Internet in Indonesia

The Internet is a relatively new communication medium in Indonesia, an archipelago that includes more than 17,000 islands. Several Internet access services are available in Indonesia, ranging from fiber optic, ADSL to mobile Internet. Telephone line-based service was among the first Internet access services in Indonesia with PT Telkom as the main player who controlled most fixed-line telephone networks.

Usage

Based on OpenSignal in November 2016, there were only 58.8 percent of internet users in Indonesia who received 4G LTE signal, and received only HSPA+ signal or lower the rest of the time, making Indonesia ranked 51st in the world. The speed of download using 4G LTE in Indonesia was only an average of 8.79Mbit/s or ranked 74th in the world.[1]

Based on the Indonesia Internet Service Providers Association, in mid-2016 there were 132.7 million internet users; this represents more than a half of the Indonesian population. Only 3 percent of users are 50 years old or over, but surprisingly 100 percent in the 10–14 years old age bracket used the internet. Users on the island of Java dominated (65%) followed by Sumatra with 15.7 million users. Almost 90 percent of users were employees and students. Almost all of the users knew about e-commerce, but only 10.4 million users used the internet for transactions. Almost 70 percent of the users used their mobile phones for internet usage.[2]

According to eMarketer, in 2014 Indonesia had 83.7 million users (in sixth place behind Japan), but Indonesia is predicted to surpass Japan in 2017, because Indonesian internet growth is in the double digits, while Japanese internet growth is slower.[3]

According to Akamai Technologies, Indonesia, with 9 connections to undersea cables, had in Q1 2014 an average Internet connection speed of 2.4 Mbit/s, which was an increase of 55 percent from the prior year. Just 6.6 percent of homes had access to 4 Mbit/s or higher speed connections.[4] But in Q4 2014, the average internet connection speed was 1.9Mbit/s or dropped about 50 percent from Q3 2014 with 3.7Mbit/s.[5]

Based on the Indonesia Internet Service Providers Association, in Q4 2013 there were 71.19 million Internet users in Indonesia or about 28 percent of Indonesia's population.[6] According to Cisco's Visual Networking Index, in 2013 Indonesia had the world's second fastest growth of IP traffic and has become an "Internet of Everything" country.[7]

Based on Communication Ministry data, at end of June 2011, there were 45 million Internet users in Indonesia, which 64 percent or 28 million users between the ages of 15 to 19.[8]

July 2011: Based on Nielsen's survey, 48 percent of Internet users in Indonesia used a mobile phone to access the Internet, whereas another 13 percent used other handheld multimedia devices. This represents the highest dependence on mobile internet access in Southeast Asia, although Indonesia has the lowest level of overall internet penetration in Southeast Asia with only 21 percent of Indonesians aged between 15 and 49 using the Internet.[9]

May 2011: Based on TNS research, Indonesia is the world's second-largest number of Facebook users and the third-largest number of Twitter users. 87 percent of Indonesians who go online have social networking site accounts, but only 14 percent access the sites daily, far below the global average of 46 percent due to many of them accessing the internet from inconvenient internet cafes or still using old-fashioned smartphones. In line with the increase of cheap Android smartphones recently, there is the possibility that Indonesian internet user activity will increase too.[10]

Based on Yahoo Net Index survey released in July 2011, the internet in Indonesia still ranks second after television in terms of media usage. 89 percent of users were connected to social networking, 72 percent used the internet for web browsing and 61 percent read the news.[11]

Indonesian Internet Service Providers (ISPs) offer service on PT Telkom's ADSL network. ADSL customers usually receive two separates bills, one for the ADSL line charges to PT Telkom and another for Internet service charges to the ISP.

Mobile phones

All of the GSM major cellular telecommunication providers offer 3G, 3.5G HSDPA and 4G LTE which rapidly covering cities and countrysides. They include Indosat, Telkomsel, Excelcomindo (XL) and 3. Also, the usage of CDMA EV-DO has been phased out as last provider, Smartfren pulled its support in 2017 and converted to LTE-A .

In 2016, almost all CDMA providers in Indonesia moved to either GSM or 4G LTE service such as Smartfren.

Censorship

Internet filtering in Indonesia was deemed 'substantial' in the social arena, 'selective' in the political and internet tools arenas, and there was no evidence of filtering in the conflict/security arena by the OpenNet Initiative in 2011 based on testing done during 2009 and 2010. Testing also showed that Internet filtering in Indonesia is unsystematic and inconsistent, illustrated by the differences found in the level of filtering between ISPs.[12]

Indonesia was rated "partly free" in Freedom on the Net 2015 with a score of 42, midway between the end of the "free" range at 30 and the start of the "not free" range at 60.[13]

Although the government of Indonesia holds a positive view about the internet as a means for economic development, it has become increasingly concerned over the impact of access to information and has demonstrated an interest in increasing its control over offensive online content, particularly pornographic and anti-Islamic online content. The government regulates such content through legal and regulatory frameworks and through partnerships with ISPs and Internet cafés.[12]

Media reported that selective blocking of some web sites for brief periods began in 2007–2008. Indonesia ordered ISPs to block YouTube in April 2008 after Google reportedly did not respond to the government’s request to remove the film Fitna by the Dutch parliamentarian Geert Wilders, which purportedly mocked the Islamic prophet, Muhammad.[14] In May 2010, when an account on Facebook promoted a competition to draw Muhammad, government officials took a more focused approach and sent a letter to Facebook urging closure of the account, asked all ISPs to limit access to the account’s link, and invited the Indonesian Association of Internet Cafe Entrepreneurs to restrict access to the group. Due to opposition from bloggers and civil society, however, ISPs disregarded the government’s requests, and the account remained accessible.[13]

In March 2008, the government passed the Law on Information and Electronic Transactions (ITE Law), which broadened the authority of the Ministry of Communications and Information Technology (MCI) to include supervision of the flow of information and possible censorship of online content. In early 2010, the ministry published a draft Regulation on Multimedia Content that, if implemented, would require ISPs to filter or otherwise remove certain material. The types of content listed include vaguely worded categories such as pornography, gambling, hate incitement, threats of violence, exposure of private information, intellectual property, false information, and content that degrades a person or group on the basis of a physical or nonphysical attribute, such as a disability. Following a public outcry, the government announced that it would take time to process suggestions from the public before proceeding with the draft regulation.[13]

Under the ITE Law anyone convicted of committing defamation online faces up to six years in prison, and a fine of up to 1 billion rupiah (US$111,000). As of June 2010, there were at least eight cases in which citizens had been indicted on defamation charges under the ITE Law for comments on e-mail lists, blogs, or Facebook. Prosecutions under the ITE Law have contributed to an increased atmosphere of fear, caution, and self-censorship among online writers and average users.[13]

In 2017, Telegram was blocked, as it was being used to spread "radical and terrorist propaganda." [15] Telegram was later unblocked after several agreements with the government.[16]

As of September 2018, Some websites including Vimeo, Tumblr and Reddit are censored as the government accused them of hosting content that includes nudity.[17]

Cyber army

As of 29 May 2013, the Indonesian Defense Ministry has proposed plans for creating a cyber army in order to protect the state's portals and websites. Though no law has yet been created in order to maintain and establish the cyber army, the ministry is seeking talented Internet security specialists who, upon hiring, would be trained in information technology and use methods to defend against cyber attacks.[18]

Domestic domain

Upon realizing that about 80 percent of local internet traffic went abroad, the Indonesian government began to encourage Indonesian institutions, businessmen and public in general to use domestic domains. In mid-April 2015, there were about 20,000 .id domains and about 47,000 .co.id domains. The government targeted 1 million domestic domains with a funding of Rp 50 billion ($3.85 million). Some users with non-domestic domains also possess domestic domains and redirect searches from its non-domestic domains to domestic domains.[19]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Masih Lemot, Sinyal 4G LTE Indonesia Peringkat ke 74". November 17, 2016.
  2. ^ "APJII: Pengguna Internet Capai 132,7 Juta". October 24, 2016.
  3. ^ Suprapto (November 24, 2014). "Inilah Data Peringkat Negara Pengguna Internet".
  4. ^ Matikas Santos (29 July 2014). "Philippine Internet slowest in Asean". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved 29 July 2014.
  5. ^ Deliusno (March 26, 2015). "Ini 10 Negara dengan Internet Tercepat".
  6. ^ "Number of RI Internet users increases to 71.19 million in 2013: APJII". January 14, 2014.
  7. ^ Edinayanti (August 31, 2014). "Pertumbuhan Trafik Internet Indonesia Tercepat ke-2 di Dunia".
  8. ^ "Pengguna Internet di Indonesia Didominasi Anak Muda" ("Internet users in Indonesia Dominated by Young Children"), Media Indonesia, 28 July 2011 (English translation)
  9. ^ "RI highly dependent on mobile Internet", Jakarta Post, 12 July 2012
  10. ^ "Cheap smartphones change RI Internet behavior: Survey ", Tifa Asrianti, Jakarta Post, 31 May 2011
  11. ^ "Jejaring Sosial Aktivitas Online Paling Populer di Indonesia" ("Social Networking Most Popular Online Activities in Indonesia"), Yossie Yono, CHIP Online, 27 July 2011 (English translation)
  12. ^ a b "Indonesia country profile", Access Contested, Ronald Deibert, et al., MIT Press and OpenNet Initiative, November 2011
  13. ^ a b c d "Country Report: Indonesia", Freedom on the Net 2015, Freedom House, April 2015
  14. ^ "ONI Regional Overview: Asia", OpenNet Initiative, June 2009
  15. ^ "Indonesia blocks Telegram messaging service over security concerns", Kanupriya Kapoor, Reuters, 14 July 2017
  16. ^ "Govt unblocks Telegram following several agreements". The Jakarta Post. The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 16 November 2017.
  17. ^ "Indonesia bans Vimeo", Catriona Croft-Cusworth, The Interpreter, Lowy Institute for International Policy (Sydney), 16 May 2014. Retrieved 4 July 2014.
  18. ^ Maierbrugger, Arno (29 May 2013). "Indonesia plans to deploy 'cyber army'". Inside Investor. Retrieved 30 May 2013.
  19. ^ Merlinda Riska (April 23, 2015). "Pebisnis dukung domain domestik".

Further reading

External links

.id

.id is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Indonesia.

1001malam.com

1001malam.com is an Indonesian hotel reservations and travel agencies website based in Surabaya. Founded in 2011 in Sidoarjo, the company also has offline sales services. 1001malam.com also provides tour package tours or travel services in Indonesia.

1CAK

1CAK is an Indonesian entertainment site that provides images and videos uploaded by users. This site is also known as entertainment provider through Internet meme. 1CAK users can select and comment on images. Popular images appear on the main website.

Bookmobile

A bookmobile or mobile library is a vehicle designed for use as a library. Bookmobiles expand the reach of traditional libraries by transporting books to potential readers, providing library services to people in otherwise-underserved locations (such as remote areas) and/or circumstances (such as residents of retirement homes). Bookmobile services and materials (such as Internet access, large print books, and audiobooks), may be customized for the locations and populations served.

In addition to motor vehicles, bookmobiles have been based on various means of conveyance, including bicycles, boats, and trains, as well as elephants, camels, horses, mules, and donkeys.

Ceriwis

Ceriwis is an Indonesian World Wide Web portal and forum. It was founded on December 20, 2009 by PT Tova Indonesia, with the goal of building a small community for Internet users in Indonesia. Over time, though, Ceriwis turned into a news portal and forum. At first, Ceriwis used the .us top-level domain, before switching to Ceriwis.com in 2014.

Berbagai artikel dan tips yang memberi inspirasi dan motivasi dalam hidup (Bahasa Indonesia; English "Various articles and tips that provide inspiration and motivation in life") is the Ceriwis' motto; it signifies that the company has a vision of inspiring people.

D~Net (ISP company)

PT Dutakom Wibawa Putra or commonly known as D~NET is an Indonesian internet service provider company based in Surabaya, Indonesia. The company focuses on technology as a provider of internet services and information technology of business solutions for corporations. The company was founded by Caroline Gondokusumo in 1997. Currently D-NET has 3 branch offices located in Malang, Denpasar and Mataram.

Fiber to the premises by country

This article lists the deployment of fiber to the premises, fiber to the home and fiber to the building by country.

Google Station

Google Station is a Google service that allows partners to roll out Wi-Fi hotspots in public places by providing software and advice on hardware to turn fiber connections into Wi-Fi. It was only implemented in India and Indonesia but in March 2018, the service was launched in Mexico too, and the company plans on rolling it out in other countries as well.

Index of Indonesia-related articles

The following is an alphabetical list of topics related to the Republic of Indonesia.

Indonesia

Indonesia ( (listen) IN-də-NEE-zhə, -⁠NEE-zee-ə; Indonesian: [ɪndoˈnesia]), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Indonesian: Republik Indonesia [reˈpublik ɪndoˈnesia]), is a country in Southeast Asia, between the Indian and Pacific oceans. It is the world's largest island country, with more than seventeen thousand islands, and at 1,904,569 square kilometres (735,358 square miles), the 14th largest by land area and the 7th largest in combined sea and land area. With over 261 million people, it is the world's 4th most populous country as well as the most populous Muslim-majority country. Java, the world's most populous island, is home to more than half of the country's population.

The sovereign state is a presidential, constitutional republic with an elected parliament. It has 34 provinces, of which five have special status. Jakarta, the country's capital, is the second most populous urban area in the world. The country shares land borders with Papua New Guinea, East Timor, and the eastern part of Malaysia. Other neighbouring countries include Singapore, Vietnam, the Philippines, Australia, Palau, and India's Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Despite its large population and densely populated regions, Indonesia has vast areas of wilderness that support a high level of biodiversity. The country has abundant natural resources like oil and natural gas, tin, copper and gold. Agriculture mainly produces rice, palm oil, tea, coffee, cacao, medicinal plants, spices and rubber. Indonesia's major trading partners are China, United States, Japan, Singapore and India.The history of the Indonesian archipelago has been influenced by foreign powers drawn to its natural resources. It has been an important region for trade since at least the 7th century, when Srivijaya and then later Majapahit traded with entities from mainland China and the Indian subcontinent. Local rulers gradually absorbed foreign cultural, religious and political models from the early centuries and Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms flourished. Muslim traders and Sufi scholars brought Islam, while European powers brought Christianity and fought one another to monopolise trade in the Spice Islands of Maluku during the Age of Discovery. Although sometimes interrupted by the Portuguese, French and British, the Dutch were the foremost European power for much of its 350-year presence in the archipelago. In early 20th century, the concept of "Indonesia" as a nation state emerged, and independence movements began to take shape. During the decolonisation of Asia after World War II, Indonesia achieved independence in 1949 following an armed and diplomatic conflict with the Netherlands.

Indonesia consists of hundreds of distinct native ethnic and linguistic groups, with the largest—and politically dominant—ethnic group being the Javanese. A shared identity has developed, defined by a national language, ethnic diversity, religious pluralism within a Muslim-majority population, and a history of colonialism and rebellion against it. Indonesia's national motto, "Bhinneka Tunggal Ika" ("Unity in Diversity" literally, "many, yet one"), articulates the diversity that shapes the country. Indonesia's economy is the world's 16th largest by nominal GDP and the 7th largest by GDP at PPP. Indonesia is a member of several multilateral organisations, including the UN, WTO, IMF and G20. It is also a founding member of Non-Aligned Movement, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, East Asia Summit, Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank and Organisation of Islamic Cooperation.

Indonesia Digital HOME

Indonesia Digital HOME is one of the service products of PT Telekomunikasi Indonesia in the form of communication and data service packages such as home telephone

(voice), internet (Internet on Fiber or High Speed Internet), and interactive television services (Usee TV Cable, IPTV). Because of this offer, Telkom labeled IndiHOME as three services in one package (3-in-1) because in addition to the internet, customers also get paid TV shows and telephone lines.The IndiHome package also comes with content such as digital music portal services and Home Automation. Since the launch of IndiHOME, customers who subscribe to Speedy internet packages one by one are asked to switch to IndiHOME, because Speedy trading services will soon be terminated in 2015.IndiHome was officially launched in 2015. IndiHome is also one of the programs of Telkom's main project, Indonesia Digital Network 2015. In its implementation, Telkom cooperated with a number of telecommunication technology developers to build a digital concept house.IndiHome services can only be applied to homes in which there are fiber optic networks available from Telkom (FTTH) and areas that still use copper cables.

Indonesia Internet Exchange

The Indonesia Internet Exchange (IIX) is the national interconnection point for Internet Service Providers in Indonesia. Launched in August 1997, the IIX is operated by the Indonesian Internet Service Providers Association (APJII).

KabarIndonesia

KabarIndonesia is an online newspaper in Indonesia.

It has been published by Yayasan Peduli Indonesia (Care about Indonesia Foundation) based in The Netherlands since November 11, 2006. It adopts citizen journalism system through which every reader (citizen) can be a reporter as well as writer that is commonly called as "citizen reporter". There are thousands Citizen Reporter in KabarIndonesia from around the world, but most of them are living in Indonesia. KabarIndonesia is written in Indonesian.

List of Indonesia-related topics

This is a list of topics related to Indonesia.

Merlyna Lim

Merlyna Lim is a scholar studying ICT (Information and Communication Studies), particularly on the socio-political shaping of new media in non-Western contexts. She has been appointed a Canada Research Chair in Digital Media and Global Network Society in the School of Journalism and Communication Carleton University. Formerly she was a Visiting Research Scholar at Princeton University's Center for Information Technology Policy and a Distinguished Scholar of Technology and Public Engagement of the School of Social Transformation Justice and Social Inquiry Program and the Consortium for Science, Policy and Outcomes at Arizona State University. She previously held a Networked Public Research Associate position at the Annenberg Center for Communication at the University of Southern California, Los Angeles. She got her PhD, with distinction (cum laude), from University of Twente in Enschede, Netherlands, with a dissertation entitled @rchipelago Online: The Internet and Political Activism in Indonesia.

She has been invited to give keynote speeches, public lectures, and various academic presentations in more than 150 occasions all over the world, including keynote speeches at the 2012 Ray Warren Multicultural Symposium (Portland, OR), the 2012 Frank Church Symposium on International Affairs (Pocatello, ID), the International Conference on Civic Space (ICCS) in 2010 in Jakarta, Indonesia, and a plenary lecture at the Annual Conference of the Association of Internet Researchers (AoIR) in 2006 in Brisbane, Australia.

She is also an active blogger, with blogs in English, Indonesian, and Sundanese.

Outline of Indonesia

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Indonesia:

Indonesia – sovereign island nation located in Southeast Asia comprising more than 17,000 islands of the Maritime Southeast Asia.

Palm-leaf manuscript

Palm-leaf manuscripts are manuscripts made out of dried palm leaves. Palm leaves were used as writing materials in the Indian subcontinent and in Southeast Asia dating back to the 5th century BCE and possibly much earlier. Their use began in South Asia and spread elsewhere, as texts on dried and smoke treated palm leaves of Borassus species (Palmyra palm) or the Ola leaf (leaf of Corypha umbraculifera or the talipot palm).One of the oldest surviving palm leaf manuscript is a Sanskrit Shaivism text from the 9th-century, discovered in Nepal, now preserved at the Cambridge University Library.

Prita Mulyasari

Prita Mulyasari is an Indonesian housewife and mother of two who in 2008 was a patient at Omni International Hospital in Tangerang, west of Jakarta, for an illness that was misdiagnosed as dengue fever, whereas she actually had mumps. Her complaints about her misdiagnosis started as a private email that went viral and she was jailed after losing a civil defamation suit taken by the hospital in 2009.

The case highlighted the over-reaction of Indonesian prosecutors when presented with cases being pursued by influential individuals and companies Due to the proximity of the presidential elections in July 2009, the various candidates either visited Prita Mulyasari in jail or publicly commented on the case Support from a group on MySpace attracted considerable support as well as Indonesian blog sites The case brought attention to clauses of the Indonesian Information and Electronic Transaction Law which are currently being challenged and questioned as a result of Prita Mulyasari's casePrita was fined 204 million rupiah (US$20,500), causing support for her to grow stronger. A mailing list and Facebook group called "KOIN UNTUK PRITA" started raising money from people throughout Indonesia. People started collecting coins to help Prita to pay the fine. Seeing the huge support for Prita, Omni International Hospital dropped the civil lawsuit.

The Indonesian Supreme Court in June 2012 overturned Prita's conviction and jail sentence.

Telkom Indonesia

PT Telekomunikasi Indonesia (Persero) Tbk, commonly known as Telkom Indonesia (stylised as Telkom Indonesıa) or simply Telkom, is an Indonesian multinational telecommunications conglomerate. Telkom is a semi-privatised, majority state-owned company listed on multiple exchanges.It has major businesses in fixed line telephony, internet and data communications. It is operated as parent company of the Telkom Group, which is engaged in a broad range of businesses that consist of telecommunication, multimedia, property and finance services. Since 2008, Telkom Indonesia began changing its business focus, infrastructure, systems, organisation and human resources, as well as the corporate culture, as their effort facing rising competition.Since this privatisation in 1995, Telkom Indonesia total consumer 129.8 million at the end of December 2011 increased by 7.8% from 2010, making the company the nation's largest telecommunication service provider by subscribers.

Internet in Asia
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