Intertype Corporation

The Intertype Corporation produced the Intertype, a typecasting machine closely resembling the Linotype, and using the same matrices as the Linotype. It was founded in New York in 1911 by Hermann Ridder, of Ridder Publications, as the International Typesetting Machine Company, but purchased by a syndicate for $1,650,000 in 1916 and reorganized as the Intertype Corporation.[1]

Originally, most of their machines were rebuilt Linotypes. By 1917, however, Intertype was producing three models of its own machine. Most of the original patents for the Linotype had expired and so the basic works of the Intertype were essentially the same, though incorporating at least 51 improvement patents. The standard Intertype could cast type up to thirty points and they also offered a "Composing Stick Attachment" that allowed their caster to be used to cast headlines up to 60 points.[2]

Despite initial liquidity problems, Intertype was quite successful in later years, producing mixer machines, high speed machines, and the first photo-type compositor. In 1957, Intertype merged with Harris-Seybold, a manufacturer of presses and paper cutters, to become Harris-Intertype Corporation. After the merger, the Harris-Intertype Fotosetter was introduced. It was the first photo-typesetting machine and was based upon the standard Intertype machine, replacing the brass type matrices with small film negatives and instead of casting, used these to expose photographic paper.

Intertype Corporation
Industry Graphic Arts Equipment
FounderHermann Ridder
Defunct1957, merged with Harris-Seybold
HeadquartersBrooklyn, New York, United States
Key people
Wilbur Scudder, Gilbert Powderly Farrar, Edwin W. Shaar
Number of employees
750 employees in 1912
Intertype Machine
Intertype Machine
Intertype HMC
Intertype Machine on display at the Historical Museum of Crete

Type Development

Throughout its history, Intertype machines were typically better built and engineered than Mergenthaler's, with simpler, more effective mechanisms. However, while both Mergenthaler and Lanston Monotype were known for producing new and innovative type designs, virtually all of Intertype's typefaces were derivatives of, or supplied to them, by the Bauer Type Foundry. The only type designer of note associated with Intertype was Edwin W. Shaar, who pioneered in adapting script faces for machine composition.[3]

Intertype Matrices

These typefaces were produced by Intertype:

  • Beton (1931–36, Heinrich Jost), matrices cut by Bauer Type Foundry
  • Cairo
  • Czarin (c. 1948, Edwin W. Shaar), a knock-off of Rudolf Koch's capitals-only font Offenbach Medium with lower-case letters added by Scharr
  • Folio (1956–63, Baum + Bauer), matrices cut by Bauer Type Foundry
  • Futura was copied by Intertype with additional weights being added in the early 1950s by Edwin W. Shaar and Tommy Thompson
  • Imperial + Italic (1954, Edwin W. Shaar), used by The New York Times since 1967[4]
  • Satellite + Italic + bold (1974, Edwin W. Shaar)
  • Vogue series
    • Vogue
    • Vogue Oblique
    • Vogue Condensed
    • Vogue Extra Condensed (1971, Edwin W. Shaar)
    • Vogue Bold
    • Vogue Bold Oblique
    • Vogue Bold Condensed also known as Vogue Headletter
    • Vogue Medium Condensed
    • Vogue Bold Extra Condensed
    • Vogue Extra Bold + Oblique
    • Vogue Extra Bold Condensed + Oblque
    • Lining Vogue + Bold

Intertype Berlin

The Berlin branch of Intertype was actually more active in producing new designs than the parent company. The following matrices were produced there:

  • Berlin (1962)


  1. ^ "NEW TYPE MACHINE CO.; Intertype Corporation to Take Over the International". New York Times. January 26, 1916. Retrieved May 28, 2010.
  2. ^ The Book of Intertype Faces, Intertype Corporation, Brooklyn, N.Y., p. 561.
  3. ^ McGrew, Mac, American Metal Typefaces of the Twentieth Century, Oak Knoll Books, New Castle, DE, 1993, p. 359. ISBN 0-938768-39-5.1993
  4. ^ "THE MEDIA BUSINESS; A Face-Lift for The Times, Typographically, That Is". The New York Times. 21 October 2003. Retrieved 7 August 2018. The Times's text typeface, for news and editorials, remains Imperial, designed in the 1950's by Edwin W. Shaar and adopted by the newspaper in 1967.

External links

Bank Gothic

Bank Gothic is a rectilinear geometric sans-serif typeface designed by Morris Fuller Benton for the American Type Founders in 1930. The typeface is an exploration of geometric forms, and is contemporary with the rectilinear slab serif typeface City by Georg Trump. The typeface also bears comparison with late-nineteenth-century engraving faces.

In the 1980s, Mergenthaler Linotype Company created a digital version that includes small caps characters to map onto the lowercase keys of the keyboard. At the time, Linotype only digitized the medium weight of the family, and no PostScript version has been made.


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Harris Corporation

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Hot metal typesetting

In printing and typography, hot metal typesetting (also called mechanical typesetting, hot lead typesetting, hot metal, and hot type) is a technology for typesetting text in letterpress printing. This method injects molten type metal into a mold that has the shape of one or more glyphs. The resulting sorts or slugs are later used to press ink onto paper. Normally the typecasting machine would be controlled by a keyboard or by a paper tape.

Hot metal typesetting was developed in the late nineteenth century as a development of conventional cast metal type. The technology had several advantages: it reduced labour since type sorts did not need to be slotted into position manually, and cast crisp new type for each printing job. In the case of Linotype machines, each line was cast as a robust continuous block (hence "line o'type") which was useful for rapid newspaper printing. It was the standard technology used for mass-market printing from the late nineteenth century, finally declining with the arrival of phototypesetting and then electronic processes in the 1950s to 1980s.

Inland Type Foundry

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Ludlow Typograph

A Ludlow Typograph is a hot metal typesetting system used in letterpress printing. The device casts bars, or slugs of type, out of type metal primarily consisting of lead. These slugs are used for the actual printing, and then are melted down and recycled on the spot.

The Ludlow system uses molds, known as matrices or mats, which are hand-set into a special composing stick. Thus the composing process resembles that used in cold lead type printing. Once a line has been completed, the composing stick is inserted into the Ludlow machine, which clamps it firmly in place above the mold. Hot linecasting metal (the same alloy used in Linotype and Intertype machines) is then injected through the mold into the matrices, allowed to cool, and then the bottom of the slug is trimmed just before it is ejected. The operator then replaces the matrices, or mats, back into the typecase by hand. Since the mats are of a consistent height, irrespective of typeface size, they are easier to handle than lead type.

The primary functional differences between a Ludlow Typograph and a Linotype is that the latter uses a keyboard to compose each line of type, whereas Ludlow uses hand-set mats, and that an ordinary Linotype was limited to faces smaller than twenty-four point, whereas Ludlow made whole alphabets up to 96 point and figures as large as 240 point. The machine is much simpler and takes up less floor space, and the initial investment in the machine and mats is more affordable for a small print shop than a Linotype, primarily used by larger printers and formerly in newspapers. (Neither the Ludlow Typograph nor the Linotype is currently made; however, both machines can still be serviced, and parts and mats are readily available.)

The true worth of the Ludlow lies in the fact that the printer always has fresh, clean type to print from, and never has to worry about running out of sorts. The Ludlow is used primarily for headline-sized type 14 point and above, although mats were formerly made in many typefaces as small as 4 points. The mats themselves were made out of a brass alloy. One thing an operator has to make sure of is that the line is solidly locked down with no gaps between the mats, and the composing stick in its proper place. Because of the pressure at which the type metal is forced into the mold cavity, any gaps in the line will lead to a 'squirt' of hot metal (and any print shop that has or had a Ludlow will often have spots of type metal on the ceiling above the machine's location or on the wall behind the machine—or even on the belly of the operator).

The machine has a heated crucible for the hot type metal, with a mechanically actuated plunger which operates as part of the injection cycle. The pot on the machine was usually left on overnight during the week, with some flux added to the pot to reduce oxidation. At the end of each week, the plunger assembly had to be disassembled (while hot), removed, and the pump well cleaned using a scraper (as with linecasting machines). After reassembly, heat was removed for the weekend. In the present day, most machines are heated up only for that day's casting, with the heat turned off each night.

Museum of American Heritage

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