International Water Management Institute

The International Water Management Institute (IWMI) is a non-profit research organisation with headquarters in Colombo, Sri Lanka, and offices across Africa and Asia. Research at the Institute focuses on improving how water and land resources are managed, with the aim of underpinning food security and reducing poverty while safeguarding vital environmental processes.

As water becomes scarcer, there is a growing need to find ways to produce sufficient food to feed the world’s expanding population, while using less water, safeguarding fragile environmental services and without having much opportunity to open up new agricultural lands. The Institute undertakes research projects with this aim in mind.

Its research focuses on: water availability and access, including adaptation to climate change; how water is used and how it can be used more productively; water quality and its relationship to health and the environment; and how societies govern their water resources. In 2012, IWMI was awarded the prestigious Stockholm Water Prize Laureate by Stockholm International Water Institute for its pioneering research, which has helped to improve agricultural water management, enhance food security, protect environmental health and alleviate poverty in developing countries.[1]

IWMI is a member of CGIAR, a global research partnership that unites organizations engaged in research for sustainable development, and leads the CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems. IWMI is also a partner in the CGIAR Research Programs on: Aquatic Agricultural Systems (AAS); Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS); Dryland Systems; and Integrated Systems for the Humid Tropics.

International Water Management Institute
Logo of the International Water Management Institute
TypeNonprofit research organisation
  • Sri Lanka (Colombo - Headquarters); India (New Delhi, Anand - Gujarat); Pakistan (Lahore); Laos (Vientiane); Nepal (Kathmandu); Uzbekistan (Tashkent); South Africa (Pretoria); Ghana (Accra); Ethiopia (Addis Ababa), Egypt (Cairo)
Key people
Dr. Claudia Sadoff, Director General.

Ian Makin, Deputy Director General - Research.

Syon Niyogi, Corporate Services Director.
Parent organization
RemarksIWMI won the 2012 Stockholm Water Prize Laureate.


Early focus on irrigation

The Institute was founded under the name International Irrigation Management Institute (IIMI) in 1985 by the Ford Foundation and the Government of Sri Lanka, supported by the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research and the World Bank. During the Green Revolution of the 1940s to 1970s, billions of dollars had been spent building large-scale irrigation systems. These contributed, along with new fertilizers, pesticides and high-yielding varieties of seeds, to helping many countries produce greater quantities of food crops.[2] By the mid 1980s, however, these irrigation systems were no longer performing efficiently; IIMI's job was to find out why.

IIMI's researchers discovered that problems affecting irrigation were often more institutional than technical. It advocated ‘Participatory Irrigation Management’ (PIM) as the solution, an approach that sought to involve farmers in water management decisions. In 1992, the Rio de Janeiro Earth Summit gave credence to this approach by recommending that water management be decentralized, with farmers and other stakeholders playing a more important role in managing natural resources.[3] Initially met with resistance, PIM went on to become the status quo for governments and major lending agencies. IIMI became a member of the CGIAR system in 1991.

Wider perspective

By the mid 1990s, competition for water resources was rising, thanks to a larger global population, expanding cities and increasing industrial applications.[4] Viewing irrigation in isolation was no longer relevant to the global situation. A new approach was needed that would consider it within a river basin context, encompassing competing users and the environment. IIMI began developing new fields of research, on topics such as open and closed basins, water accounting, multiple-use systems, basin institutions, remote sensing analysis and environmental flows.[5] In 1998, its name changed to the International Water Management Institute (IWMI), reflecting this new wider approach.

Although it was becoming evident that water could no longer be considered an "infinite resource", as had been the case in the 1950s when there were fewer people on the planet, no one knew just how scarce the resource was. This prompted IWMI to try to find out. Its research culminated in publication of Water for food, Water for life: A comprehensive assessment of water management in agriculture. A map within the report showed that a third of the world’s population already suffered from ‘water scarcity’. The report defined physical water scarcity, as being where there are insufficient water resources to meet the demands of the population, and economic water scarcity as where water requirements are not satisfied because of a lack of investment in water or human capacity. [6]

Averting a global water crisis

IWMI’s approach towards defining water scarcity provided a new context within which the scientific debate on water availability subsequently became centred. For example, the theme of the UN World Water Day in 2007 was Coping with Water Scarcity;[7] The USA's Worldwatch Institute featured a chapter on water management in its assessment State of the World 2008;[8] and reports published in 2009 by the World Economic Forum and UNESCO concluded that water scarcity is now a bigger threat than the global financial crisis.[9] Dr. Rajendra K. Pachauri, Chair of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, also highlighted water scarcity at the 2009 Nobel Conference.[10]

If current trends continue, global annual water usage is set to increase by more than two trillion cubic metres by 2030, rising to 6.9 trillion cubic metres. That equates to 40 per cent more than can be provided by available water supplies.[11] At Stockholm World Water Week 2010, IWMI highlighted a six-point plan for averting a water crisis. According to the Institute, the following actions are required: 1) gather high-quality data about water resources; 2) take better care of the environment; 3) reform how water resources are governed; 4) revitalize how water is used for farming; 5) better manage urban and municipal demands for water; and 6) involve marginalized people in water management.[12]

In 2011, IWMI celebrated its 25th anniversary by commissioning a series of essays on agricultural and development.

Using water management to reduce poverty

IWM's work in Gujarat, India, exemplifies how improving water management can have an influence on peoples' livelihoods. The state faced the dual problem of bankrupt electricity utilities and depleted groundwater storage following the introduction of electricity subsidies to farmers from around 1970. The situation arose because the subsidies enabled farmers to easily pump groundwater from ever-increasing depths. The Asian Development Bank and World Bank both indicated that governments should cut the electricity subsidies and charge farmers based on metered consumption of power. However, when some state governments tried to do so, the farmers formed such powerful lobbies that several chief ministers lost their seats. A different solution was clearly required.

IWMI scientists who studied the problem suggested governments should introduce ‘intelligent rationing’ of farm power supply by separating the power cables carrying electricity to farmers from those supplying other rural users, such as domestic households and industries. They should then provide farmers with a high-quality power supply for a set number of hours each day at a price they could afford. Eventually Gujarat decided to include these recommendations in a larger programme to reform the electricity utility. A study conducted afterwards found its impacts to be much greater than anticipated. Prior to the change, tube-well owners had been holding rural communities to ransom by ‘stealing’ power for irrigation. After the cables were separated, rural households, schools and industries had a much higher-quality power supply, which in turn boosted individuals’ well-being. [13]

See also


  1. ^ SL-based IWMI wins world's most prestigious Water Prize Archived 2012-03-30 at the Wayback Machine, Daily News, 26 March 2012
  2. ^ Mukherji, A. Revitalising Asia’s Irrigation: To sustainably meet tomorrow’s food needs 2009, IWMI and FAO
  3. ^ United Nations, 1992. Report of the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, Rio de Janeiro, 3–14 June 1992
  4. ^ Chartres, C. and Varma, S. (2010). Out of Water: From abundance to scarcity and how to solve the world’s water problems. FT Press (USA).
  5. ^ Turral, H. More crop per drop – Moving from dry to wet water savings Archived 2011-07-18 at the Wayback Machine IWMI Annual Report 2004/2005.
  6. ^ BBC News Map details global water stress, Monday 21 August 2006.
  7. ^ UN World Water Day, 2007. Coping with water scarcity. 22 March 2007.
  8. ^ Bergkamp, G. and Sadoff, C. Chapter 8: Water in a sustainable economy, State of the World 2008 Archived 2009-04-01 at the Wayback Machine. Worldwatch Institute.
  9. ^ Lean, Geoffrey Water scarcity now bigger threat than financial crisis. The Independent, Sunday 15 March 2009.
  10. ^ Water scarcity will create global security concerns: Pachauri. The Economic Times, 7 October 2009.
  11. ^ Gilbert, N. How to avert a global water crisis. Nature News, 4 October 2010.
  12. ^ Eichenseher, Tasha. Six steps for avoiding a global water crisis Archived 2010-09-10 at the Wayback Machine Nat Geo News Watch, September 6, 2010.
  13. ^ Mishra, P. K. Alleviating energy poverty through innovation: the case of Jyotigram Yojana (rural lighting scheme) of Gujarat Archived 2011-07-26 at the Wayback Machine World Energy Council

External links

  • International Water Management Institute
  • International Water Management Institute Publications
  • IWMI on Facebook
  • Eco-Business (2011-08-30). "Radical changes in agriculture needed for food, water security". Eco-Business. Retrieved 2018-02-22. 'Agriculture is both a major cause and victim of ecosystem degradation,' said IWMI’s scientific editor Eline Boelee in a statement.
  • The World Bank's strategy, work and publications on water resources
Basin Focal Projects

The Basin Focal Projects (BFPs) are a set of CGIAR Challenge Program on Water and Food projects aimed at identifying and catalyzing the implementation of strategic interventions to enhance human and ecological well-being through increases in river basin and local level water productivity.


A beel is a billabong or a lake-like wetland with static water (as opposed to moving water in rivers and canals - typically called khaals), in the Ganges - Brahmaputra flood plains of the Eastern Indian states of West Bengal, and Assam and in the country of Bangladesh. The term owes its origins to the word of the same pronunciation meaning "pond" and "lake" in the Bengali and Assamese languages.

Bhadravati, Karnataka

Bhadravati or Bhadravathi is an industrial city and taluk in the Shivamogga District of Karnataka state, India. It is situated at a distance of about 255 kilometres (158 mi) from the state capital Bengaluru and at about 20 kilometres (12 mi) from the district headquarters, Shivamogga. The town is spread over an area of 67.0536 square kilometres (25.8895 sq mi) and has a population of 151,102 as per the census held in 2011.


Climarice is a research project, carried out by The Norwegian Institute for Agricultural and Environmental Research (Bioforsk, Norway), Tamil Nadu Agricultural University (TNAU, India), International Water Management Institute (IWMI, India) and International Pacific Research Center (IPRC, United States); which is trying to assess the impact of climate variability on water availability and rice production in the Cauvery river basin of Tamil Nadu, India.

In particular, the impacts of climate change on extreme events such as droughts, floods, heat waves and on the spatial and temporal distribution of the monsoon rains will certainly impact rice production and food security in India. However, there is a significant level of uncertainty in the climate models' projections that cascade into impact models and thereby influence policy decisions related to adaptation. For both scientific community and policy makers, reducing the uncertainties is a big challenge. On a positive note, examination of historical observed rice production data in India shows an overall increasing trend in many regions with annual fluctuations. Will this trend continue given the projected change in climate and population increase in India?

Climarice is funded by the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, is currently assessing the impacts of climate change on rice production areas and rice productivity. Specifically, the project is assessing the behavior of the Indian monsoon in different climate scenarios, and examining its impact on the water availability, rice crop production and the resultant socio economic vulnerability and adaptation of farming communities in the Cauvery river basin, India. Since the project was started in January 2008, relevant coping and adaptation mechanisms have been identified and techniques developed to address the issues of climate vulnerabilities in rice production.

Comprehensive Assessment of Water Management in Agriculture

The report A Comprehensive Assessment of Water Management in Agriculture was published in 2007 by International Water Management Institute and Earthscan in an attempt to answer the question: how can water in agriculture be developed and managed to help end poverty and hunger, ensure environmentally sustainable practices, and find the right balance between food and environmental security?

Deficit irrigation

Deficit irrigation (DI) is a watering strategy that can be applied by different types of irrigation application methods. The correct application of DI requires thorough understanding of the yield response to water (crop sensitivity to drought stress) and of the economic impact of reductions in harvest. In regions where water resources are restrictive it can be more profitable for a farmer to maximize crop water productivity instead of maximizing the harvest per unit land. The saved water can be used for other purposes or to irrigate extra units of land.

DI is sometimes referred to as incomplete supplemental irrigation or regulated DI.

Economic water scarcity

Economic water scarcity is caused by a lack of investment in water infrastructure or insufficient human capacity to satisfy the demand of water in areas where the population cannot afford to use an adequate source of water.

Symptoms of economic water scarcity include a lack of infrastructure, with people often having to fetch water from rivers or lakes for domestic and agricultural uses (irrigation). Although much emphasis is put on improving water sources for drinking and domestic purposes, evidence suggests that much more water is used for other uses such as bathing, laundry, livestock and cleaning than for drinking and cooking alone. This observation suggests that putting too much emphasis on drinking water needs addresses an insignificant part of the problem of water resources and therefore limits the range of solutions available.Large parts of Africa suffer from economic water scarcity; developing water infrastructure there could therefore help to reduce poverty. Investing in water retention and irrigation infrastructure would also help to increase food production, especially in developing countries that largely rely on low-yield agriculture. Being able to provide a community with water that is adequate for consumption would also greatly benefit the people’s health. Overcoming this type of scarcity, however, can require more than just new infrastructure; it requires socio-economic and socio-political types of intervention that address poverty and socio-inequality but because there is a lack of funding, much planning must come into play.The term was first defined in a wide-ranging 2007 study on the use of water in agriculture over the previous 50 years of practitioners, researchers and policymakers, overseen by the International Water Management Institute in Sri Lanka, with the aim of finding out if the world had sufficient water resources to produce food for the growing population in the future. Water is one of the most crucial elements in developmental planning;

efforts to develop, conserve, utilize and manage water resources have to be guided by national perspectives.The term physical water scarcity was used by the study to define situations where there is not enough water to meet all demands, including that needed for ecosystems to function effectively.

Felix Amerasinghe

Felix Prashantha Amerasinghe (14 July 1948 - 7 June 2005) was a Sri Lankan entomologist who studied arthropods of medical importance including ticks and mosquitoes and their role in the spread of diseases such as malaria, dengue, Japanese encephalitis, and lyme.

Amerasinghe was born to Cuthbert and Effie Amerasinghe. Cuthbert was a professor of Western Classics at the University of Ceylon. He studied at St Anthony's College, Katugastota and then at the University of Peradeniya from where he graduated in zoology in 1971. He received a commonwealth scholarship and continued studies at the University of Bristol, working on Schistocerca gregaria under L. Strong, and received a Ph.D. in 1977. He returned to Sri Lanka and continued working as a lecturer, professor (1996) and head of the department of zoology (1998). His major contribution was on the study of Japanese encephalitis in Sri Lanka. His Priyanie was also a researcher and they worked together in the University of Maryland between 1990 and 1992, studying and monitor ticks involved in the transmission of lyme disease. From 2000 he worked at the International Water Management Institute.

International agricultural research

The only mandated

international agricultural research organization is the CGIAR The CGIAR Fund supports 15 international agricultural research centers such as the International Water Management Institute (IWMI), International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) and the Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR) that form the CGIAR Consortium of International Agricultural Research Centers and are located in various countries worldwide (as of 2011), The centers carry out research on various agricultural commodities, livestock, fish, water, forestry, policy and management.

Some other international agricultural organizations include the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Global Forum on Agricultural Research (GFAR), The International Agriculture Center (Netherlands), The World Bank, International Fund for Agricultural Development, The Center for International Food and Agriculture Policy at the University of Minnesota.

List of global sustainability statistics

Site under development - please add to this list where appropriateGlobal sustainability statistics are benchmarks for measuring the status of sustainability parameters. The following agencies provide baseline data for sustainability governance. They are just one form of data used for sustainability accounting and are valuable for assessing trends and measuring progress.

This list provides sources of statistics at the global level of governance only.

General lists

Meadows, D.H., Randers, J. & Meadows, D.L. 2004. Limits to growth: the 30-year update. Chelsea Green Publishing Company, White River Junction, USA.

The CIAs World Fact Book

World Data Center

United Nations Environmental Indicators Also publications on environmental statistics and statistical methods.

Water (water resources, water supply industry, waste water)

Air pollution (SO2 & NOx),

Climate change (greenhouse gas emissions; by sector(absolute & percentage); CO2 emissions; CH4 & N2O emissions)

Waste (municipal waste collection, treatment, hazardous waste)

Land use (total land area by country, forest area by country, agricultural area by country).

European Commission (Eurostat)


Groombridge, B & Jenkins, M.D. 2002. World Atlas of Biodiversity. UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre.


BP Statistical Review of World Energy

The International Energy Agency. Key World Energy Statistics

UN Energy Statistics Database


UN Food and Agriculture Organization.


UN Food and Agriculture Organization.


International Fertilizer Industry Association

Food and agriculture

UN Food and Agriculture Organization. FAOSTAT


United Nations Population Division

United Nations Database

Population Reference Bureau

American Association for Advancement of Science


International Water Management Institute

Stockholm International Water Institute

United Nations Environmental Program

Global Runoff Data Centre

List of libraries in Sri Lanka

This is a list of libraries in the island nation of Sri Lanka in South Asia.

Mahaweli River

The Mahaweli River (Sinhala: මහවැලි ගඟ, literally "Great Sandy River"; Tamil: மகாவலி ஆறு [mahawali gangai]), is a 335 km (208 mi) long river, ranking as the longest river in Sri Lanka. Its drainage basin is the largest in the country, and covers almost one-fifth of the total area of the island. The real creation of Mahaweli ganga starts at Polwathura(at Mahawila area), a remote village of Nuwara-Eliya District in bank Nawalapitiya of Kandy District by further joining of Hatton oya and Kotmale oya.The river reaches the Bay of Bengal on the southwestern side of Trincomalee Bay. The bay includes the first of a number submarine canyons, making Trincomalee one of the finest deep-sea harbors in the world.As part of Mahaweli Development programme the river and its tributaries are dammed at several locations to allow irrigation in the dry zone, with almost 1,000 km2 (386 sq mi) of land irrigated. Production of hydroelectricity from six dams of the Mahaweli system supplies more than 40% of Sri Lanka's electricity needs. One of the many sources of the river is the Kotmale Oya.There is a misconception in Sri Lanka that the Mahaweli starts in the Sri Pada mountain. The Mahaweli gets its source waters from Horton Plains in Kirigalpoththa and the Thotupola mountain range.

Ministry of Food and Agriculture (Ghana)

Ghana's Ministry of Food and Agriculture (MOFA) is the government agency responsible for the development and growth of agriculture in the country. The jurisdiction does not cover the cocoa, coffee or forestry sectors.

Multiple-use water supply system

Multiple Use water Schemes (MUS) are low-cost, equitable water supply systems that provide communities with water for both domestic needs and high-value agricultural production, including rearing livestock. They are designed for use in rural areas, inhabited by smallholder farmers, and generally cover ten to 40 households, although some have served many more households.The International Water Management Institute and International Development Enterprises collaborated on a project using MUS to help reduce poverty in India and Nepal. Between 2003 and 2008, 12 MUS systems were installed in Himalayan hilly areas serving a total of about 5000 households. A water poverty mapping technique helped identify the best areas to target. When the impact of the installed systems was evaluated, it showed that low initial investment costs (approximately US$200 per household) could be paid back within a year. This was because the households served with MUS were able to earn additional income of about US$190 per year through sale of surplus produce.

In a water supply system designed for a single use, such as irrigating crops, livestock might damage hardware if they try to access the water, and people needing water for domestic uses might find there is no water provided in months when it is not needed for watering crops. These problems can be overcome when designing water supply systems for multiple uses. For example, steps can be built to provide access for bathing or washing clothes, and access points can be provided to give livestock safe access to water. Sufficient water can be supplied that there is always some available for domestic uses, even at times when the crops do not need water. Other livelihood options can also be considered; for example, using water for fisheries, as well as rearing livestock, growing crops and domestic uses. MUS can benefit women; for example, by reducing the time they have to spend gathering water and by providing water close to their home with which they can grow produce to feed their families and sell on.Gutu and Prowse (2017) offer some estimates from Ethiopia on farmers’ willingness to pay for a multiple-use water supply system. They find that willingness to pay is based on gender, the prevalence of waterborne disease, the time to collect water, contact with extension services, access to credit, level of income and location. Respondents would pay 3.43 per cent of average income to participate. Consideration of how gendered norms influence women’s access to extension, credit and local markets could extend the benefits of such schemes.

Oued Merguellil

Oued Merguellil (وادي مرق الليل) is a stream in central Tunisia that flows via Sebkhet Cherita Lake, into the Mediterranean at the Gulf of Hammamet.

Oued Merguellil is found at 35° 50′ 34″ N, 10° 16′ 18″ E in central Tunisia. The stream flow is irregular with a variation of 300mm through the year in the catchment basin.

During Roman times the area was intensely farmed and today irrigation from the stream goes to olive and apricot production. The El Haouareb Dam is on the stream.

Physical water scarcity

Physical water scarcity occurs when and where there is not enough water to meet both human demands and those of ecosystems to function effectively. Arid regions frequently suffer from physical water scarcity. It also occurs where water seems abundant but resources are over-committed. This can happen where there is overdevelopment of hydraulic infrastructure, often for irrigation or energy generation. Symptoms of physical water scarcity are severe environmental degradation, declining groundwater and water allocations that favour some groups over others.The term was first defined in a wide-ranging 2007 study on the use of water in agriculture over the previous 50 years. The study was undertaken by a broad partnership of practitioners, researchers and policymakers, overseen by the International Water Management Institute in Sri Lanka, with the aim of finding out if the world has sufficient water resources to produce food for future populations. The study found that more than 1.2 billion people live in areas of physical water scarcity.

The term economic water scarcity was used by the study to define situations where demand for water is not satisfied because of a lack of investment in water or a lack of human capacity to satisfy demand.


Sewage (or domestic wastewater or municipal wastewater) is a type of wastewater that is produced by a community of people. It is characterized by volume or rate of flow, physical condition, chemical and toxic constituents, and its bacteriologic status (which organisms it contains and in what quantities). It consists mostly of greywater (from sinks, tubs, showers, dishwashers, and clothes washers), blackwater (the water used to flush toilets, combined with the human waste that it flushes away); soaps and detergents; and toilet paper (less so in regions where bidets are widely used instead of paper).

Sewage usually travels from a building's plumbing either into a sewer, which will carry it elsewhere, or into an onsite sewage facility (of which there are many kinds). Whether it is combined with surface runoff in the sewer depends on the sewer design (sanitary sewer or combined sewer). The reality is that most wastewater produced globally remains untreated causing widespread water pollution, especially in low-income countries: A global estimate by UNDP and UN-Habitat is that 90% of all wastewater generated is released into the environment untreated. In many developing countries the bulk of domestic and industrial wastewater is discharged without any treatment or after primary treatment only.

The term sewage is nowadays regarded as an older term and is being more and more replaced by "wastewater". In general American English usage, the terms "sewage" and "sewerage" mean the same thing. In common British usage, and in American technical and professional English usage, "sewerage" refers to the infrastructure that conveys sewage.

Stockholm Water Prize

Presented annually since 1991, the Stockholm Water Prize is an award that recognizes outstanding achievements in water related activities. Over the past two decades, Stockholm Water Prize Laureates [1] have come from across the world and represented a wide range of professions, disciplines and activities in the field of water.

Any activity or actor which contributes broadly to the conservation and protection of the world’s water resources, and to improved water conditions which contribute to the health and welfare of the planet’s inhabitants and our ecosystems, is eligible to be nominated for the Stockholm Water Prize.

The Stockholm Water Prize Laureate is announced each 22 March at the UN World Day for Water and honoured each August during the World Water Week in Stockholm at a Royal Prize Ceremony and Banquet in the Stockholm City Hall. At the ceremony, the Laureate receives the prize from H.M. King Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden, who is the patron of the Stockholm Water Prize.

The prize, created and financed by the Stockholm Water Foundation and administered by the Stockholm International Water Institute (SIWI) [2], includes a 150,000 USD award and an Orrefors crystal sculpture.

The Stockholm Junior Water Prize is also administered by SIWI and awarded during the World Water Week in Stockholm each August.

Water, Land and Ecosystems

Water, Land and Ecosystems is one of several new research programmes approved by the CGIAR during 2011 after an extensive period of consultation that began in 2009. This research programme will draw on the resources of 14 CGIAR and numerous external partners to provide a more integrated approach to research into managing natural resources. The aim of the research programme is to increase agricultural productivity while protecting the environment, so food security is ensured for most of humanity and that poverty becomes history. The five main strands to the programme are: River basins; Irrigation systems; Information systems; Resource reuse and recovery; and Rainfed agriculture systems.

A report released by UNEP and the International Water Management Institute (IWMI – which comes under the CGIAR umbrella and will be a major contributor to the new research programme), exemplifies the concept of conducting agriculture within healthy ecosystems. Current farming methods have resulted in over-stretched water resources, high levels of erosion and reduced soil fertility. According to the report, there is not enough water to continue farming using current practices; therefore how we use critical water, land, and ecosystem resources to boost crop yields must be reconsidered. The report suggested that we need to assign value to ecosystems, recognize environmental and livelihood tradeoffs, and balance the rights of a variety of users and interests. We would also need to address inequities that result when such measures are adopted, such as the reallocation of water from poor to rich, the clearing of land to make way for more productive farmland, or the preservation of a wetland system that limits fishing rights.

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