^ a b Miller 1975, pp. 36–37.
  40. ^ Miller 1975, pp. 12–16.
  41. ^ a b Miller 1975, pp. 44–45.
  42. ^ Shores, Cull & Malizia 1987, p. 171.
  43. ^ Miller 1975, pp. 46.
  44. ^ US Army 1986, p. 32.
  45. ^ a b Bán 2004, pp. 100–01.
  46. ^ a b c d Macartney 1956, pp. 462–64.
  47. ^ Macartney 1956, p. 463 n. 2, citing a group of documents, N.G. 2546, detailing acts of disruption.
  48. ^ a b Macartney 1956, p. 481.
  49. ^ a b Macartney 1956, pp. 481–82.
  50. ^ Macartney 1956, p. 487.
  51. ^ Macartney 1957, p. 4.
  52. ^ Macartney 1956, p. 490.
  53. ^ Niehorster 2013a.
  54. ^ Krzak 2006, p. 573.
  55. ^ Loi 1978, p. 32.
  56. ^ Jowett 2000, p. 9.
  57. ^ Loi 1978, pp. 51–54 & 186.
  58. ^ a b Niehorster 2013b.
  59. ^ Jowett 2000, p. 10.
  60. ^ Loi 1978, p. 76.
  61. ^ Niehorster 2013c.
  62. ^ Loi 1978, p. 67.
  63. ^ Niehorster 2013d.
  64. ^ Tomasevich 1975, p. 58.
  65. ^ a b c Fatutta & Covelli, 1975.
  66. ^ Ciglić & Savić 2007, p. 22.
  67. ^ Shores, Cull & Malizia 1987, pp. 187–192.
  68. ^ Ciglić & Savić 2007, p. 8.
  69. ^ a b c Shores, Cull & Malizia 1987, p. 260.
  70. ^ Conways, 1980. pp. 356–359
  71. ^ Geschichte, pp. 317–318
  72. ^ Fatutta & Covelli, 1975. p.52.
  73. ^ Tomasevich 1975, p. 61.
  74. ^ Shaw 1973, p. 92.
  75. ^ Tomasevich 1975, p. 78–79.
  76. ^ Times Atlas, p.54
  77. ^ Shaw 1973, p. 89.
  78. ^ a b Tomasevich 1975, p. 70.
  79. ^ Tomasevich 1975, pp. 67–68.
  80. ^ US Army 1986, p. 50.
  81. ^ US Army 1986, p. 52.
  82. ^ US Army 1986, p. 57.
  83. ^ US Army 1986, p. 58.
  84. ^ Tomasevich 1975, p. 68.
  85. ^ Tomasevich 1975, p. 69.
  86. ^ Tomasevich 1975, pp. 71–72.
  87. ^ Tomasevich 1975, pp. 68–69.
  88. ^ Tomasevich 1975, p. 73.
  89. ^ Shores, Cull & Malizia 1987, p. 178.
  90. ^ Shores, Cull & Malizia 1987, pp. 178–229.
  91. ^ a b Savić & Ciglić 2002, p. 8.
  92. ^ Shores, Cull & Malizia 1987, p. 179.
  93. ^ Ciglić & Savić 2007, p. 32–38.
  94. ^ a b Goss 2005, p. 10.
  95. ^ Weal 1998, p. 29.
  96. ^ Goss 2005, p. 89.
  97. ^ Vogel 2006, p. 497.
  98. ^ a b Weal 1998, p. 25.
  99. ^ Shores, Cull & Malizia 1987, p. 208.
  100. ^ Weal 1998, p. 27.
  101. ^ Shores, Cull & Malizia 1987, p. 200.
  102. ^ a b c Fatutta & Covelli, 1975, p. 52.
  103. ^ By Robert J. Edwards "Tip of the Spear: German Armored Reconnaissance in Action in World War II" p 172
  104. ^ Plowman, Jeffrey "War in the Balkans: The Battle for Greece and Crete 1940–1941" p 24
  105. ^ a b "Invasion of Yugoslavia: Waffen SS Captain Fritz Klingenberg and the Capture of Belgrade During World War II". HistoryNet. 12 June 2006.
  106. ^ Robert J. Edwards "Invasion of Yugoslavia-waffen ss Captain Fritz Klingenberg and the capture of Belgrade during World War" p 173
  107. ^ Enrico Cernuschi, Le operazioni aeronavali contro la Jugoslavia, 6–8 aprile 1941, in Storia Militare no. 242, p. 30.
  108. ^ a b c Enrico Cernuschi, Le operazioni aeronavali contro la Jugoslavia, 6–8 aprile 1941, in Storia Militare no. 242, p. 31.
  109. ^ a b c Enrico Cernuschi, Le operazioni aeronavali contro la Jugoslavia, 6–8 aprile 1941, in Storia Militare no. 242, p. 33.
  110. ^ a b Fatutta & Covelli, 1975, p. 50.
  111. ^ a b Niehorster, 1998, p. 66.
  112. ^ Tomasevich 1975, p. 57.
  113. ^ a b Shores, Cull & Malizia 1987, p. 215.
  114. ^ Shores, Cull & Malizia 1987, p. 228.
  115. ^ a b Fatutta & Covelli, 1975, p. 49.
  116. ^ Shores, Cull & Malizia 1987, p. 213.
  117. ^ a b Dizdar 2007, p. 607.
  118. ^ Dizdar 2007, p. 592.
  119. ^ Tomasevich 2001, p. 51.
  120. ^ Dizdar 2007, p. 600.
  121. ^ Ciglić & Savić 2007, p. 39.
  122. ^ Ciglić & Savić 2007, p. 46.
  123. ^ a b Mirošević 2011, p. 254.
  124. ^ Whitely, 2001, p. 311.
  125. ^ Fatutta & Covelli, 1975, p. 51.
  126. ^ a b Whitely, 2001, p. 312.
  127. ^ a b Enrico Cernuschi, Le operazioni navali contro la Jugoslavia, 6–18 aprile 1941, on "Storia Militare" n. 242, pp. 20 to 39.
  128. ^ Shores, et al., 1987, p. 218.
  129. ^ Shores, Cull & Malizia 1987, p. 223.
  130. ^ Krleža, Miroslav; Vladislav Brajković; Petar Mardešić (1972). Pomorska enciklopedija, Volume 2. Jugoslavenski leksikografski zavod. p. 240.
  131. ^ Shores, Cull & Malizia 1987, p. 224.
  132. ^ George Cristian Maior, Enciclopedica Pub. House, 2002, The Danube, European security and cooperation at the beginning of the 21th century, pp. 65–66
  133. ^ John Weal, Bloomsbury Publishing, 2012, Jagdgeschwader 54 'Grünherz, p. 39
  134. ^ Virginia Military Institute and the George C. Marshall Foundation, 2002, The Journal of Military History, Volume 66, Issues 3–4, p. 1111
  135. ^ Enrico Cernuschi, Le operazioni aeronavali contro la Jugoslavia, 6–8 aprile 1941, in Storia Militare no. 242, p. 32.
  136. ^ Shores, Cull & Malizia 1987, p. 222.
  137. ^ US Army 1986, p. 64.
  138. ^ Geschichte, p. 325
  139. ^ Ciglić & Savić 2007, p. 32.
  140. ^ Chesneau 1980, p. 356.
  141. ^ Whitely, 2001, p. 313.
  142. ^ Shores, Cull & Malizia 1987, p. 261.
  143. ^ a b c US Army 1986, pp. 63–64.
  144. ^ Dedijer 1956, p. 9.
  145. ^ Tomasevich 1975, pp. 63–68.
  146. ^ Terzić 1982, pp. 383–388.
  147. ^ Cohen 1996, p. 28.
  148. ^ Tomasevich 2001, pp. 204–207.
  149. ^ Tomasevich 1975, p. 52–53.

Books

  • Bán, András D. (2004). Hungarian–British Diplomacy, 1938–1941: The Attempt to Maintain Relations. Translated by Tim Wilkinson. London: Frank Cass. ISBN 0714656607.
  • Cervi, Mario (1972). The Hollow Legions. Mussolini's Blunder in Greece, 1940–1941 [Storia della guerra di Grecia: ottobre 1940 – aprile 1941]. trans. Eric Mosbacher. London: Chatto and Windus. ISBN 0-70111-351-0.
  • Chant, Christopher (1986). The Encyclopedia of Codenames of World War II. Routledge.
  • Chesneau, Roger, ed. (1980). Conway's All the world's fighting ships, 1922–1946. London, England: Conway Maritime Press. ISBN 978-0-85177-146-5.
  • Ciglić, Boris; Savić, Dragan (2007). Dornier Do 17, The Yugoslav Story: Operational Record 1937–1947. Belgrade: Jeroplan. ISBN 978-86-909727-0-8.
  • Giurescu, Dinu C. (2000). Romania in the Second World War (1939–1945). Boulder, CO: East European Monographs.
  • Hoffmann, Peter (2000) [1979]. Hitler's Personal Security: Protecting the Führer, 1921–1945 (2nd ed.). Da Capo Press.
  • Goss, Chris (2005). Dornier 17: In Focus. Surrey, UK: Red Kite/Air Research. ISBN 0-9546201-4-3.
  • Gretschko, A. A., ed. (1977). Geschichte des Zweiten Weltkrieges. 3. East Berlin: Militärverlag der Deutschen Demokratischen Republik.
  • Klajn, Lajco (2007). The Past in Present Times: The Yugoslav Saga. University Press of America. ISBN 0-7618-3647-0.
  • Loi, Salvatore (1978). Le operazioni delle unità italiane in Jugoslavia (1941–1943): narrazione, documenti [The operations of Italian units in Yugoslavia (1941–1943): narrative, documents] (in Italian). Rome, Italy: Ministero della difesa (Ministry of Defence). OCLC 9194926.
  • Macartney, C. A. (1956). October Fifteenth: A History of Modern Hungary, 1929–1945. vol. 1. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
  • Macartney, C. A. (1957). October Fifteenth: A History of Modern Hungary, 1929–1945. vol. 2. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
  • Miller, Marshall Lee (1975). Bulgaria during the Second World War. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
  • Niehorster, Leo W. G. (1998). The Royal Hungarian Army, 1920–1945. Bayside, New York: Europa Books. ISBN 978-1-891227-19-6.
  • Novak, Emilian E. (1969). Limitations of Hungarian National Power in World War Two (MA thesis). University of North Texas.
  • Pavlowitch, Stevan K. (2007). Hitler's New Disorder: The Second World War in Yugoslavia. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-1-85065-895-5.
  • Redžić, Enver (2005). Bosnia and Herzegovina in the Second World War. Abingdon: Frank Cass. ISBN 0-7146-5625-9.
  • Savić, Dragan; Ciglić, Boris (2002). Croatian Aces of World War 2. London: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 1-84176-435-3.
  • Schreiber, Gerhard (2006). "Germany, Italy, and South-east Europe: From Political and Economic Hegemony to Military Aggression". Germany and the Second World War, Volume III: The Mediterranean, South-East Europe, and North Africa, 1939–1941. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 303–448.
  • Shaw, Les (1973). Trial by Slander: A background to the Independent State of Croatia, and an account of the Anti-Croatian Campaign in Australia. Canberra: Harp Books. ISBN 0-909432-00-7.
  • Shirer, William L. (2002). The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich: A History of Nazi Germany. London: Random House. ISBN 978-0-09-942176-4.
  • Shores, Christopher F.; Cull, Brian; Malizia, Nicola (1987). Air War for Yugoslavia, Greece, and Crete, 1940–41. London: Grub Street. ISBN 978-0-948817-07-6.
  • Short, Neil (2010). The Fuhrer's Headquarters: Hitler's Command Bunkers, 1939–45. Oxford: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84603-582-1.
  • Terzić, Velimir (1982a). Slom Kraljevine Jugoslavije 1941 : uzroci i posledice poraza [The Collapse of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia in 1941: Causes and Consequences of Defeat] (in Serbo-Croatian). 1. Belgrade, Yugoslavia: Narodna knjiga. OCLC 10276738.
  • Terzić, Velimir (1982b). Slom Kraljevine Jugoslavije 1941 : uzroci i posledice poraza [The Collapse of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia in 1941: Causes and Consequences of Defeat] (in Serbo-Croatian). 2. Belgrade, Yugoslavia: Narodna knjiga. OCLC 10276738.
  • The Times Atlas of the Second World War, John Keegan (ed.), New York: Harper and Row, 1989.
  • Thomas, Nigel; Mikulan, Krunoslav (1995). Axis Forces in Yugoslavia 1941–45. New York: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 1-85532-473-3.
  • Thomas, Nigel; Szabo, Laszlo (2008). The Royal Hungarian Army in World War II. Oxford, United Kingdom: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84603-324-7.
  • Tomasevich, Jozo (1969), "Yugoslavia during the Second World War", in Vucinich, Wayne S. (ed.), Contemporary Yugoslavia: Twenty Years of Socialist Experiment, Berkeley: University of California Press, pp. 59–118, ISBN 978-05-200153-6-4
  • Tomasevich, Jozo (1975). War and Revolution in Yugoslavia, 1941–1945: The Chetniks. Stanford: Stanford University Press. ISBN 978-0-8047-0857-9.
  • Tomasevich, Jozo (2001). War and Revolution in Yugoslavia, 1941–1945: Occupation and Collaboration. 2. San Francisco: Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-3615-4.
  • Trevor-Roper, Hugh (1964). Hitler's War Directives: 1939–1945. Viborg: Norhaven Paperback. ISBN 1-84341-014-1.
  • US Army (1986) [1953]. The German Campaigns in the Balkans (Spring 1941): A Model of Crisis Planning. Department of the Army Pamphlet No. 20–260. Washington, D.C.: United States Army Center of Military History. OCLC 16940402. CMH Pub 104-4.
  • Vogel, Detlef (2006). "German Intervention in the Balkans". Germany and the Second World War, Volume III: The Mediterranean, South-East Europe, and North Africa, 1939–1941. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 449–556.
  • Weal, John A. (1998). Junkers Ju 87: Stukageschwader of North Africa and the Mediterranean. London: Osprey. ISBN 978-1-85532-722-1.
  • Whitely, M. J. (2001). Destroyers of World War Two: An International Encyclopedia. US Naval Institute Press. ISBN 978-0-87021-326-7.

Articles

  • Barefield, Michael R. (May 1993). "Overwhelming Force, Indecisive Victory: The German Invasion of Yugoslavia, 1941". Fort Leavenworth, Kansas: School of Advanced Military Studies, United States Army Command and General Staff College.
  • Dizdar, Zdravko (2007). "Bjelovarski ustanak od 7. do 10. travnja 1941". Časopis za suvremenu povijest (in Croatian). 3. Hrvatski institut za povijest. pp. 581–609.
  • Dedijer, Vladimir (1956). "Sur l'armistice "germano-yougoslave" (7 avril 1941) (Peut-on dire qu'il y eut réellement un armistice?)". Revue d'histoire de la Deuxième Guerre mondiale. 6 (23): 1–10.
  • Fatutta, F.; Covelli, L. (1975). "1941: Attack on Yugoslavia". The International Magazine of Armies and Weapons. 4 (15–17). Lugano, Switzerland.
  • Jovanovich, Leo M. (1994). "The War in the Balkans in 1941". East European Quarterly. 28 (1): 105–29.
  • Krzak, Andrzej (2006). "Operation "Marita": The Attack Against Yugoslavia in 1941". The Journal of Slavic Military Studies. 19 (3): 543–600. doi:10.1080/13518040600868123.
  • Lennox, Dyer T. (May 1997). "Operational Analysis: German operations against Yugoslavia 1941". Newport, Rhode Island: Joint Military Operations Department, Naval War College.
  • Mirošević, Franko (2011). "Dubrovnik i dubrovački kotar od Banovine Hrvatske do talijanske reokupacije (od rujna 1939. do rujna 1941.)". Radovi Zavoda za povijesne znanosti HAZU u Zadru (in Croatian). 53. pp. 243–279.
  • Pavlowitch, Stevan K. (1982). "How Many Non-Serbian Generals in 1941?". East European Quarterly. 16 (4): 447–52.
  • Zajac, Daniel L. (May 1993). "The German Invasion of Yugoslavia: Insights For Crisis Action Planning And Operational Art in A Combined Environment". Fort Leavenworth, Kansas: School of Advanced Military Studies, United States Army Command and General Staff College.
  • Životić, Aleksandar (2011). "Četničke jedinice Vojske Kraljevine Jugoslavije u Aprilskom ratu" [The Chetnik units of the Yugoslav Army in April War 1941]. Istorija 20. veka (in Serbian). 29: 39–47.

Further reading

  • Burgwyn, H. James. (2005). Empire on the Adriatic: Mussolini's Conquest of Yugoslavia 1941–1943. Enigma.
  • Williams, Heather (2003). Parachutes, Patriots and Partisans: The Special Operations Executive and Yugoslavia, 1941–1945. C. Hurst & Co. ISBN 1-85065-592-8.
11th Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)

The 11th Panzer Division (English: 11th Tank Division) was an armoured division in the German Army, the Wehrmacht, during World War II, established in 1940.

The division saw action on the Eastern and Western Fronts during the Second World War. The 11th Panzer Division did not participate in the war until the invasion of Yugoslavia. It fought in the Soviet Union from 1941 to 1944 and, in the last year of the war, in southern France and Germany. The formation's emblem was a ghost.

14th Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)

The 14th Panzer Division (German: 14. Panzer-Division) was an armoured division in the German Army during World War II. It was created in 1940 by the conversion of the 4th Infantry Division.

The division took part in the invasion of Yugoslavia and the Soviet Union, eventually being destroyed in the battle of Stalingrad. Reformed, the 14th Panzer Division soon returned to the Eastern Front and eventually surrendered to Soviet forces in Courland in May 1945.

183rd Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

The 183rd Infantry Division was a German infantry division in World War II that participated in the invasion of Yugoslavia.

294th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

The 294th Infantry Division was a German infantry division in World War II that participated in the invasion of Yugoslavia. The 294th Infantry Division was amalgamated with the 513th Infantry Regiment to create the 513th Grenadier Regiment, on October 15, 1942.

38th Infantry Division Puglie

The 38th Infantry Division Puglie was a mountain infantry division of the Italian Army during World War II. The Puglie Division was mobilized 15 May 1939 and disintegrated soon after 8 September 1943. The division filled its ranks with men drafted in eastern Veneto and Friuli, with a majority of soldiers hailing from the towns of Sacile and Vittorio Veneto. The only difference between line infantry divisions and mountain infantry divisions was that the latter's artillery was carried by pack mules instead of the standard horse-drawn carriages. Italy's real mountain warfare divisions were the six alpine divisions manned by the "Alpini" mountain troops.

538th Frontier Guard Division (Wehrmacht)

The 538th Frontier Guard Division, also known as the Division z.b.V. 538. was a short-lived German division in World War II that participated in the invasion of Yugoslavia. It was disbanded immediately after the Yugoslav surrender.

Axis order of battle for the invasion of Yugoslavia

The Axis order of battle for the invasion of Yugoslavia was made up of the various operational formations of the German Wehrmacht and Waffen-SS, Italian Armed Forces and Hungarian Armed Forces that participated in the invasion of Yugoslavia during World War II, commencing on 6 April 1941. It involved the German 2nd Army, with elements of the 12th Army and a panzer group combined with overwhelming Luftwaffe (German Air Force) support. The eighteen German divisions included five panzer divisions, two motorised infantry divisions and two mountain divisions. The German force also included two well-equipped independent motorised regiments and was supported by over 800 aircraft. The Italian 2nd Army and 9th Army committed a total of 22 divisions, and the Royal Italian Air Force (Italian: Regia Aeronautica) had over 650 aircraft available to support the invasion. The Hungarian 3rd Army also participated, with support from the Royal Hungarian Air Force (Hungarian: Magyar Királyi Honvéd Légierő, MKHL).

The Axis ground forces had effectively surrounded the Kingdom of Yugoslavia before the invasion began. The German 2nd Army, consisting of one motorised, one mountain, and two infantry corps was concentrated in southwestern Hungary and southeastern Austria, poised to drive south and east. One motorised corps of the German 12th Army was assembled near Sofia, Bulgaria, along with one motorised corps of the First Panzer Group, and these formations were assigned the task of striking the strongest Yugoslav formations stationed along the eastern border of the country. A further motorised corps was deployed near Timișoara in western Romania, ready to thrust south into the Banat region. The Italian 2nd Army, consisting of one fast (Italian: celere) corps, one motorised corps and three infantry corps was assembled in northeastern Italy, with the task of driving southeast down the Dalmatian coast. The Italian 9th Army, comprising two corps and a sector defence command, was stationed in occupied northern Albania, and its stance was largely defensive. The Hungarian 3rd Army was concentrated along the Yugoslav border largely between the Danube and the Tisza, with the objective of seizing the Bačka and Baranja regions.

German, Italian and Hungarian air support was concentrated in Austria, Italy, southern Hungary, southern Romania, western Bulgaria and Albania. In total, over 1,500 Axis aircraft were available to support the invasion. Naval forces were limited to a few destroyers of the Royal Italian Navy (Italian: Regia Marina) operating in the Adriatic Sea.

Balkans Campaign (World War II)

The Balkans Campaign of World War II began with the Italian invasion of Greece on 28 October 1940. In the early months of 1941, Italy's offensive had stalled and a Greek counter-offensive pushed into Albania. Germany sought to aid Italy by deploying troops to Romania and Bulgaria and attacking Greece from the east. Meanwhile, the British landed troops and aircraft to shore up Greek defences. A coup d'état in Yugoslavia on 27 March caused Adolf Hitler to order the conquest of that country.

The invasion of Yugoslavia by Germany and Italy began on 6 April, simultaneously with the new Battle of Greece; on 11 April, Hungary joined the invasion. By 17 April the Yugoslavs had signed an armistice, and by 30 April all of mainland Greece was under German or Italian control. On 20 May Germany invaded Crete by air, and by 1 June all remaining Greek and British forces on the island had surrendered. Although it had not participated in the attacks in April, Bulgaria occupied parts of both Yugoslavia and Greece shortly thereafter for the remainder of the war in the Balkans.

Hungary in World War II

During World War II, the Kingdom of Hungary was a member of the Axis powers. In the 1930s, the Kingdom of Hungary relied on increased trade with Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany to pull itself out of the Great Depression. Hungarian politics and foreign policy had become more stridently nationalistic by 1938, and Hungary adopted an irredentist policy similar to Germany's, attempting to incorporate ethnic Hungarian areas in neighboring countries into Hungary. Hungary benefited territorially from its relationship with the Axis. Settlements were negotiated regarding territorial disputes with the Czechoslovak Republic, the Slovak Republic, and the Kingdom of Romania. In 1940, under pressure from Germany, Hungary joined the Axis powers. The following year, Hungarian forces participated in the invasion of Yugoslavia and the invasion of the Soviet Union.

While waging war against the Soviet Union, Hungary engaged in armistice negotiations with the United States and the United Kingdom. Hitler discovered this betrayal, and in March 1944, German forces occupied Hungary. When Soviet forces began threatening Hungary, an armistice was signed between Hungary and the USSR by Regent Miklós Horthy. Soon afterward, Horthy's son was kidnapped by German commandos and Horthy was forced to revoke the armistice. The Regent was then deposed from power, while Hungarian fascist leader Ferenc Szálasi established a new government, with German backing. In 1945, Hungarian and German forces in Hungary were defeated by advancing Soviet armies.

Approximately 300,000 Hungarian soldiers and more than 600,000 civilians died during World War II, including among them more than 400,000 Jews and 28,000 Roma. Many cities were damaged, most notably the capital Budapest. Most Jews in Hungary were protected from deportation to German extermination camps for the first few years of the war, although they had for a longer period been subjected to a series of anti-Jewish laws which imposed limits on Jewish participation in Hungary's public and economic life. From the start of the German occupation of Hungary in 1944, Jews and Roma were deported to the Auschwitz concentration camp. By the end of the war, the death toll was between 450,000 and 606,000 Hungarian Jews and an estimated 28,000 Hungarian Roma. Hungary's borders were returned to their pre-1938 lines after its surrender.

Kiril Simonovski

Kiril "Džina" Simonovski (Macedonian: Кирил Симоновски - Џина, 19 October 1915 – 12 June 1984) was a Macedonian footballer. He played top league football for Gragjanski Skopje, Macedonia Skopje, FK Vardar and FK Partizan.

He started playing football in a local club in Skopje named FK Jug, before moving to Gragjanski Skopje in 1938. In 1941, during World War II and the Axis invasion of Yugoslavia, most of the region of the then Vardarska Banovina was occupied by the Bulgarian forces and in that period Gragjanski was renamed to Makedonija Skopie. The club finished in second place in the 1942 Bulgarian State Championship, and during this period Simonovski played two matches for the Bulgarian national team (as Kiril Simeonov). At the end of the war, Simonovski moved to Belgrade and signed with newly formed FK Partizan where he will play all the way until 1950, winning two national championships and one cup. It was in this period that he became the first Macedonian to play for the post-1945 Yugoslav national team, having played a total of 10 matches and scored once.

After retiring he became a coach. He coached FK Partizan, FK Vardar and Olympiacos F.C. among several other clubs in Yugoslavia, Greece and Cyprus.

LI Army Corps (Wehrmacht)

LI Army Corps (German: LI. Armeekorps) was an infantry corps of the German Army during World War II that participated in the invasion of Yugoslavia. It was also present at the Battle of Stalingrad, where it was commanded by General Walther von Seydlitz-Kurzbach. After von Seydlitz-Kurzbach instructed his officers on 25 January 1943 that the question of surrender was their personal choice to make, he was relieved of command.

After most of the Corps was captured or destroyed at Stalingrad, remnants of it were combined with other units to form the LI Mountain Corps in August 1943, under the command of General Valentin Feurstein. The LI Mountain Corps formed part of German forces in Italy for the remainder of the war, participating in the Battle of Monte Cassino and other German defensive actions.

Royal Yugoslav Army

The Royal Yugoslav Army (Serbo-Croatian: Vojska Kraljevine Jugoslavije, Југословенска Краљевска Војска) was the armed force of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (later the Kingdom of Yugoslavia) from the state's formation in December 1918 until its surrender to the Axis powers on 17 April 1941. Aside from fighting along the Austrian border in 1919–20 related to territorial disputes, and some border skirmishes on its southern borders in the 1920s, the VKJ was not involved in fighting until April 1941 when it was quickly overcome by the German-led invasion of Yugoslavia.

Shortly before the Axis invasion of Yugoslavia, certain high ranking army and airforce officers, backed by Great Britain, staged a coup against the Yugoslav monarchy on 27 March. Beyond the problems of inadequate equipment and incomplete mobilization, the Royal Yugoslav Army suffered badly from the Serbo-Croat schism in Yugoslav politics. "Yugoslav" resistance to the invasion collapsed overnight. The main reason was that neither of the non-Serb national groups (Slovenes and Croats) were prepared to fight in defence of what they viewed as Serbian-dominated Yugoslavia. The only effective opposition to the invasion was from wholly Serbian units within the borders of Serbia itself. In its worst expression, Yugoslavia's defenses were badly compromised on 10 April 1941, when some of the units in the Croatian-manned 4th and 7th Armies mutinied, and a newly formed Croatian government hailed the entry of the Germans into Zagreb the same day.During the occupation of Yugoslavia, the Chetniks of Draža Mihailović were referred to as the "Yugoslav Army in the Homeland". The Royal Yugoslav Army was formally disbanded on 7 March 1945 when the Yugoslav government-in-exile appointed by King Peter II was abolished.

VI Army Corps (Royal Italian Army)

The VI Corps (Italian: VI Corpo d'Armata) was a corps of the Royal Italian Army during World War II that participated in the invasion of Yugoslavia.

XI Army Corps (Italy)

The XI Army Corps (Italian: XI Corpo d'Armata) was a corps of the Royal Italian Army during World War II that participated in the invasion of Yugoslavia.

XVII Army Corps (Italy)

The XVII Army Corps (Italian: XVII Corpo d'Armata)was an infantry corps of the Royal Italian Army during World War II that participated in the invasion of Yugoslavia (6–18 April 1940). It was formed on 1 March 1940 from the Armoured Corps (Corpo d'Armata Corrazzato) of the reserve Army of the Po and sent to the Albanian front.

XXXXIX Mountain Corps (Wehrmacht)

XXXXIX Mountain Corps was a mountain corps of the German Army during World War II that participated in the invasion of Yugoslavia.

XXXXVI Panzer Corps

XLVI Panzer Corps was a tank corps of the German Army during World War II that participated in the invasion of Yugoslavia.

Yugoslav order of battle prior to the invasion of Yugoslavia

The Yugoslav order of battle before the invasion of Yugoslavia includes a listing (or order of battle) of all operational formations of the Royal Yugoslav Army (Serbo-Croatian: Vojska Kraljevine Jugoslavije, VKJ), Royal Yugoslav Army Air Force (Serbo-Croatian: Vazduhoplovstvo Vojske Kraljevine Jugoslavije, VVKJ) and Royal Yugoslav Navy (Serbo-Croatian: Kraljevska Jugoslovenska Ratna Mornarica, KJRM) immediately prior to the World War II invasion of that country in April 1941.

The VKJ consisted of 33 divisions and a significant number of smaller formations, but due to tentative and incomplete mobilisation, only seven divisions and four smaller formations are known to have been at close to fighting strength and in their planned deployment locations when the German-led Axis assault commenced on 6 April 1941. The Yugoslav defence plan involved placing the bulk of its land forces close to its borders, with very limited strategic reserves in depth. Almost all of the divisions that had been effectively mobilised were concentrated in the 3rd Army Group deployed in the east of the country along the Romanian and Bulgarian borders between the Iron Gates and the Greek border. Most of the heavy weapons and armoured vehicles available to the VKJ were obsolete, most formations were heavily reliant on animal-powered transport, and the VKJ had only 50 tanks that could engage front line German tanks on an equal basis.

By 6 April 1941, the VVKJ had been almost completely mobilised, and consisted of four air brigades with more than 423 aircraft of Yugoslav, German, Italian, French, Czech and British design, including 107 modern fighter aircraft, and 100 modern medium bombers. Other than a small number of locally made Rogožarski IK-3 fighters, almost all the modern aircraft available to the VVKJ were of German, Italian or British design for which limited spares and munitions were available. The KJRM consisted of a flotilla of river monitors based on the Danube and a small fleet based in several ports along the Adriatic coast. The blue-water navy centred on a flotilla leader, three smaller destroyers, four obsolescent submarines and a gunboat, supplemented by minelayers and torpedo boats. Some of the smaller vessels in the Yugoslav fleet had been inherited from the defeated Austro-Hungarian Empire following World War I and were obsolete.

ŽAK Subotica

ŽAK Subotica (Serbian Cyrillic: ЖAK Cубoтицa) was a football club based in Subotica, Kingdom of Yugoslavia.The club was formed in 1921 and the name comes from the initials of Železničarski atletski klub derived from the fact that the club was backed by the Yugoslav Railways company.It played in the 1935–36 Yugoslav Football Championship where it was eliminated in the round of sixteen by Slavija Osijek. Afterwards, it played in the 1940–41 Serbian League where it finished 5th out of 10.

With the start of the Second World War and the Axis invasion of Yugoslavia, the city came under Hungarian occupation and the club competed in the Hungarian Second League under its Hungarian translated name, Szabadkai Vasutas AC. During this period the coach was Geza Takács and among its best known players was István Nyers who begin his senior career at the club.

After the end of the Second World War, the club made a tour throughout Serbia in order to prepare for competition, however the new socialist authorities demanded that most of the pre-1945 clubs to be desbanded and new clubs to be formed. ŽAK was dissolved in 1945 and its players made a meeting where they decided to join the newly founded FK Spartak Subotica which beside the players, the stadium, the colors and the fans, it also inherited the tradition of being backed by the railways.

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of
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German
occupations
Related
Theaters
General
aspects
Participants
Timeline
Other
aspects
Timeline of Yugoslav statehood
Pre–1918 1918–1929 1929–1945 1941–1945 1945–1946 1946–1963 1963–1992 1992–2003 2003–2006 2006–2008 2008–
Slovenia
Part of including the
Bay of Kotor
See also
See also
Free State of Fiume
1920–1924
1924–1945
Annexed bya
Fascist Italy and
Nazi Germany
Democratic Federal Yugoslavia
1945–1946

Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia
1946–1963

Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
1963–1992
Consisted of the
Socialist Republics of
Slovenia (1945–1991)
Croatia (1945–1991)
Bosnia and Herzegovina (1945–1992)
Serbia (1945–1992)
(included the autonomous
provinces
of Vojvodina and Kosovo)
Montenegro (1945–1992)
Macedonia (1945–1991)
See also
Free Territory of Trieste (1947–1954) j
 Republic of Slovenia
Ten-Day War
Dalmatia
Puppet state of Nazi Germany.
Parts annexed by Fascist Italy.
Međimurje and Baranja annexed by Hungary.
 Republic of Croatiab
Croatian War of Independence
Slavonia
Croatia
Bosnia  Bosnia and Herzegovinac
Bosnian War
Consists of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (1995–present),
Republika Srpska (1995–present) and Brčko District (2000–present).
Herzegovina
Vojvodina Part of the Délvidék region of Hungary Autonomous Banatd Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
Consisted of the
Republic of Serbia (1992–2006)
and
Republic of Montenegro (1992–2006)
State Union of Serbia and Montenegro Republic of Serbia
Included the autonomous provinces of Vojvodina and, under UN administration, Kosovo and Metohija
Republic of Serbia
Includes the autonomous province of Vojvodina
Serbia Kingdom of Serbia
1882–1918
Territory of the Military Commander in Serbia
1941–1944 e
Kosovo Part of the Kingdom of Serbia
1912–1918
Mostly annexed by Albania
1941–1944
along with western Macedonia and south-eastern Montenegro
Kosovo Republic of Kosovog
Metohija Kingdom of Montenegro
1910–1918
Metohija controlled by Austria-Hungary 1915–1918
Montenegro Protectorate of Montenegrof
1941–1944
 Montenegro
North Macedonia Part of the Kingdom of Serbia
1912–1918
Annexed by the Kingdom of Bulgaria
1941–1944
 Republic of North Macedoniah
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