Invasion of Lingayen Gulf

The Invasion of Lingayen Gulf (Filipino: Paglusob sa Golfo ng Lingayen), 6–9 January 1945, was an Allied amphibious operation in the Philippines during World War II. In the early morning of 6 January 1945, a large Allied force commanded by Admiral Jesse B. Oldendorf began approaching the shores of Lingayen. U.S. Navy and Royal Australian Navy warships began bombarding suspected Japanese positions along the coast of Lingayen from their position in Lingayen Gulf for three days. On 9 January, the U.S. 6th Army landed on a 20 mi (32 km) beachhead between the towns of Lingayen and San Fabian.

Background

During World War II, the Lingayen Gulf proved a strategically important theater of war between American and Japanese forces. On 22 December 1941, the Japanese 14th Army—under Lieutenant General Masaharu Homma—landed on the Eastern part of the gulf at Agoo, Caba, Santiago and Bauang, where they engaged in a number of relatively minor skirmishes[1] with the defenders, which consisted of a poorly equipped contingent of predominantly American and Filipino troops, and managed to successfully invade and occupy the gulf. Following the defeat, the next day General Douglas MacArthur issued the order to retreat from Luzon and withdraw to Bataan. For the next three years, the gulf remained under Japanese occupation prior to the Lingayen Gulf Landings.

Operations

Kamikaze attacks USS Columbia (CL-56) in Lingayen Gulf on 6 January 1945 (NH 79449)
USS Columbia is attacked by a kamikaze off Lingayen Gulf, 6 January 1945.
Kamikaze hits USS Columbia (CL-56) in Lingayen Gulf on 6 January 1945 (NH 79450)
The kamikaze aircraft hits Columbia at 17:29.

Beginning on 6 January 1945, a heavy naval and air bombardment of suspected Japanese defenses on Lingayen began. Underwater demolitions began, but found no beach obstacles, and encountered sparse opposing forces. Aircraft and naval artillery bombardment of the landing areas also occurred, with kamikazes attacking on the 7th. On the 8th, it was observed that in the town of Lingayen, as a response to the pre-landing bombardment, Filipinos had begun to form a parade, complete with United States and Philippine flags; fire was shifted away from that area.[2]

At 09:30 on 9 January 1945, about 68,000 GIs under General Walter Krueger of the U.S. 6th Army—following a devastating naval bombardment—landed at the coast of Lingayen Gulf meeting no opposition. A total of 203,608 soldiers were eventually landed over the next few days, establishing a 20 mi (32 km) beachhead, stretching from Sual, Lingayen and Dagupan (XIV Corps) to the west, and San Fabian (I Corps) to the east. The total number of troops under the command of MacArthur was reported to have even exceeded the number that Dwight D. Eisenhower controlled in Europe.[3] Within a few days, the assault forces had quickly captured the coastal towns and secured the 20-mile-long (32 km) beachhead, as well as penetrating up to five miles (8 km) inland.

Despite their success in driving out the Japanese forces stationed there, they suffered relatively heavy losses; particularly to their convoys, due to kamikaze attacks. From 4–12 January, a total of 24 ships were sunk and another 67 were damaged by kamikazes; including the battleships USS Mississippi, New Mexico and Colorado (the latter was accidentally hit by friendly fire), the heavy cruiser HMAS Australia, the light cruiser USS Columbia, and the destroyers USS Long and USS Hovey.[3] Following the landings, the Lingayen Gulf was turned into a vast supply depot for the rest of the war to support the Battle of Luzon.

Commemoration

On 9 January 2008, Gov. Amado Espino, Jr. and Vice Gov. Marlyn Primicias-Agabas of Pangasinan institutionalized the commemoration to honor the war veterans. The resolution named 9 January as Pangasinan Veterans' Day. In the 63rd anniversary commemoration of the Lingayen Gulf Landing, President Fidel Ramos appealed to U.S. President George W. Bush for 24,000 surviving war veterans, to pass two legislative bills pending since 1968 at the US House of Representatives — the Filipino Veterans' Equity Act of 2006 and the Filipino Veterans' Equity of 2005 sponsored by former Senator Daniel Inouye.[4]

References

  1. ^ Encyclopedia of American History
  2. ^ Smith, Robert Ross (1993). Triumph in the Philippines (PDF). Washington, D.C.: United States Army. pp. 67–68. ISBN 978-1-4102-2495-8. Retrieved 29 May 2011.
  3. ^ a b Pacific wrecks – Lingayan Gulf
  4. ^ Abs-Cbn Interactive, 63rd anniversary of Lingayen Gulf Landing commemorated
Conrado Estrella Sr.

Conrado F. Estrella Sr. (August 19, 1917 – May 31, 2011) was a Filipino politician. He served as the Governor of Pangasinan from 1954 to 1963 and Minister of the Department of Agrarian Reform from 1978 to 1986.

He began his political career as the Mayor of Rosales, Pangasinan.Estrella was elected as a Congressman to the Batasang Pambansa from 1978 to 1986. He served as the last Minister of the Department of Agrarian Reform under former President Ferdinand Marcos from 1978 until Marcos' ouster in 1986. Marcos and Estrella were political allies.Estrella's last public appearance was on January 10, 2011, in Pangasinan for the 66th anniversary of the Invasion of Lingayen Gulf.Conrado Estrella died in his sleep at his home in Villa Verde, Pasig City, at the age of 93. He was found the next morning on May 31, 2011. He had undergone open heart surgery several years prior, but had no other major illnesses. Estrella was the grandfather of Abono Rep. Robert Raymond Estrella and former Pangasinan Rep. Conrado Estrella III.

Japanese invasion of Lamon Bay

The Japanese Invasion of Lamon Bay (Filipino: Paglusob ng mga Hapones sa Look ng Lamon) was a secondary mission in the Japanese invasion of Lingayen Gulf during the 1941-1942 Japanese conquest of the Philippines. Securing the coast southeast of Manila would complete the Japanese encirclement of the capital and would act as a diversionary attack from the Japanese main invasion force from the north.

Japanese invasion of Lingayen Gulf

The Japanese invasion of Lingayen Gulf (Filipino: Paglusob ng mga Hapones sa Golfo ng Lingayen) was the key point in the Japanese plan for the conquest of the Philippines. Preparations had already been made by the Attack on Clark Field and the landings of Japanese forces at five points in northern and southern Luzon and Mindanao in early/mid December 1941, with the IJAAF seizing air fields and basing aircraft for ground support, and the Imperial Japanese Navy establishing seaplane bases at the Camiguin Island, Legaspi, and Davao. The main landing of Japanese forces targeted Lingayen Gulf, with its proximity to the Philippine capital of Manila, and Lamon Bay on the opposite coast to the south.

Lingayen (disambiguation)

Lingayen is the capital of Pangasinan province, in the Philippines.

Lingayen may also refer to:

Lingayen Gulf, a gulf in the Philippines

Invasion of Lingayen Gulf, an Allied amphibious operation in the Philippines during World War II

USS Lingayen, a Commencement Bay class escort carrier of the United States Navy

New Mexico-class battleship

The New Mexico-class was a class of three dreadnought battleships built for the United States Navy in the late 1910s. The class comprised three ships: New Mexico, the lead ship, Mississippi, and Idaho. Part of the standard series, were in most respects copies of the Pennsylvania-class battleships that immediately preceded them, carrying the same battery of twelve 14-inch (356 mm)/50 caliber guns. They incorporated several improvements, however, including a better arrangement of the secondary battery that increased its usability, a clipper bow that improved seakeeping, and New Mexico adopted an experimental turbo-electric propulsion system. Like the other standard-type battleships, they had a top speed of 21 knots (39 km/h; 24 mph) that allowed the fleet to operate as a tactically homogeneous unit.

All three ships spent the bulk of their peacetime careers in the Pacific Fleet; throughout the 1920s and 1930s, they were involved in numerous Fleet Problems, which were large-scale training exercises that helped develop the doctrine later employed during the Pacific War. By 1941, the three ships were moved to the east coast to join the Neutrality Patrols that protected American merchant ships from German U-boat attacks during the Battle of the Atlantic. Following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in December, they were quickly transferred back to the Pacific, though they spent most of 1942 escorting convoys off the west coast of the United States. Beginning in mid-1943, hey supported amphibious operations during the Aleutian Islands campaign, the Gilbert and Marshall Islands campaign, the Mariana and Palau Islands campaign. The Philippines campaign followed in late 1944, though Mississippi was the only member of the class to participate in the early stages of the campaign, the other vessels being under refit at the time. There, she was present for the Battle of Surigao Strait on 24 October, the last battleship engagement in history.

Mississippi and New Mexico took part in the Invasion of Lingayen Gulf, part of the Philippines campaign, in early 1945 and both were hit by kamikazes. As they were both under repair, only Idaho participated in the Battle of Iwo Jima, but all three ships were part of the bombardment force for the Battle of Okinawa, where all were damaged by kamikazes. They were present for the occupation of Japan in August and September, thereafter returning to the United States. New Mexico and Idaho were quickly decommissioned and sold for scrap, but Mississippi remained in service, having been converted into a gunnery testing and training ship. In this capacity, she experimented with anti-aircraft missiles in the mid-1950s before being sold to ship breakers in 1956.

Peter Browne (Australian politician)

Peter Grahame Browne (15 July 1924 – 11 September 2000) was an Australian Federal politician. Born in Sydney, he enlisted in 1940 and served with the 2nd AIF as a Gunner in the 2nd Anti-Aircraft Training Regiment in Darwin during the Bombing of Darwin in 1942. In 1943 he transferred to the RAAF to undertake pilot training through the Empire Air Training Scheme. He was medically discharged from the Scheme after suffering from mastoiditis. Not yet satisfied with his contribution to the war, he signed-up with the US Army Small Ships Section in June 1944 where he served on ships directly supporting the Philippines Campaign, particularly the Battle of Leyte Gulf and Invasion of Lingayen Gulf.

After the war he became a drover and horse breaker, as well as an organiser for the Liberal Party. In 1958, he was elected to the Australian House of Representatives as the Liberal member for Kalgoorlie. He held the seat until his defeat in 1961. He then served as the Principle Private Secretary to the Treasurer, Harold Holt in the Menzies government. Peter Grahame Browne died in Fremantle in 2000 and was remembered in House of Representatives.

Peter Grahame Browne is survived by his wife, Margaret, and three children, Rosemary, Stephen and Peter.

Rafael Ileto

Rafael Manio Ileto (October 24, 1920 – June 19, 2003) served as the 22nd Secretary of the Department of National Defense (DND) of the Philippines. He also became the Vice Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP). He also served as Philippine Ambassador to Turkey, Iran, Cambodia, Thailand, and Laos.

Sixth United States Army

Sixth Army is a field army of the United States Army. The Army service component command of United States Southern Command, its area of responsibility includes 31 countries and 15 areas of special sovereignty in Central and South America and the Caribbean. It is headquartered at Fort Sam Houston.

The Sixth Army saw extensive service in the South Pacific during World War II, including in New Britain, New Guinea, and the Philippines. Postwar it served stateside training army forces until its inactivation during force reduction in 1995. The army was reactivated in 2007.

USS Bell (DD-587)

USS Bell (DD-587) was a Fletcher-class destroyer of the United States Navy, the second Navy ship named for Rear Admiral Henry H. Bell (1808–1868).

Bell was launched 24 June 1942 by Charleston Navy Yard; sponsored by Mrs. Clea Cooke Hulse, great-grandniece of Admiral Bell; and commissioned 4 March 1943, Commander L.C. Peatross in command.

USS California (BB-44)

USS California (BB-44) was the second of two Tennessee-class battleships built for the United States Navy between her keel laying in October 1916 and her commissioning in August 1921. The Tennessee class was part of the standard series of twelve battleships built in the 1910s and 1920s, and were developments of the preceding New Mexico class. They were armed with a battery of twelve 14-inch (360 mm) guns in four three-gun turrets. California served as the flagship of the Battle Fleet in the Pacific Ocean for duration of her peacetime career. She spent the 1920s and 1930s participating in routine fleet training exercises, including the annual Fleet Problems, and cruises around the Americas and further abroad, such as a goodwill visit to Australia and New Zealand in 1925.

California was moored in Pearl Harbor on 7 December 1941 when the Japanese attacked the port, bringing the United States into World War II. The ship was moderately damaged by a pair of torpedoes and a bomb, but a fire disabled the ship's electrical system, preventing the pumps from being used to keep the ship afloat. California slowly filled with water over the following three days and eventually sank. Her crew suffered heavy casualties in the attack and four men were awarded the Medal of Honor for their actions during the attack. She was raised in April 1942, repaired and heavily rebuilt, and returned to service in January 1944.

The ship thereafter supported the amphibious operations conducted during the Pacific War, including the Mariana and Palau Islands campaign (though she was damaged in a collision with Tennessee and thus missed the Battle of Peleliu) and the Philippines campaign, during which she took part in the Battle of Surigao Strait. She was hit by a kamikaze during the invasion of Lingayen Gulf in January 1945, after repairs, joined the fleet supporting troops fighting on Okinawa during the Battle of Okinawa. Her crew took part in the occupation of Japan after the end of the war, and after returning to the United States via the Indian and Atlantic Oceans, was laid up in Philadelphia in 1946. She remained in the fleet's inventory until 1959, when she was broken up for scrap.

USS Cambria (APA-36)

USS Cambria (APA-36) was a Bayfield-class attack transport acquired by the U.S. Navy for service in World War II. She was named after Cambria County, Pennsylvania

Cambria was launched 10 November 1942 as SS Sea Swallow by the Western Pipe and Steel Company, San Francisco, California, under a Maritime Commission contract; sponsored by Mrs. W. Griffin; acquired by the Navy 4 May 1943; placed in partial commission the same day, Lieutenant Commander William S. Baker USN, in command; sailed to New York for decommissioning and conversion to an attack transport; and recommissioned 10 November 1943, Captain Charles W. Dean, USCG, in command.

USS Cambria was taken out of service in 1970.

USS Capricornus (AKA-57)

USS Capricornus (AKA-57/LKA-57) was an Andromeda-class attack cargo ship named after the zodiacal constellation Capricornus.

Capricornus (AKA-57) was launched on 14 August 1943 as Spitfire by Moore Dry Dock Co., Oakland, California, under a Maritime Commission contract, sponsored by Mrs. J. E. Mock, acquired by the Navy on 25 November 1943, placed in partial commission the same day, decommissioned on 29 November 1943, and converted by Willamette Iron and Steel Works, Portland, Oregon, and commissioned in full on 31 May 1944, Commander B. F. McGuckin, USNR, in command.

USS Howorth (DD-592)

USS Howorth (DD-592) was a Fletcher-class destroyer built for the United States Navy during World War II. She was laid down on 26 November 1941, launched on 10 January 1943, and commissioned on 3 April 1944 at Puget Sound Naval Shipyard in Bremerton, Washington. She was the 161st ship of her class. Howorth was named after William L. Howorth, a US Navy sailor who participated in the sinking of CSS Albemarle during the Civil War.

USS Kendall C. Campbell

USS Kendall C. Campbell (DE-443) was a John C. Butler-class destroyer escort acquired by the U.S. Navy during World War II. The primary purpose of the destroyer escort was to escort and protect ships in convoy, in addition to other tasks as assigned, such as patrol or radar picket. Post-war she proudly returned home with four battle stars to her credit.

Kendall C. Campbell was named in honor of Kendall Carl Campbell who was twice awarded the Navy Cross, once during the New Guinea campaign and again during the Battle of the Coral Sea.

Kendall C. Campbell was launched 19 March 1944 by the Federal Shipbuilding & Drydock Co., Newark, New Jersey; sponsored by Mrs. Carl B. Campbell; and commissioned 31 July 1944, Lt. Comdr. R. W. Johnson in command.

USS Lyman

USS Lyman (DE-302) was an Evarts-class destroyer escort of the United States Navy during World War II. She served in the Pacific Theatre, escorting convoys and other ships. She received a total of five battle stars for her service during the war, but was decommissioned and sold for scrap within 18 months of the war's end.

USS Salamaua

USS Salamaua (CVE-96) was a Casablanca-class escort carrier of the United States Navy. She was named after Salamaua, Morobe Province, Papua New Guinea, a strategically important village in the New Guinea Theater, and one of the main targets of the Salamaua–Lae campaign. She served with distinction, notably being damaged by a kamikaze aircraft during the Invasion of Lingayen Gulf, killing 15 crewmen and injuring 88. Post war, the ship was decommissioned and struck in 1946, ultimately being broken up in 1947.

USS Thomason (DE-203)

USS Thomason (DE-203) was a Buckley-class destroyer escort of the United States Navy in World War II. She was named in honor of Marine Raider Sergeant Clyde A. Thomason (1914–1942), the first Marine to be awarded the Medal of Honor in World War II — posthumously, for heroism during the Makin Island raid.

Thomason was laid down on 5 June 1943 at the Charleston Navy Yard; launched on 23 August 1943; sponsored by Miss Sara Jeanette Thomason; and commissioned on 10 December 1943, Lieutenant Commander Charles B. Henriques, USNR, in command.

The destroyer escort held shakedown training in the Bermuda area and performed convoy escort duty along the east coast from Newport, R.I., to Panama. She transited the Panama Canal on 21 March 1944 and headed for the New Hebrides. The ship called at Galapagos, the Society Islands, and Samoa before arriving at Espiritu Santo on 18 April. She joined the U.S. 3d Fleet and, in addition to performing antisubmarine duty in Indispensable Strait which separates Guadalcanal and Malaita Islands, escorted ships to Guadalcanal.

On 26 May, the DE arrived at Cape Cretin to join the U.S. 7th Fleet for operations along the coast of New Guinea. On 3 June, the ship got underway for Wakde and arrived there the following week. On the 13th, her gunners helped Army antiaircraft units repel an enemy air attack. Six days later, she took Army artillery observers along the coast to Sarmi where she shelled enemy emplacements and an air strip. The ship operated from Wakde until 7 August when she shifted her base of operations to Noemfoor, Schouten Islands. In early September, she returned to Espiritu Santo for an overhaul.

On 4 October, DE-203 stood out to sea to rendezvous with two ammunition ships to escort them to the Palaus. She remained at Kossol Passage for a month, serving as harbor entrance control ship before returning to Hollandia. On 6 November, the destroyer got underway for Maffin Bay. Two days later, Thomason and Neuendorf (DE-200) bombarded Sarmi and targets along the bay. With the aid of Army spotting planes, the two ships set fire to enemy storehouses and several other buildings.

Thomason headed for the Philippines on 9 November in the screen of a large convoy of landing craft and supply ships. She arrived in Leyte Gulf on the 15th and sailed the same day with a convoy bound for Hollandia. The destroyer escort then conducted intensive antiaircraft and antisubmarine training at Mios Woendi and landing exercises at Aitape with attack transports that were scheduled to participate in the invasion of Lingayen Gulf.

On 28 December 1944, the destroyer escort sortied for Luzon with Task Group 78.1 (TG 78.1), the San Fabian Attack Force. En route to the Philippines, she was detached to accompany two fuel oil tankers who were scheduled to refuel the escort ships of Task Force 79 (TF 79), which was also en route to Lingayen Gulf.

Thomason began antisubmarine patrols in Mangarin Bay, off Mindoro on 7 January 1945. One month later, she and Neuendorf began antisubmarine patrol duty off the west coast of Luzon. At 22:22 on 7 February, Thomason's SL surface radar made a contact at a range of 14 miles (26 km), which was thought to be a small boat. She closed the range and challenged the craft with a flashing light. There was no answer, and surface radar lost contact. However, sonar soon made an underwater contact.

The escort made a hedgehog run but did not fire because she was going too fast. She made another run and fired a pattern of hedgehogs. On both runs, a large submerged mass, outlined by phosphorescence, was seen moving through the water at a depth of between 25 and 50 feet. Four to six of the hedgehogs detonated almost simultaneously, and contact with the target was lost. A heavy oil slick, 250 yards in diameter, rose to the surface. The two ships patrolled until late in the morning, in an expanding search pattern, but never regained contact with the Japanese submarine. RO-55 had been sunk in over 800 fathoms (1,500 m) of water.

Thomason returned to Mangarin Bay where she resumed antisubmarine patrols. On the 24th, she rescued four airmen who had bailed out of their burning B-24 Liberator bomber. From March through August, the ship was engaged in antisubmarine patrols and escort duty between various Philippine ports, Palau, and Hollandia. On 15 August 1945, the Japanese surrendered to the Allies. In September, she escorted two convoys from Luzon to Okinawa. On 4 October, Thomason stood out of Subic Bay and headed for the United States. She called at San Francisco, California on the 27th and moved to San Diego for inactivation. Thomason was decommissioned on 22 May 1946 and struck from the Navy list on 30 June 1968. On 30 June 1969, she was sold to the National Metal & Steel Corp., Terminal Island, Long Beach, Calif., for scrap.

Thomason received three battle stars for World War II service.

USS West Virginia (BB-48)

USS West Virginia (BB-48) was the fourth dreadnought battleship of the Colorado class, though because Washington was cancelled, she was the third and final member of the class to be completed. The Colorado class proved to be the culmination of the standard-type battleship series built for the United States Navy in the 1910s and 1920s; the ships were essentially repeats of the earlier Tennessee design, but with a significantly more powerful main battery of eight 16-inch (410 mm) guns in twin-gun turrets. West Virginia was built between her keel laying in 1920 and her commissioning into the Navy in 1923. The ship spent the 1920s and 1930s conducting routine training exercises, including the typically-annual Fleet Problems, which provided invaluable experience for the coming war in the Pacific.

West Virginia was moored in Battleship Row on the morning of 7 December 1941 when Japan attacked Pearl Harbor, bringing the United States into World War II. Badly damaged by torpedoes, the ship sank in the shallow water but was later refloated and extensively rebuilt over the course of 1943 and into mid-1944. She returned to service in time for the Philippines Campaign, where she led the American line of battle at the Battle of Surigao Strait on the night of 24–25 October. There, she was one of the few American battleships to use her radar to acquire a target in the darkness, allowing her to engage a Japanese squadron in what was the final action between battleships in naval history.

After Surigao Strait, the ship remained in the Philippines to support troops fighting during the Battle of Leyte in 1944 and then supported the invasion of Lingayen Gulf in early 1945. The ship also took part in the Battles of Iwo Jima and Okinawa later that year, providing extensive fire support to the ground forces invading those islands. During the latter operation, she was hit by a kamikaze that did little damage. Following the surrender of Japan, West Virginia took part in the initial occupation and thereafter participated in Operation Magic Carpet, carrying soldiers and sailors from Hawaii to the mainland United States before being deactivated in 1946. She was decommissioned in 1947 and assigned to the Pacific Reserve Fleet, where she remained until 1959 when she was sold to ship breakers and dismantled.

VF-80

Fighter Squadron 80 or VF-80 was an aviation unit of the United States Navy. Originally established on 1 February 1944, it was disestablished on 16 September 1946. It was the first US Navy squadron to be designated VF-80.

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