Interstate 91 (I-91) is an Interstate Highway in the New England region of the United States. It provides the primary north–south thoroughfare in the western part of the region. The Interstate's southern end is in New Haven, Connecticut, at Interstate 95 and its northern end is at Derby Line, Vermont, a village in the town of Derby at the Canadian border, where it continues past the Derby Line-Rock Island Border Crossing as Autoroute 55. I-91 is the longest of three Interstate highways whose entire route is located within the New England states (the other two highways being I-89 and I-93) and is also the only primary (two-digit) Interstate Highway in New England to intersect all five of the others that run through the region. The largest cities along its route are New Haven, Connecticut, Hartford, Connecticut, Springfield, Massachusetts, Brattleboro, Vermont, White River Junction, Vermont, and St. Johnsbury, Vermont in order from south to north.
I-91 highlighted in red
|Length||290.37 mi (467.31 km)|
|South end||I-95 / Conn. Turnpike / US 1 in New Haven, CT|
|North end||A-55 at the Canadian border in Derby Line, VT|
|States||Connecticut, Massachusetts, Vermont|
|Counties||CT: New Haven, Middlesex, Hartford|
MA: Hampden, Hampshire, Franklin
VT: Windham, Windsor, Orange, Caledonia, Orleans
|State highways in Vermont|
I-91 is 290 miles (470 km) long and travels nearly straight north and south: 58 miles (93 km) in Connecticut, 55 miles (89 km) in Massachusetts, and 177 miles (285 km) in Vermont. I-91 parallels U.S. Route 5 (US 5) for all of its length, and many of the exits along I-91 provide direct or indirect access to the older highway. Much of the route of I-91 follows the Connecticut River, traveling from Hartford, Connecticut, northward to St. Johnsbury, Vermont.
I-91 is the major north–south transportation corridor for the center of the state. It is the main route between the larger cities of New Haven, Hartford, and Springfield, Massachusetts. As such, it is almost always heavily trafficked (especially during rush hour), and maintains at least three lanes in each direction through Connecticut except for a short portion in Hartford at the interchange with I-84 and in Meriden at the interchange with Route 15. The three cities also serve as Connecticut's control points along its length of the Interstate.
I-91 begins just east of downtown New Haven at an interchange with I-95 (the Connecticut Turnpike), and Route 34. At the bottom of the ramp for exit 5, US 5 begins at the first of its many interchanges with the freeway. Leaving New Haven, I-91 follows a northeastward trek into North Haven, where it meets the southern end of the Route 40 expressway. It travels through the eastern part of Wallingford before entering the eastern part of the city of Meriden. In Meriden, about halfway between Hartford and New Haven, I-91 sees a complex set of interchanges with the Wilbur Cross Parkway (Route 15), the Route 66 expressway, and its first spur route, I-691. I-691 provides a westward link to I-84 and the city of Waterbury. Leaving Meriden, I-91 enters Middlesex County as it briefly travels through the western part of Middletown before entering Cromwell, where it has an interchange with the Route 9 expressway.
It then enters Hartford County in the town of Rocky Hill, and then enters Wethersfield, where it meets the southern end of the Route 3 expressway, which leads to Glastonbury and the Route 2 expressway via the Putnam Bridge over the Connecticut River. From here to St. Johnsbury, Vermont, I-91 parallels the river, never more than five miles (8.0 km) from its shore. I-91 then enters the Hartford city limits. In Hartford, I-91 it has a set of interchanges with US 5/Route 15 (Wilbur Cross Highway), which provides access from I-91 north to I-84 east, and from I-84 west to I-91 south via the Charter Oak Bridge. I-91 then has an interchange with I-84, where all other movements to and from I-84 take place. Before leaving the city limits, an HOV lane begins that has its own set of interchanges up to exit 38.
I-91 then enters Windsor, where it meets the western end of its other Connecticut spur route, I-291. At the Windsor–Windsor Locks town line, it meets the eastern terminus of the Route 20 expressway, which provides direct access to Bradley International Airport. A couple miles north, I-91 crosses the Connecticut River on the Dexter Coffin Bridge into East Windsor. After traveling through East Windsor and Enfield, it crosses the Massachusetts state line into Longmeadow at milepost 58.
I-91 travels 55 miles (89 km) through the Pioneer Valley of western Massachusetts paralleling the Connecticut River. I-91 serves as the major transportation corridor through three Massachusetts counties, linking the cities of Springfield, Northampton, and Greenfield. The three cities serve as the control cities listed on guide and mileage signs, along with Brattleboro, Vermont beginning with the first northbound conventional mileage sign (63 miles (101 km)) in Longmeadow.
In Springfield, I-91 has an interchange with I-291 at exit 8, a 5.44-mile-long (8.75 km) spur going eastbound connecting with the Massachusetts Turnpike, for travelers going either east to Boston or west to Albany, New York.
North of Springfield, I-91 briefly enters Chicopee itself where there is an interchange with the spur of I-391 at exit 12 before turning westward to cross the Connecticut River into West Springfield. I-391 provides direct access to Holyoke center, while I-91 continues on the western side of the river.
Just after the river crossing, exit 14 is a major interchange with the Massachusetts Turnpike (I-90) before entering the city of Holyoke where exit 15 is located. Just after exit 16 U.S. Route 202, I-91 goes from three lanes to two lanes in each direction to the Vermont state line.
After a short exit-less stretch, I-91 enters Northampton, passing the Northampton Airport and an oxbow lake. The towns of Hadley and Amherst, home to the main campus of the University of Massachusetts Amherst, are accessible from I-91 exits in Northampton via Route 9.
Continuing north, I-91 enters Hatfield, and where it begins a straight section—nearly six miles (9.7 km) without a bend in the road. Several exits provide access to US 5 and Route 10 in Hatfield and Whately before entering Deerfield.
I-91 has two exits in Greenfield. At exit 26, there is a rest area/visitor information center for Franklin County. Exit 28 in Bernardston is the last exit in Massachusetts. Beyond exit 28, I-91 continues for about five miles (8.0 km) more before crossing into Vermont.
Massachusetts is the only state traversed by I-91 where another numbered highway is concurrent with the Interstate (in this case, US 5, for a one-half mile (800 m) spur near the Springfield-Longmeadow town line and Route 2, for approximately three miles (4.8 km) in Greenfield).
I-91 travels along the eastern border of Vermont and serves as a major transportation corridor for eastern Vermont and western New Hampshire. Many exits along Vermont's length of I-91 feature New Hampshire towns on the guide signs (for example, exit 3, which lists Brattleboro and Keene, as the points of access). The length of I-91 within Vermont is 177 miles (285 km) and has two lanes in each direction the entire way from the Massachusetts state line at Guilford to Derby Line at the Canadian border (nearly two-thirds of I-91's length) with 29 Vermont interchanges. The highway's rural character and long distances between exits in Vermont are in stark contrast to its south, where exits are more frequent and the road carries four lanes of traffic in each direction at some points. The major control cities in Vermont are Brattleboro, White River Junction, St. Johnsbury, and Newport. When re-entering northbound I-91 at exit 28 in Derby, the control city sign is for Canada. Of these destinations, only Newport is a city, although the other towns are sizable. In general, the road parallels its predecessor, US 5.
I-91 enters Vermont in the town of Guilford. Just before exit 1 in Brattleboro is the Vermont Welcome Center in Guilford. The first three Vermont exits (northbound) serve the town of Brattleboro. At exit 1, northbound Route 5 provides access to stores and a small industrial area before reaching the south end of the town's center, where a bridge crosses the Connecticut River into Hinsdale, New Hampshire via NH 119. Exit 2 (VT 9) provides access to the western village of the town (West Brattleboro), then continues west to Marlboro, Wilmington, and Bennington. Brattleboro's main retail strip is located at and just south of the exit 3 trumpet interchange and traffic circle. Following VT 9 eastward, one can reach Keene, New Hampshire in 15 miles (24 km).
After exit 3, I-91 heads north to travel through the towns of Dummerston, Putney, Westminster, Rockingham, Springfield, Weathersfield, Windsor, Hartland, and Hartford, home of the village of White River Junction. White River Junction, listed as a control city on mileage signs as far south as Greenfield, Massachusetts, is where I-91 and I-89 meet and provide access to many points in Vermont and New Hampshire, at exit 10.
North of the interchange with I-89, I-91 continues towards St. Johnsbury and travels through the towns of Norwich, Thetford, Fairlee, Bradford, Newbury (with access to the village of Wells River), Ryegate, Barnet, and Waterford, before coming to its next major intersection. Towns in New Hampshire on the other side of the river can also be easily accessed in this stretch. At exit 19 is the northern terminus of I-93, a major interstate highway in New England, which provides a direct route south through the White Mountains and to almost all major cities in New Hampshire. Just after exit 19, there are three exits for St. Johnsbury, including a major intersection with US 2. Along westbound US 2, the capital of Vermont, Montpelier, is eventually reached from I-91, although I-89 provides Montpelier with immediate Interstate access.
I-91 continues northward, now following the Passumpsic River valley. It travels through Vermont's Northeast Kingdom region and the town of Lyndon. Two exits in Lyndon serve the village of Lyndonville and Lyndon State College. After exit 24, I-91 departs Route 5, which it had been closely paralleling since the Massachusetts state line. I-91 follows the valley of Miller Run,[a] and there are no convenient services until Barton at exit 25.
After leaving the Heights, it enters Orleans County and follows the Barton River valley north with exits in Barton, Orleans, and Derby. Exit 29 is the final U.S. exit on I-91 just after mile marker 177 at Derby Line. Beyond the exit ramp, northbound motorists enter Canada Customs at Stanstead, Quebec, and continue into Canada on Autoroute 55 through the Eastern Townships.
As with Connecticut and Massachusetts, US 5 closely parallels I-91 for their entire lengths in Vermont. While paralleling I-91 in Vermont, US 5 is never concurrent with the freeway, but remains its own two-lane road, except for a portion in White River Junction where it is a four-lane divided surface arterial.
Traffic and the population of each successive town tend to diminish as the road proceeds northward. Average daily traffic count for 2015 were—St. Johnsbury (34,000), Lyndon (17,900), Barton (13,500), and Derby (Canadian Border) (10,300).
A limited-access highway replacement for US 5 was planned at the federal level starting in 1944. A 1953 Massachusetts plan was funded by the Federal Aid Highway Act of 1956, along with spur I-291 (but not I-391). The Vermont section of I-91 was built in stages from 1958 to 1965. In Massachusetts from Bernardston to Northampton, I-91 follows an abandoned right-of-way of the New York, New Haven and Hartford Railroad. To support plans for urban renewal along the "low value" waterfront, the highway crossed the Connecticut River to parallel active NYNHH railroad tracks on the Springfield side of the river, bypassing West Springfield, Massachusetts and Agawam, Massachusetts. Later, this path was perceived as cutting off the city from the river, restricting further commercial development. By 1960, a few miles in Massachusetts were completed, starting from the Connecticut and Vermont state lines. Massachusetts construction was completed from 1960s to 1970. In the 1970s there were plans to extend I-91 along the Long Island Sound link across from New Haven, Connecticut, to Long Island in New York. The extension would have continued southward to the southern shore of the island perhaps along the route of the current William Floyd Parkway in central Suffolk County. It would also provide easier access to New York City via the Long Island Expressway, as well as to The Hamptons via Sunrise Highway (New York State Route 27). The various proposals for a bridge were dropped after a 1979 study of the concept. Vermont completed its last sections of I-91 in 1978.
Starting in the 1990s, several rest areas were downgraded in Vermont, increasing distances between facilities. In 2008, Vermont closed the Springfield–Rockingham rest areas because of suspected use by drug abusers. In 2009, the northbound rest area in Hartford was closed, creating a 90-mile (145 km) gap in on-highway facilities. At the present time, there exist two intermediate rest areas with facilities in each direction, in addition to a welcome center at each end of the state. Several parking areas remain open.
In the early 1990s after the I-284 project was canceled, the exit 44 interchange in East Windsor, Connecticut, was altered as it was designed to be part of the freeway. After alterations, exit 44 connected to Route 5 for all traffic to get on and off. As a result, exit 43 was shut down and closed in that same time frame. Exit 43 was a northbound exit/southbound entrance on State Route 510/Main Street in East Windsor, which was about 1,050 feet (320 m) away from exit 44.
In 2005, the Massachusetts Highway Department completed a rebuild of on- and off-ramps in Springfield, to reduce accidents caused by weaving near the tightly spaced exits.
During its construction in the 1960s, I-91 sliced through three Springfield neighborhoods: the North End, Metro Center, and the South End. Widely regarded as positive progress at the time, by 2011, Springfield's portion of I-91 was perceived as disrupting the urban fabric of each riverfront neighborhood, while in effect amputating everything east of the highway—the majority of the city—from the Connecticut River, the Connecticut River Walk Park, and the Basketball Hall of Fame. However, I-91 was erected without tunnels, footbridges, and other paths leading to the riverfront, and thus continues to pose logistical problems for people getting to the riverfront, which in turn poses problems for businesses that would like to set up along Springfield's riverfront. The placement of I-91 has left Springfield's riverfront virtually undeveloped aside from the sliver of land surrounding the Basketball Hall of Fame.
In 2010, the Urban Land Institute made recommendations for how Springfield might reconnect with its riverfront, suggesting the most cost-effective but also the most development-limiting strategy (constructing pathways beneath I-91). No decision has been reached regarding those recommendations. As of 2011, academic and civic studies are still underway. Preliminary findings indicate that I-91's placement negatively impacts tourism in Springfield's Metro Center—the site of many of Springfield's historic, cultural, and entertainment venues. Springfield's most popular tourist attraction, the riverfront Basketball Hall of Fame, is separated from Metro Center by a 20-foot (6.1 m) stone wall, buttressing an elevated portion of the six-lane Interstate 91, and greatly discouraging travel between the two areas. Academic suggestions that involve the demolition of the current highway and moving it to a less obtrusive site in the city have been proposed, including the demolition of the highway and following the original path suggested, Riverdale Road, and, least obtrusive but still requiring a great deal of work, a plan to construct numerous walkways beneath the elevated highway to better integrate the neighborhoods with the waterfront despite the highway's presence.
|Connecticut||New Haven||New Haven||0.00||0.00||–||I-95 south – New York City||Exit 48 on I-95 north|
|0.09||0.14||1||MLK Boulevard (Route 34) – Downtown New Haven||Southbound exit and northbound entrance; eastern terminus of Route 34|
|I-95 north – New London||Includes direct entrance ramp from Wooster Street / Franklin Street|
|0.63||1.01||2||Hamilton Street||Northbound exit only from I-95S entrance ramp|
Southbound exit and northbound entrance only
|3||Trumbull Street||Additional northbound entrance merge from State Street|
|1.30||2.09||4||State Street||Southbound exit only (via Humphrey Street)|
|1.33||2.14||5||US 5 (State Street) – Fair Haven||Northbound exit and southbound entrance only|
|6||US 5 / Willow Street / Blatchley Avenue||Left exit northbound; US 5 only appears on southbound signage|
|7||Ferry Street – Fair Haven||Southbound exit and northbound entrance only|
|2.78||4.47||8||Route 17 (Middletown Avenue) / Route 80 – North Branford|
|North Haven||4.81||7.74||9||Montowese Avenue (SR 17)|
|6.63||10.67||10||Route 40 – Hamden, Cheshire, Mount Carmel||Also serves Quinnipiac University|
|7.72||12.42||11||US 5 / Route 22 – North Haven||Northbound exit and southbound entrance only|
|8.58||13.81||12||US 5 (Washington Avenue)|
|Wallingford||10.94||17.61||13||US 5 – Wallingford, North Haven||Access to Wharton Brook State Park via Connector; left exit northbound|
|12.30||19.79||14||Route 150 (Woodhouse Avenue) – Wallingford||Northbound exit and southbound entrance only|
|13.25||21.32||Route 150 / East Center Street (SR 738) – Wallingford||Southbound exit and northbound entrance only|
|16.01||25.77||15||Route 68 – Yalesville, Durham|
|Meriden||19.22||30.93||16||East Main Street||Southbound exit from exit 17|
|18.87||30.37||17||Route 15 north (Berlin Turnpike) to I-691 / Route 66||Northbound signage|
|19.74||31.77||Route 15 south (Wilbur Cross Parkway) / East Main Street||Southbound signage; no trucks allowed on Wilbur Cross Parkway|
|20.11||32.36||18||I-691 west / Route 66 east – Middlefield, Middletown, Meriden, Waterbury||Northbound exit serves Route 66 only; southbound exit serves I-691 only|
|20.74||33.38||19||Baldwin Avenue / Preston Avenue||Southbound exit and northbound entrance only|
|Middlesex||Middletown||23.16||37.27||20||Country Club Road / Middle Street|
|Cromwell||25.74||41.42||21||Route 372 – Cromwell, Berlin|
|22||Route 9 – New Britain, Middletown, Old Saybrook||Signed as exits 22N (north) and 22S (south)|
|Hartford||Rocky Hill||29.39||47.30||23||Route 3 – Rocky Hill||Via West Street (SSR 411)|
|31.67||50.97||24||Route 99 – Wethersfield, Rocky Hill|
|25N||Route 3 north – Glastonbury||Signed as exit 25 northbound; former proposed I-491 and part of proposed extension of former I-86|
|25S||Route 3 south – Wethersfield||Southbound exit and northbound entrance|
|34.13||54.93||26||Old Wethersfield||Northbound exit part of exit 25|
|27||Brainard Road / Airport Road (SR 530) – Brainard Airport||Ramps shared with Route 15 exit 87; northbound access via entrance to Route 15 north to exit 89|
|35.97||57.89||28||US 5 / Route 15 south (Berlin Turnpike) – Wethersfield, Newington||Left entrance northbound; due to construction, northbound exit closed through 2021|
|36.99||59.53||29||US 5 / Route 15 north to I-84 east – East Hartford, Boston||Northbound exit and southbound left entrance|
|37.55||60.43||29A||Capitol Area||Via Whitehead Highway (SR 598); left exit and entrance northbound; former proposed I-484|
|38.34||61.70||30||I-84 east / Route 2 – East Hartford, New London||Southbound left exit and northbound entrance; I-84 exits 51–52|
|38.18||61.44||31||State Street||No northbound exit|
|38.47||61.91||32A||I-84 west – Waterbury||Left exit northbound|
|32B||Trumbull Street||No entrance ramps|
|39.55||63.65||–||Leibert Road||Southbound exit and northbound entrance for HOV only; southern terminus of HOV lanes|
|Windsor||41.14||66.21||34||Route 159 (Windsor Avenue / North Main Street)|
|35|| I-291 east – South Windsor, Manchester, Bissell Bridge|
Route 218 – Windsor, Bloomfield
|Signed as exits 35A (I-291) and 35B (Route 218); exits 1-2B on I-291|
|42.22||67.95||–||Route 218 – Windsor||Northbound exit and southbound entrance for HOV only|
|43.52||70.04||36||Route 178 (Park Avenue) – Bloomfield|
|44.50||71.62||37||Route 305 (Bloomfield Avenue) – Windsor Center||Additional northbound exit and southbound entrance for HOV lanes|
|45.99||74.01||–||Route 75 – Poquonock||Northbound exit and southbound entrance for HOV only|
|38||Route 75 / Day Hill Road – Poquonock, Windsor||Split into exits 38A (Route 75) and 38B (Day Hill Road) southbound|
|Northern terminus of HOV lanes|
|47.44||76.35||39&41||Kennedy Road to Center Street||Northbound exit and southbound entrance|
|Windsor–Windsor Locks line||48.22||77.60||40||Route 20 – Bradley International Airport|
|Windsor Locks||48.62||78.25||41&39||Center Street||Southbound exit only|
|49.58||79.79||42||To Route 159 – Windsor Locks|
|Dexter Coffin Bridge|
|East Windsor||50.33||81.00||44||US 5 south – East Windsor|
|51.09||82.22||45||Route 140 – Warehouse Point, Ellington|
|Enfield||52.74||84.88||46||US 5 (King Street)|
|55.57||89.43||47||Route 190 – Hazardville, Somers, Suffield||Signed as exits 47E (east) and 47W (west)|
|56.10||90.28||48||Route 220 (Elm Street) – Thompsonville|
|57.73||92.91||49||US 5 (Enfield Street) – Longmeadow, MA|
|Massachusetts||Hampden||Springfield||3.836||6.173||1||US 5 south – Forest Park, Longmeadow||Southern terminus of US 5 concurrency; southbound exit and northbound entrance|
|3.694||5.945||2||Route 83 south – Forest Park, East Longmeadow||No southbound exit|
|4.142||6.666||3||US 5 north to Route 57 (Columbus Avenue) – West Springfield, Agawam||Northern terminus of US 5 concurrency|
|4.722||7.599||4||Route 83 south (Main Street) – East Longmeadow||No northbound entrance; northbound exit combined with exit 3|
|4.568||7.351||5||Broad Street||Northbound exit only|
|5.253||8.454||6||Springfield Center (northbound)|
Union Street (southbound)
|Old exit 5 merged with exit 6|
|5.989||9.638||7||Hall of Fame Avenue – Downtown Springfield||Southbound exit and Northbound entrance only|
|6.295||10.131||8||I‑291 / US 20 east to I‑90 / Mass Pike east||I-90 only appears on northbound signage; I-291 exit 1|
|6.677||10.746||9||US 20 west / Route 20A east – West Springfield, Westfield||No southbound exit to or southbound entrance from Route 20A|
|7.172||11.542||10||Main Street – Chicopee, North Springfield||No southbound entrance; southbound exit combined with exit 11|
|7.481||12.040||11||US 20 west (Birnie Avenue) – West Springfield||Southbound exit and entrance only|
|Chicopee||8.289||13.340||12||I‑391 north – Chicopee, Holyoke||I-391 exit 1|
|West Springfield||9.177||14.769||13A||US 5 north (Riverdale Street)|
|9.184||14.780||13B||US 5 south – West Springfield|
|West Springfield–Holyoke line||11.547||18.583||14||I‑90 / Mass Pike – Boston, Albany, New York||Exit 4 on I-90 / Massachusetts Turnpike|
|Holyoke||12.396||19.949||15||Lower Westfield Road – Ingleside|
|14.218||22.882||16||US 202 – Holyoke, South Hadley, Westfield|
|15.188||24.443||17||Route 141 – Holyoke, Easthampton||Signed as exit 17A (east) and exit 17B (west) northbound|
|Hampshire||Northampton||22.816||36.719||18||US 5 – Northampton, Easthampton|
|24.760||39.847||19||Route 9 – Northampton, Amherst||Northbound exit and southbound entrance|
|26.016||41.869||20||US 5 / Route 9 / Route 10 – Northampton, Hadley||Southbound exit and northbound entrance|
|27.277||43.898||21||US 5 / Route 10 – Hatfield, Whately|
|Hatfield||29.938||48.181||22||US 5 / Route 10 – North Hatfield, Whately||Northbound exit and southbound entrance|
|Franklin||Whately||32.309||51.996||23||US 5 / Route 10 – Whately, North Hatfield||Southbound exit and northbound entrance|
|34.709||55.859||24||US 5 / Route 10 – Deerfield, Whately||No northbound entrance|
|Deerfield||35.891||57.761||25||Route 116 – Deerfield, Conway||Southbound exit and northbound entrance|
|Greenfield||43.011||69.219||26||Route 2 west / Route 2A east – Greenfield Center, North Adams||Southern terminus of Route 2 concurrency; also serves John W. Olver Transit Center, Mass MoCA, Shelburne Falls, Bridge of Flowers|
|45.752||73.631||27||Route 2 east – Boston||Northern terminus of Route 2 concurrency; left exit and entry southbound|
|Bernardston||50.360||81.047||28||Route 10 – Bernardston, Northfield||Signed as exit 28A (north) and exit 28B (south) northbound|
|Vermont||Windham||Brattleboro||7.480||12.038||1||US 5 to VT 142 – Brattleboro, Guilford||Also serves Vernon and Hinsdale NH|
|9.095||14.637||2||VT 9 west – Brattleboro, Bennington||Also serves Manchester via VT 30, Marlboro College, and Wilmington|
|11.550||18.588||3||US 5 / VT 9 east – Brattleboro, Keene NH||Also serves World Learning SIT Graduate Institute|
|Putney||17.952||28.891||4||US 5 – Putney||Also serves Landmark College|
|Town of Westminster||28.610||46.043||5||To US 5 / VT 123 – Westminster, Bellows Falls, Walpole NH|
|Rockingham||35.200||56.649||6||US 5 / VT 103 – Rockingham, Rutland, Bellows Falls||Also serves Chester and Ludlow|
|Windsor||Springfield||41.690||67.094||7||US 5 / VT 11 – Springfield||Also serves Charlestown NH and the Fort at Number 4|
|Weathersfield||51.370||82.672||8||VT 131 / US 5 / VT 12 – Ascutney, Windsor||Also serves Ludlow and Claremont NH|
|Hartland||60.450||97.285||9||US 5 / VT 12 – Hartland, Windsor||Also serves Woodstock and Killington|
|Hartford||69.810||112.348||10||I-89 – Concord NH, Barre, Montpelier||Signed as exits 10B (southbound) and 10A (northbound); originally exits 10S and 10N respectively|
|70.200||112.976||11||US 5 – White River Junction||Also serves VA Hospital|
|72.010||115.889||12||To US 5 – Wilder, White River Junction|
|Norwich||74.830||120.427||13||US 5 / VT 10A – Norwich, Hanover NH||Also serves Montshire Museum of Science|
|Orange||Thetford||84.210||135.523||14||VT 113 to US 5 – Thetford||Also serves Chelsea and Lyme NH|
|Fairlee||91.540||147.319||15||US 5 – Fairlee, Orford NH||Also serves Lake Morey and Lake Fairlee|
|Bradford||97.630||157.120||16||VT 25 to US 5 – Bradford, Barre||Also serves Newbury and Piermont|
|Town of Newbury||110.340||177.575||17||US 302 to US 5 – Wells River, Woodsville NH||Also serves South Ryegate and Groton|
|Caledonia||Barnet||120.450||193.845||18||To US 5 – Barnet, Peacham||Also serves West Barnet, Monroe NH, McIndoe Falls, and East Ryegate|
|Waterford–St. Johnsbury line||128.250||206.398||19||I-93 south – Littleton NH|
|St. Johnsbury||128.890||207.428||20||US 5 – St. Johnsbury, Passumpsic|
|130.600||210.180||21||US 2 – St. Johnsbury, Montpelier||Also serves Danville and Hardwick|
|132.550||213.319||22||To US 5 – St. Johnsbury|
|Lyndon||137.110||220.657||23||US 5 to VT 114 – Lyndonville, East Burke||Also serves Lyndon State College|
|140.178||225.595||24||VT 122 to US 5 / VT 114 – Sheffield, Burke, Lyndonville||Also serves Caledonia County Airport|
|Orleans||Barton||155.950||250.977||25||VT 16 to US 5 – Barton, Glover||Also serves Hardwick and Crystal Lake|
|161.410||259.764||26||US 5 / VT 58 – Orleans, Irasburg||Also serves Lake Willoughby and Jay|
|Derby||170.060||273.685||27||VT 191 to US 5 / VT 105 – Newport||Also serves Lake Memphremagog|
|172.400||277.451||28||US 5 / VT 105 – Newport, Derby Center||Also serves Seymour Lake and Lake Memphremagog|
|177.269||285.287||29||To US 5 – Derby Line||Last exit in the United States|
|177.432||285.549||Derby Line–Rock Island Border Crossing|
|A-55 north – Canada||Continuation into Quebec|
|1.000 mi = 1.609 km; 1.000 km = 0.621 mi|
The Brightwood neighborhood of Springfield, Massachusetts is located in the northwest corner of the city, along the Connecticut River; however, it is separated from the rest of Springfield by the Interstate 91 elevated highway. Many recent academic papers at the University of Massachusetts Amherst' School of Urban Design have focused on the detrimental physical and sociological effects that Interstate 91 has had on the Brightwood neighborhood, and on Springfield in general.Much of Brightwood was destroyed during the 1936 and 1938 Connecticut River Floods, thus it features housing stock from the Works Progress Administration rebuilding period. Geographically, Brightwood is the second smallest of the Springfield's seventeen neighborhoods. It contains 234 acres of land, plus streets and railroads. Its boundaries are well defined: the Chicopee city line to the north; Clinton Street to the south; the B & M Railroad to the east; and the Connecticut River to the west. Its demographics have changed exponentially during the last two Censuses. It is now over 80% Puerto Rican, and a center of Springfield's Puerto Rican community.Brightwood is scheduled to receive a stop on Springfield's new, northbound, intercity commuter rail, headquartered at Union Station and headed north through Chicopee, Holyoke, Northampton, South Deerfield, and Greenfield, to Brattleboro, Vermont.Calvin Coolidge Bridge
The Calvin Coolidge Memorial Bridge is a major crossing of the Connecticut River in western Massachusetts, connecting the towns of Northampton and Hadley. The bridge carries Route 9 across the river, where it connects to Interstate 91. The bridge is a major bottleneck in Hampshire County—the only major hospital in the county, Cooley-Dickinson, is located in Northampton on the western side of the bridge. The road approaching the bridge is known as Bridge St. in Northampton (eastbound) and Russell St. in Hadley (westbound).Connecticut River Walk Park
The Connecticut River Walk is partially constructed park and bikeway in Springfield, Massachusetts, United States, along the banks of New England's largest river, the Connecticut River. Currently, Springfield's section of this park is 3.7 miles long, running from Chicopee, Massachusetts to the South End Bridge in Springfield, Massachusetts. Unique features of the trail include its path alongside an active - and soon-to-be the United States' first high-speed - train line, making it a "rail-with-trail," and its passing in very close proximity to the Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame. The longest river in New England, the Connecticut River is the Knowledge Corridor's most prominent natural asset. For centuries it has been a source of regional identity and pride; however, currently most residents are cut off from it by Interstate 91 - a 1960s-era elevated highway, which has become a major inhibitor to Springfield's economic and recreational riverfront growth, especially in recent years.Dexter Coffin Bridge
The Dexter Coffin Bridge is a crossing for Interstate 91 over the Connecticut River north of Hartford, Connecticut, connecting the towns of Windsor Locks, Connecticut and East Windsor, Connecticut. It can be seen from the Windsor Locks Amtrak station.Fall River (Connecticut River tributary)
The Fall River is a 14.1-mile-long (22.7 km) river in southern Vermont and northern Massachusetts, joining the Connecticut River just downstream from Turners Falls, Massachusetts.The river rises on the eastern slopes of East Mountain in Guilford, Vermont, and flows southward into Bernardston, Massachusetts. For nearly its entire length in Bernardston it is followed by U.S. Route 5 and Interstate 91, flowing for most of that distance between the two highways. South of Bernardston the river forms the boundary between the town of Gill and the city of Greenfield. The Fall River enters the Connecticut River directly across from the village of Turners Falls within the town of Montague and just downstream from the Turners Falls dam.Forest Park (Springfield, Massachusetts)
Forest Park in Springfield, Massachusetts, is one of the largest urban, municipal parks in the United States, covering 735 acres (297 ha) of land overlooking the Connecticut River. Designed by the renowned landscape architect Frederick Law Olmsted, Forest Park features a zoo, aquatic gardens, and outdoor amphitheater, in addition to typical Olmsted design elements like winding wooded trails, and surprising, expansive views. The site of America's first public, municipal swimming pool, currently, during the holiday months Forest Park hosts a popular high-tech lighting display, known as Bright Nights.Greek National Road 91
Greek National Road 91 (Greek: Εθνική Οδός 91, abbreviated as EO91) is a highway in Attica, Greece. It runs from the centre of Athens to Sounio, via Vouliagmeni. It was first constructed in the 1950s as a one lane per direction road, but the section between Athens and Varkiza was later extended to two lanes per direction. It has many extremely dangerous curves, and accidents happen frequently. Currently, there are no plans to replace it with a bypass or reconstruct certain dangerous parts, but there has been an effort to increase police presence to prevent illegal racing and violation of speed limits which were common phenomena over the last 10 years. The highway becomes busier during the summer, as most of the places it connects are popular vacation spots.Interstate 291 (Connecticut)
Interstate 291 (I-291) is a short Interstate Highway in the state of Connecticut that starts at I-91 at its junction with Route 218 in Windsor and ends at I-84 in Manchester. It serves as a northeastern bypass of Hartford. The official length of I-291 is 6.40 miles (10.30 km), including 0.38 miles (0.61 km) of the exit ramp to the merge with eastbound I-84.
I-291 is also known as the Vietnam Veterans Memorial Highway for its entire length.Interstate 291 (Massachusetts)
Interstate 291 (abbreviated I-291, also known as the Springfield Expressway) is a 5.44-mile (8.75 km) connector highway in Massachusetts that links Interstate 91 in downtown Springfield with Interstate 90 (the Massachusetts Turnpike) in Chicopee. I-291 is roughly a northeast/southwest highway. It merges with I-91 at its southwestern terminus, via a flyover. The road meets the Mass Pike at its northeastern terminus. Getting onto the Pike from I-291 is straightforward, but getting from the Pike to I-291 requires a left turn at an at-grade traffic signal. I-291 travels directly through highly populated areas of Springfield, and passes under several overpasses. From its southwestern terminus to exit 5A, Interstate 291 is concurrent with U.S. Route 20.
I-291 is only 22.4 miles (36.0 km) from Interstate 291 in Connecticut, and there are no intervening Interstate Highway interchanges between them. It can be easy for travelers to become confused between the two highways.Interstate 391
Interstate 391 (I-391) is an Auxiliary Interstate Highway located entirely within the U.S. State of Massachusetts. It runs from the I-91/I-391 interchange in Chicopee to the center of Holyoke, a distance of about 4.86 mi (7.82 km). It runs near the Connecticut River throughout its journey in Chicopee, and crosses into Holyoke and abruptly ends at High Street 0.4 miles (0.64 km) south of U.S. Route 202.Interstate 691
Interstate 691 (I-691) is a portion of the Interstate Highway System in Connecticut beginning at Interstate 91 in Meriden and ending at Interstate 84 near the Cheshire-Southington town line. It is 8.92 miles (14.36 km) in length, including 0.54 miles (0.87 km) of the exit ramp to the merge with westbound I-84.
I-691 is also known as the Henry D. Altobello Highway for its entire length.Metro Center, Springfield, Massachusetts
Metro Center is the original colonial settlement of Springfield, Massachusetts, located beside a bend in the Connecticut River. As of 2019, Metro Center features a majority of Western Massachusetts' most important cultural, business, and civic venues. Metro Center includes Springfield's Central Business District, its Club Quarter, its government center, its convention headquarters, and in recent years, it has become an increasingly popular residential district, especially among young professionals, empty-nesters, and creative types, with a population of approximately 7,000 (2010.)
Metro Center is physically separated from the Connecticut River by Interstate 91 – a 1958 urban renewal project that separated the city from its riverfront.Mill River (Springfield, Massachusetts)
The Mill River is a 1.25-mile (2.01 km) long tributary of the Connecticut River in Springfield, Massachusetts. It flows from Watershops Pond (also known as Lake Massasoit) to its confluence with the Connecticut River. It is referred to as "The Miracle Mile" in a 2009 master's thesis that outlines possibilities for reclaiming the river's mouth as a recreational area. As of 2011, the final 350 feet (110 m) of the river, including its mouth, is confined in a pipe underneath Interstate 91, railroad tracks and a car dealership. Many Springfield residents bemoan the loss of the Mill River as a recreational area, and hope to gain greater access to both it and Connecticut Rivers in upcoming years. As it has for over a century, today the Mill River serves as a barrier between Springfield neighborhoods. Surrounding it are some of the most densely urbanized locations in Springfield.At the head of Springfield's Mill River there are steep, stone retaining walls that were built to prevent the river's banks from degrading any further. The Mill River was once valued for its benefits to developing industry. Today, incompatible land uses present a problem to "freeing" the Mill River to become a recreational area again. A 2009 master's thesis describes a plan that could revitalize the Mill River and its surrounding neighborhoods by remaking the river as a recreational attraction, connecting the Connecticut River and the Basketball Hall of Fame with Watershops Pond and Springfield College.Quebec Autoroute 55
Autoroute 55 (also called Autoroute de l'Énergie north of the Autoroute 20 and Autoroute Joseph-Armand Bombardier south of it) is an important north-south Autoroute and the only one running in that direction in central Quebec. It is the longest north-south Autoroute, beginning as the continuation of I-91 at the Canada–United States border near Stanstead and continuing to Shawinigan, where it downgrades to Route 155. The total length of A-55 is currently 247 km (153.5 mi) long, including concurrencies with Autoroute 10, Autoroute 20 and Autoroute 40.Rockingham, Vermont
Rockingham is a town in Windham County, Vermont, United States, along the Connecticut River. The population was 5,282 at the 2010 census. Rockingham includes the incorporated villages of Bellows Falls and Saxtons River, as well as a large rural area west of Interstate 91.
Rockingham has no formal town center, instead town offices and the Rockingham Public Library are located in the village of Bellows Falls. The approximate center is the Rockingham Meeting House on Route 103, a popular east-west route across the state. The Meeting House was built in Rockingham Village, once the main settlement in the town, but with the increased use of water power, population shifted to other villages located on the two rivers in town. Most of what was left of Rockingham Village (over a dozen buildings, also called the Old Town) burned in a fire on April 14, 1908; the fire came close to the Meeting House but it was saved. The houses, hotel and store that burned were not rebuilt.South End, Springfield, Massachusetts
South End is a neighborhood in the city of Springfield, Massachusetts. Interstate 91 separates it from the Connecticut River and the Basketball Hall of Fame museum and entertainment complex.
The South End has long been home to Springfield's Italian community, and it remains so today. In the South End, one will find numerous Italian restaurants and pastry shops, e.g. Red Rose Pizzeria, Frigo's, Mom and Rico's, and La Fiorentina, among many others.
During the summer, as in New York City and Boston, Springfield's South End Italians celebrate the annual Catholic Feast Days. In Springfield, the South End's largest annual feast day is the annual Our Lady of Mount Carmel Festival, at which attendees can purchase many different kinds of Italian food.U.S. Route 5
U.S. Route 5 (US 5) is a north–south United States highway running through the New England states of Connecticut, Massachusetts, and Vermont. Significant cities along the route include New Haven, Connecticut; Hartford, Connecticut; and Springfield, Massachusetts. From Hartford northward to St. Johnsbury, Vermont, the road closely follows the route of the Connecticut River.
The entire route of US 5 is closely paralleled by Interstate 91. US 5 now serves as the local business route and alternate route for the Interstate highway. The northern terminus of US 5 is in Derby Line, Vermont at the Canada–US border, where it continues past the Derby Line-Stanstead Border Crossing into Quebec as Quebec Route 143, which was Route 5 until renumbered in the mid-1970s. Its southern terminus is in New Haven, Connecticut at an intersection with Interstate 91.U.S. Route 5 in Vermont
U.S. Route 5 (US 5) is a part of the United States Numbered Highway System that runs from New Haven, Connecticut to the Canada–United States border at Derby Line, Vermont. In Vermont, the road runs south–north from the Massachusetts state line near Guilford to the international border. The 192.316 miles (309.503 km) that lie in Vermont are maintained by the Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTrans) and run largely parallel to Interstate 91. US 5 also follows the path of the Connecticut River from the Massachusetts border to St. Johnsbury, where the river turns northeast while US 5 continues north. The highway serves the major towns of Brattleboro, Hartford, and St. Johnsbury, along with the city of Newport near the Canadian border.
Before the development of the Numbered Highway System, US 5 was designated Route 2 and was part of the New England road marking system that existed from 1922 to 1927. When the Highway System was formed in November 1926, the former Route 2 was commissioned as US 5. At this point, the road was not paved. It was not paved until the state of Vermont started overseeing the maintenance of the highway in 1931. The road was completely paved by 1933.West Springfield, Massachusetts
West Springfield is a city in Hampden County, Massachusetts, United States. It is part of the Springfield, Massachusetts Metropolitan Statistical Area. The population was 28,391 at the 2010 census. The city is also known as "West Side", in reference to the fact that it is on the western side of the Connecticut River from Springfield, a fact which played a major part in the town's early history.
Major Interstates highlighted
Auxiliary routes of Interstate 91