The invasion of Java in 1811 was a successful British amphibious operation against the Dutch East Indian island of Java that took place between August and September 1811 during the Napoleonic Wars. Originally established as a colony of the Dutch Republic, Java remained in Dutch hands throughout the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, during which time the French invaded the Republic and established the Batavian Republic in 1795, and the Kingdom of Holland in 1806. The Kingdom of Holland was annexed to the First French Empire in 1810, and Java became a titular French colony, though it continued to be administered and defended primarily by Dutch personnel.
After the fall of French colonies in the West Indies in 1809 and 1810, and a successful campaign against French possessions in Mauritius in 1810 and 1811, attention turned to the Dutch East Indies. An expedition was dispatched from India in April 1811, while a small squadron of frigates was ordered to patrol off the island, raiding shipping and launching amphibious assaults against targets of opportunity. Troops were landed on 4 August, and by 8 August the undefended city of Batavia capitulated. The defenders withdrew to a previously prepared fortified position, Fort Cornelis, which the British besieged, capturing it early in the morning of 26 August. The remaining defenders, a mixture of Dutch and French regulars and native militiamen, withdrew, pursued by the British. A series of amphibious and land assaults captured most of the remaining strongholds, and the city of Salatiga surrendered on 16 September, followed by the official capitulation of the island to the British on 18 September. The island remained in British hands for the remainder of the Napoleonic Wars, and was restored to the Dutch in the Convention of London in 1814.
The Netherlands had been controlled by France for several years and was already at war with Britain. The strongly pro-French Herman Willem Daendels was appointed Governor General of the Dutch East Indies in 1807. He arrived in Java aboard the French privateer Virginie in 1808, and began fortifying the island against the threat of a British siege. In particular, Daendels established an entrenched camp named Fort Cornelis a few miles south of Batavia. He also improved the island's defences by building new hospitals, barracks, arms factories and a new military college.
In 1810, the Netherlands were formally annexed by France. As part of the resulting changes, Jan Willem Janssens was appointed personally by Napoleon Bonaparte to replace Daendels as Governor General. Janssens had previously served as Governor General of the Cape Colony, and had been forced to capitulate after being defeated by British forces at the Battle of Blaauwberg in 1806. He arrived in Java in April 1811 aboard the French frigates Méduse and Nymphe and the corvette Sappho, accompanied by several hundred French troops (light infantry) and some senior French officers.
The British had already occupied the Dutch East Indian possessions of Ambon and the Molucca Islands. They had also recently captured the French islands of Réunion and Mauritius in the Mauritius campaign of 1809–1811. Stamford Raffles, an official of the British East India Company who had been forced to leave the Dutch settlement at Malacca when the Netherlands were annexed, suggested to Lord Minto, the Governor-General of India, that Java and the other Dutch possessions should be captured. With the large forces which had been made available to him for the Mauritius campaign, Minto enthusiastically adopted the suggestion, and even proposed to accompany the expedition himself.
The Navy was active off the Javanese coastline before and during the expedition. On 23 May 1811 a party from HMS Sir Francis Drake attacked a flotilla of 14 Dutch gunvessels off Surabaya, capturing nine of them. Merak, in north-western Java, was attacked and the fort defending the town largely demolished by a party from HMS Minden and HMS Leda on 30 July. On the same day HMS Procris attacked a squadron of six Dutch gunboats flying French colours, capturing five and destroying the sixth.
The British force, initially under the command of Vice-Admiral William O'Bryen Drury, and then after his death in March 1811, under Commodore William Robert Broughton, assembled at bases in India in early 1811. The first division of troops, under the command of Colonel Rollo Gillespie, left Madras on 18 April, escorted by a squadron under Captain Christopher Cole aboard the 36-gun HMS Caroline. They arrived at Penang on 18 May, and on 21 May the second division, led by Major-General Frederick Augustus Wetherall, which had left Calcutta on 21 April, escorted by a squadron under Captain Fleetwood Pellew, aboard the 38-gun HMS Phaeton joined them. The two squadrons sailed together, arriving at Malacca on 1 June, where they made contact with a division of troops from Bengal under Lieutenant-General Sir Samuel Auchmuty, escorted by Commodore Broughton aboard the 74-gun HMS Illustrious. Auchmuty and Broughton became the military and naval commanders in chief respectively of the expedition. With the force now assembled Auchmuty had roughly 11,960 men under his command, the previous strength having been reduced by approximately 1,200 by sickness. Those too ill to travel on were landed at Malacca, and on 11 June the fleet sailed onwards. After calling at various points en route, the force arrived off Indramayu on 30 June.
There the fleet waited for a time for intelligence concerning the Dutch strength. Colonel Mackenzie, an officer who had been dispatched to reconnoitre the coast, suggested a landing site at Cilincing, an undefended fishing village 12 miles (19 km) east of Batavia. The fleet anchored off the Marandi River on 4 August, and began landing troops at 14:00. The defenders were taken by surprise, and nearly six hours passed before Franco-Dutch troops arrived to oppose the landing, by which time 8,000 British troops had been landed. A brief skirmish took place between the advance guards, and the Franco-Dutch forces were repulsed.
On learning of the successful British landing, Janssens withdrew from Batavia with his army, which amounted to between 8,000 and 10,090 men, and garrisoned themselves in Fort Cornelis. The British advanced on Batavia, reaching it on 8 August and finding it undefended. The city surrendered to the forces under Colonel Gillespie, after Broughton and Auchmuty had offered promises to respect private property. The British were disappointed to find that part of the town had been set on fire, and many warehouses full of goods such as coffee and sugar had been looted or flooded, depriving them of prize money. On 9 August 1811 Rear-Admiral Robert Stopford arrived and superseded Commodore Broughton, who was judged to be too cautious. Stopford had orders to supersede Rear-Admiral Albemarle Bertie as commander in chief at the Cape, but on his arrival he learnt of Vice-Admiral Drury's death, and the planned expedition to Java, and so travelled on.
General Janssens had always intended to rely on the tropical climate and disease to weaken the British army rather than oppose a landing. The British now advanced on Janssens's stronghold, reducing enemy positions as they went. The Dutch military and naval station at Weltevreeden fell to the British after an attack on 10 August. British losses did not exceed 100 while the defenders lost over 300. In one skirmish, one of Janssens's French subordinates, General Alberti, was killed when he mistook some British troops in green uniforms for Dutch troops. Weltevreeden was six miles from Fort Cornelis and on 20 August the British began preparing fortifications of their own, some 600 yards from the Franco-Dutch positions.
Fort Cornelis measured 1 mile (1,600 m) in length by between 600 yards (550 m) and 800 yards (730 m) in breadth. Two hundred and eighty cannon were mounted on its walls and bastions. Its defenders were a mixed bag of Dutch, French and East Indies troops. Most of the locally raised East Indian troops were of doubtful loyalty and effectiveness, although there were some determined artillerymen from Celebes. The captured station at Weltevreeden proved an ideal base from which the British could lay siege to Fort Cornelis. On 14 August the British completed a trail through the forests and pepper plantations to allow them to bring up heavy guns and munitions, and opened siege works on the north side of the Fort. For several days, there were exchanges of fire between the fort and the British batteries, manned mainly by Royal Marines and sailors from HMS Nisus.
A sortie from the fort early on the morning of 22 August briefly seized three of the British batteries, until they were driven back by some of the Bengal Sepoys and the 69th Foot. The two sides then exchanged heavy fire, faltering on 23 August, but resuming on 24 August. The Franco-Dutch position worsened when a deserter helped General Rollo Gillespie to capture two of the redoubts by surprise. Gillespie, who was suffering from fever, collapsed, but recovered to storm a third redoubt. The French General Jauffret was taken prisoner. Two Dutch officers, Major Holsman and Major Muller, sacrificed themselves to blow up the redoubt's magazine.
The three redoubts were nevertheless the key to the defence, and their loss demoralised most of Janssens's East Indian troops. Many Dutch troops also defected, repudiating their allegiance to the French. The British stormed the fort at midnight on 25 August, capturing it after a bitter fight. The siege cost the British 630 casualties. The defenders' casualties were heavier, but only those among officers were fully recorded. Forty of them were killed, sixty-three wounded and 230 captured, including two French generals. Nearly 5,000 men were captured, including three general officers, 34 field officers, 70 captains and 150 subaltern officers. 1,000 men were found dead in the fort, with more being killed in the subsequent pursuit. Janssens escaped to Buitenzorg with a few survivors from his army, but was forced to abandon the town when the British approached.
Total British losses in the campaign after the fall of Fort Cornelis amounted to 141 killed, 733 wounded and 13 missing from the Army, and 15 killed, 45 wounded and three missing from the Navy; a total of 156 killed, 788 wounded and 16 missing by 27 August.
Royal Navy ships continued to patrol off the coast, occasionally making raids on targets of opportunity. On 4 September two French 40-gun frigates, the Méduse and the Nymphe attempted to escape from Surabaya. They were pursued by the 36-gun HMS Bucephalus and the 18-gun HMS Barracouta, until Barracouta lost contact. Bucephalus pursued them alone until 12 September, when the French frigates came about and attempted to overhaul her. Bucephalus's commander, Captain Charles Pelly, turned about and tried to lead the pursuing French over shoals, but seeing the danger, they hauled off and abandoned the chase, returning to Europe.
On 31 August a force from the frigates HMS Hussar, HMS Phaeton and HMS Sir Francis Drake, and the sloop HMS Dasher captured the fort and town of Sumenep, on Madura Island in the face of a large Dutch defending force. The rest of Madura and several surrounding islands placed themselves under the British soon afterwards. Suspecting Janssen to be in Cirebon, a force was landed there from HMS Lion, HMS Nisus, HMS President, HMS Phoebe and HMS Hesper on 4 September, causing the defenders to promptly surrender. General Jamelle, a member of Janssens's staff, was captured in the fall of the town. The town and fort of Taggal surrendered on 12 September after HMS Nisus and HMS Phoebe arrived offshore.
While the navy took control of coastal towns, the army pushed on into the interior of the island. Janssens had been reinforced on 3 September by 1,200 mounted irregulars under Prince Prang Wedono and other Javanese militia. On 16 September Salatiga fell to the British. Janssen attacked a British force under Colonel Samuel Gibbs that day, but was repulsed. Many of the native militia killed their Dutch officers in the ensuing rout. With his effective force reduced to a handful of men, Janssens surrendered two days later, on 18 September.
The Dutch-held islands of Amboyna, Harouka, Saparua, Nasso-Laut, Buru, Manipa, Manado, Copang, Amenang, Kemar, Twangwoo and Ternate had surrendered to a force led by Captain Edward Tucker in 1810, while Captain Christopher Cole captured the Banda Islands, completing the conquest of Dutch possessions in the Maluku Islands. Java became the last major colonial possession in the East not under British control, and its fall marked the effective end of the war in these waters. Stamford Raffles was appointed Lieutenant Governor of Java. He ended Dutch administrative methods, liberalized the system of land tenure, and extended trade. Britain returned Java and other East Indian possessions to the newly independent United Kingdom of the Netherlands under the terms of the Convention of London in 1814. One enduring legacy of the British occupation was the road rules, as the British had decreed that traffic should drive on the left, and this has endured in Indonesia to this day.
Stopford's fleet on his arrival on 9 August to assume command of the expedition, consisted of the following ships, dispersed around the Javanese coast:
|Rear-Admiral Stopford's fleet|
|HMS Scipion||Third rate||74||Rear-Admiral Hon. Robert Stopford
Captain James Johnson
|HMS Illustrious||Third rate||74||Commodore William Robert Broughton
Captain Robert Festing
|HMS Minden||Third rate||74||Captain Edward Wallis Hoare|
|HMS Lion||Third rate||64||Captain Henry Heathcote|
|HMS Akbar||Fifth rate||44||Captain Henry Drury|
|HMS Nisus||Fifth rate||38||Captain Philip Beaver|
|HMS President||Fifth rate||38||Captain Samuel Warren|
|HMS Hussar||Fifth rate||38||Captain James Coutts Crawford|
|HMS Phaeton||Fifth rate||38||Captain Fleetwood Pellew|
|HMS Leda||Fifth rate||36||Captain George Sayer|
|HMS Caroline||Fifth rate||36||Captain Christopher Cole|
|HMS Modeste||Fifth rate||36||Captain Hon. George Elliot|
|HMS Phoebe||Fifth rate||36||Captain James Hillyar|
|HMS Bucephalus||Fifth rate||36||Captain Charles Pelly|
|HMS Doris||Fifth rate||36||Captain William Jones Lye|
|HMS Cornelia||Fifth rate||32||Captain Henry Folkes Edgell|
|HMS Psyche||Fifth rate||32||Captain John Edgcumbe|
|HMS Sir Francis Drake||Fifth rate||32||Captain George Harris|
|HMS Procris||Brig-sloop||18||Commander Robert Maunsell|
|HMS Barracouta||Brig-sloop||18||Commander William Fitzwilliam Owen|
|HMS Hesper||Ship-sloop||18||Commander Barrington Reynolds|
|HMS Harpy||Sloop||18||Commander Henderson Bain|
|HMS Hecate||Brig-sloop||18||Commander Henry John Peachey|
|HMS Dasher||Sloop||18||Commander Benedictus Marwood Kelly|
|HMS Samarang||Sloop||18||Commander Joseph Drury|
|In addition to the vessels of the Royal Navy, the East India Company provided the services of several of their ships, led by the Malabar under Commodore John Hayes. The EIC vessels included Ariel, Aurora, Mornington, Nautilus, Psyche, Thetis, and Vestal. When one adds in the transport vessels, and several gunboats captured as the campaign progressed, Stopford commanded nearly a hundred ships. One of the transports appears to have been the East Indiaman Windham.|
|The British Army troops attached to the force included 12,000 soldiers from the 22nd Light Dragoons, 14th Foot, 59th Foot, 69th Foot, 78th Foot; 89th Foot, and 102nd Foot. The Navy provided contingents of the Royal Marines. The EIC contributed several regiments of Madras Native Infantry and Bengal Native Infantry, with half of the overall troop strength consisting of EIC Indian troops. General Samuel Auchmuty was the overall commander, but he delegated the field command to Major General Rollo Gillespie.|
The 22nd Dragoons was the title held by four separate Cavalry regiments of the British Army raised and disbanded between 1716 and 1945. The last regiment of this name existed during the Second World War, from 1 December 1940 until 30 November 1945.Bucephalus
Bucephalus or Bucephalas (; Ancient Greek: Βουκεφάλας, from βοῦς bous, "ox" and κεφαλή kephalē, "head" meaning "ox-head") (c. 355 BC – June 326 BC) was the horse of Alexander the Great, and one of the most famous horses of antiquity.Ancient accounts state that Bucephalus died after the Battle of the Hydaspes in 326 BC, in what is now modern Punjab Province of Pakistan, and is buried in Jalalpur Sharif outside Jhelum, Punjab, Pakistan. Another account states that Bucephalus is buried in Phalia, a town in Pakistan's Mandi Bahauddin District in Punjab Province, which is named after him (Alexandria Bucephalous).
Bucephalus was named after a branding mark depicting an ox's head on his haunch.Bucephalus (disambiguation)
Bucephalus may refer to:
Bucephalus (brand), an ox-head branding mark anciently used on horses
Bucephalus (c. 355 BC – 326 BC), Alexander the Great's horse
Bucephalus (racehorse), an 18th-century Thoroughbred racehorse
Bucephalus (trematode), a trematode flatworm genus
HMS Bucephalus, an early 19th-century English naval vessel — see also Invasion of Java (1811).
The Crystal Bucephalus, an original 1994 Doctor Who novel written by Craig Hinton
BTR-4 "Bucephalus", Ukrainian armored troop carrierDejima
Dejima (Japanese: 出島, "exit island") was a Dutch trading post located in Nagasaki, Japan from 1641 to 1854.Dejima was a small fan-shaped artificial island in the bay of Nagasaki covering an area of 120 m × 75 m (390 ft × 250 ft) or 9,000 m2 (2.2 acres), and is listed in old Western documents Latinised as Deshima, Decima, Desjima, Dezima, Disma, or Disima. Dejima was built in 1634 to house Portuguese traders and separate them from Japanese society by digging a canal through a small peninsula. The Dutch were moved to Dejima in 1641 and during most of the Edo period the island was the single place of direct trade and exchange between Japan and the outside world. Dejima was abolished after the Treaty of Kanagawa in 1854 and the island was later integrated into Nagasaki city through land reclamation. In 1922, the "Dejima Dutch Trading Post" was designated a Japanese national historic site.Dutch corvette Scipio (1784)
The Dutch corvette Scipio was launched in 1784. She convoyed Dutch East Indiamen between the cape of Good Hope and Europe until HMS Psyche captured her at Samarang in 1807. The British Royal Navy initially referred to her as HMS Scipio, but then renamed her to HMS Samarang in 1808. (She was not commissioned in the Royal Navy. She was instrumental in the capture of Amboyna and especially Pulo Ay, and participated in the invasion of Java (1811). She was sold at Bombay in 1814. She then entered mercantile service, sailing between Liverpool and India until 1827. She became an opium trader sailing between India and Canton, and was broken up near Hong Kong in August 1833.HMS Illustrious (1803)
HMS Illustrious, a 74-gun third rate ship of the line and the second of that name,
was built by Randall & Brent at Rotherhithe where her keel was laid in February 1801. Launched on 3 September 1803, she was completed at Woolwich.
first commissioned for the Channel Fleet under Captain Sir Charles Hamilton and was
involved in the Battle of the Basque Roads in 1809, in which she won a battle honour, and
in the expeditions against the docks at Antwerp and render the Schelde unnavigable to French ships.
On 22 November 1810, Illustrious was amongst the fleet that captured Île de France on 3 December. She then took part in the Invasion of Java (1811) in Indonesia.
She was refitted at Portsmouth (1813–17) and then laid up in reserve until recommissioned in 1832.
She was laid up again in 1845, and later used as a guard-ship, a hospital ship and, lastly,
in 1854 she became a gunnery training ship and continued as one until she was broken up in 1868 in Portsmouth. .Index of Indonesia-related articles
The following is an alphabetical list of topics related to the Republic of Indonesia.Java War (disambiguation)
The Java War (1825–30) was fought between the Diponegoro and the Dutch Empire.
Java War may also refer to:
First Javanese War of Succession (1704–07), civil war
Second Javanese War of Succession (1719–23), civil war
Java War (1741–43), between the Javanese and Dutch
Third Javanese War of Succession (1749–57), civil war
Invasion of Java (1811), between the British and DutchKarimata Strait
The Karimata Strait (Indonesian: Selat Karimata) also spelled Carimata or Caramata is the wide strait that connects the South China Sea to the Java Sea, separating the Indonesian islands of Sumatra and Borneo (Kalimantan). It is bordered by the Belitung island (off Sumatra's eastern coast) in the west and Borneo in the east. It is the widest strait that connects the South China Sea and the Java Sea (other straits include the Bangka and Gaspar Straits), but its numerous islands and reefs reduce its navigability. Its weather and current is influenced by the annual southeast and northwest monsoon.
It was used as an invasion route by the British fleet in the 1811 Invasion of Java in the Dutch East Indies. More recently, it was the site of the crash of Indonesia AirAsia Flight 8501, and the location of the 2016 edition of Sail Indonesia (dubbed "Sail Karimata Strait").List of Indonesia-related topics
This is a list of topics related to Indonesia.Matilda (1803 ship)
Matilda was launched at Calcutta in 1803. She spent most of her career in private trade in India or in trading between England and India. She participated in the British invasion of Java (1811) and made one voyage for the British East India Company (EIC). She grounded and was wrecked in March 1822.Matilda (ship)
Several vessels have borne the name Matilda:
Matilda (1790 ship) was a ship built in France and launched in 1779. She first appears in British records in 1790 as a whaling ship and transported convicts to Australia in 1791; she wrecked in 1792.
Matilda (1803 ship) was launched at Calcutta in 1803. She spent most of her career in private trade in India or in trading between England and India. She participated in the British invasion of Java (1811) and made one voyage for the British East India Company (EIC). She grounded and was wrecked in March 1822.
Matilda (1812 ship) was an American privateer out of Philadelphia that the British captured in July 1813, that the Americans recaptured, that the British recaptured, and that the Americans again recapturedSee also:
HMS Matilda - one of two vessels that served the British Royal NavyNaval General Service Medal (1847)
The Naval General Service Medal (NGSM) was a campaign medal approved in 1847, and issued to officers and men of the Royal Navy in 1849. The final date for submitting claims was 1 May 1851. Admiral Thomas Bladen Capel was one of the members of the board that authorised the medal.
The NGSM was awarded retrospectively for various naval actions during the period 1793–1840, a period that included the French Revolutionary Wars, the Napoleonic Wars and the Anglo-American War of 1812. Each battle or campaign covered by the medal was represented by a clasp on the ribbon. The medal was never issued without a clasp, 231 of which were sanctioned. The clasps covered a variety of actions, from boat service, ship to ship skirmishes, to major fleet actions such as the Battle of Trafalgar.
This medal and its army counterpart, the Military General Service Medal, were amongst the first real British campaign medals, issued to all ranks for serving in combat actions.Naval campaigns, operations and battles of the Napoleonic Wars
The naval campaigns, operations and battles of the Napoleonic Wars were events during the period of World-wide warfare between 1802 and 1814 that were undertaken by European powers in support of their land-based strategies. All events included in this article represent fleet actions that involved major naval commands larger than 3–4 ships of the line, and usually commanded by a flag officer.
The period commenced with the breakdown of the Peace of Amiens on the 16 May 1803. Three days later Cornwallis began the Blockade of Brest. On 10 May 1804 William Pitt was instrumental in creating the Third Coalition.Olive (1802 ship)
Olive was launched at Calcutta in 1802. The French captured her in 1806 and the French Navy took her into service under her existing name. She was decommissioned in March 1807.Samuel Gibbs
Samuel Gibbs may refer to:
Samuel Gibbs, Invasion of Java (1811)
Sam GibbsTransport vessels for the British invasion of Java (1811)
For the invasion of Java (1811), under the auspices of Lord Minto, the British government hired a number of transport vessels. Most of the transports were "country ships". Country ships were vessels that were registered in ports of British India such as Bombay and Calcutta, and that traded around India, with Southeast Asia, and China, but that did not sail to England without special authorization from the EIC. In addition, some of the transports for the invasion were "regular ships" of the British East India Company (EIC), and some were "extra ships". Regular ships were on a long term contract with the EIC, and extra ships were vessels the EIC had chartered for one or more voyages.
The data in the table below comes primarily from two sources. An 1814 report from a Select Committee of the House of Commons of the British Parliament provided the data only on country ships, giving the names of a large number of vessels, and their burthen (bm). Then the Naval chronicle published a list of which vessels had assembled at Malacca in May–June 1811, and then sailed for Java. The list in the Naval Chronicle also included the names of British Royal Navy warships, EIC warships, and other EIC vessels, particularly regular and extra ships. A number of transports in the Select Committee report do not show up as having sailed from Malacca. Equally, a number of transports in the Naval Chronicle list are not in the Select Committee report. Transports without burthen data are in the Naval Chronicle but not in the Select Committee report.
Names of vessels that appear in both lists do not always agree. Some vessels in the Select Committee report that have compound names such as "Bombay Anna" or "Arab Mary" appear in the Naval Chronicle as Bombay and Anna, and as Arab and Mary. Also, transliteration of non-English names shows no consistency across sources, making it extremely difficult to try to find more information about the vessels in question.
Many of the transports gathered at Malacca and then left in four divisions on the following days:
1st division: 7 June 1811
2nd division: 11 June
3rd division: 14 June
4th division: 17 JuneTransport vessels for the British invasions of Île Bourbon and Île de France (1810)
For the invasions of Île Bourbon and Île de France (Mauritius) the British government hired a number of transport vessels. Most of the transports were "country ships". Country ships were vessels that were registered in ports of British India such as Bombay and Calcutta, and that traded around India, with Southeast Asia, and China, but that did not sail to England without special authorization from the EIC. In addition, some were "regular ships" of the British East India Company (EIC), and some were "extra ships". Regular ships were on a long term contract with the EIC, and extra ships were vessels the EIC had chartered for one or more voyages.
The data in the table below comes primarily from an 1814 report from a Select Committee of the House of Commons of the British Parliament, which provided the data only on country ships, giving the names of a large number of vessels, and their burthen (bm).
Also, transliteration of non-English names shows no consistency across sources, making it extremely difficult to try to find more information about the vessels in question.
The British government chartered some nine of these vessels as cartels to carry back to France the French troops that they had captured in these campaigns. An asterix after the name in the table below designates the vessels.Vorstenlanden
The Vorstenlanden (English: Princely Lands) were four native states on the island of Java in the Netherlands Indies that were nominally self-governing under suzerainty of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Their political autonomy was however severely constrained by treaties and settlements.
The territories were
Surakarta, a sunanate to the north
Yogyakarta, the sultanate to the south
Mangkunegaran, a principality to the east
Pakualaman, a small principality largely enclosed within the area of the Sultanate of YogyakartaThe princely territories were successor states to the Mataram Sultanate and originated in civil wars and wars of succession within the Javanese nobility. The susuhunan of Surakarta represented the direct line of succession; the other three rulers represented cadet branches.
In 1755, during the Third Javanese War of Succession, the Sultanate of Mataram split into the Surakarta Sunanate and the Yogyakarta Sultanate (contemporaneous Dutch spelling: Djokjakarta); Mankunegoro split from Surakarta in 1757. Lastly, Paku Alam split off from Yogyakarta in 1812 after the Invasion of Java (1811).The native rulers were formally considered 'autocrats' by the colonial authorities and all land in their territories was considered their property. Yet they did not have jurisdiction over Europeans and 'non-indigenous Orientals' and most native law courts were eventually replaced by Dutch colonial ones. The colonial government also assumed authority in other areas; the princely territories did not have their own postal services, for instance. Dutch colonial administrators assumed the role of 'older brother' to the native princes, a relationship which was ritually symbolised by native princes taking the right arm of Dutch residents and governors during public ceremonies. The native rulers were styled as Princely Highness by the Dutch authorities.
Yogyakarta is the only Vorstenland that still has a special status within the current Republic of Indonesia, namely as daerah istimewah (special district).