International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry

The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC /ˈaɪjuːpæk, ˈjuː-/) is an international federation of National Adhering Organizations that represents chemists in individual countries. It is a member of the International Council for Science (ICSU).[2] IUPAC is registered in Zürich, Switzerland, and the administrative office, known as the "IUPAC Secretariat", is in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, United States. This administrative office is headed by IUPAC's executive director,[3] currently Lynn Soby.[4]

IUPAC was established in 1919 as the successor of the International Congress of Applied Chemistry for the advancement of chemistry. Its members, the National Adhering Organizations, can be national chemistry societies, national academies of sciences, or other bodies representing chemists. There are fifty-four National Adhering Organizations and three Associate National Adhering Organizations.[2] IUPAC's Inter-divisional Committee on Nomenclature and Symbols (IUPAC nomenclature) is the recognized world authority in developing standards for the naming of the chemical elements and compounds. Since its creation, IUPAC has been run by many different committees with different responsibilities.[5] These committees run different projects which include standardizing nomenclature,[6] finding ways to bring chemistry to the world,[7] and publishing works.[8][9][10]

IUPAC is best known for its works standardizing nomenclature in chemistry and other fields of science, but IUPAC has publications in many fields including chemistry, biology and physics.[11] Some important work IUPAC has done in these fields includes standardizing nucleotide base sequence code names; publishing books for environmental scientists, chemists, and physicists; and improving education in science.[11][12] IUPAC is also known for standardizing the atomic weights of the elements through one of its oldest standing committees, the Commission on Isotopic Abundances and Atomic Weights (CIAAW).

International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC)
IUPAC
IUPAC logo
AbbreviationIUPAC
MottoAdvancing Chemistry Worldwide
Formation1919
TypeINGO, standards organization
HeadquartersResearch Triangle Park, North Carolina, United States
Region served
Worldwide
Official language
English
President
Qi-Feng Zhou (China)[1]
WebsiteIUPAC.org

Creation and history

Frkekulé
Friedrich August Kekulé von Stradonitz

The need for an international standard for chemistry was first addressed in 1860 by a committee headed by German scientist Friedrich August Kekulé von Stradonitz. This committee was the first international conference to create an international naming system for organic compounds.[11] The ideas that were formulated in that conference evolved into the official IUPAC nomenclature of organic chemistry.[11] IUPAC stands as a legacy of this meeting, making it one of the most important historical international collaborations of chemistry societies.[11] Since this time, IUPAC has been the official organization held with the responsibility of updating and maintaining official organic nomenclature.[13] IUPAC as such was established in 1919.[14] One notable country excluded from this early IUPAC is Germany. Germany's exclusion was a result of prejudice towards Germans by the Allied powers after World War I.[15] Germany was finally admitted into IUPAC during 1929. However, Nazi Germany was removed from IUPAC during World War II.

During World War II, IUPAC was affiliated with the Allied powers, but had little involvement during the war effort itself. After the war, East and West Germany were eventually readmitted to IUPAC.[15][16] Since World War II, IUPAC has been focused on standardizing nomenclature and methods in science without interruption.

In 2016, IUPAC denounced the use of chlorine as a chemical weapon. The organization pointed out their concerns in a letter to Ahmet Üzümcü, the director of the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), in regards to the practice of utilizing chlorine for weapon usage in Syria among other locations. The letter stated, "Our organizations deplore the use of chlorine in this manner. The indiscriminate attacks, possibly carried out by a member state of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), is of concern to chemical scientists and engineers around the globe and we stand ready to support your mission of implementing the CWC." According to the CWC, "the use, stockpiling, distribution, development or storage of any chemical weapons is forbidden by any of the 192 state party signatories."[17]

Committees and governance

IUPAC is governed by several committees that all have different responsibilities. The committees are as follows: Bureau, CHEMRAWN (Chem Research Applied to World Needs) Committee, Committee on Chemistry Education, Committee on Chemistry and Industry, Committee on Printed and Electronic Publications, Evaluation Committee, Executive Committee, Finance Committee, Interdivisional Committee on Terminology, Nomenclature and Symbols, Project Committee, and Pure and Applied Chemistry Editorial Advisory Board.[5] Each committee is made up of members of different National Adhering Organizations from different countries.[2]

The steering committee hierarchy for IUPAC is as follows:[18]

  • All committees have an allotted budget to which they must adhere.
  • Any committee may start a project.
  • If a project's spending becomes too much for a committee to continue funding, it must take the issue to the Project Committee.
  • The project committee either increases the budget or decides on an external funding plan.
  • The Bureau and Executive Committee oversee operations of the other committees.
Committees table
Committee name (abbreviation) Responsibilities
Bureau
  • Discussing and making changes to which committee has authority over a specific project
  • Controlling finances for all other committees and IUPAC as a whole
  • Discussing general governance of IUPAC [19]
Physical and Biophysical Chemistry Division (Division I)
  • Organizing and promoting the international collaboration between scientists in physical and biophysical chemistry and related fields
Inorganic Chemistry Division (Division II)
  • Inorganic and inorganic materials chemistry, isotopes and atomic weights, periodic table
Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry Division (Division III)
  • Promoting the goals of IUPAC in the field of organic and biomolecular chemistry in the broadest sense
Polymer Division (Division IV)
  • The science and technology of macromolecules and polymers
Analytical Chemistry Division (Division V)
  • The general aspects of analytical chemistry, separation methods, spectrochemical methods, electrochemical methods, nuclear chemistry methods, and applications to human health and the environment.
Chemistry and the Environment Division (Division VI)
  • Providing unbiased and timely authoritative reviews on the behavior of chemical compounds in food and the environment.
Chemistry and Human Health Division (Division VII)
  • Medicinal and clinical chemistry

Chemical Nomenclature and Structure Representation Division (Division VIII)

  • Maintaining and developing standard systems for designating chemical structures, including both conventional nomenclature and computer-based systems.
CHEMRAWN Committee (Chem Research Applied to World Needs)
  • Discussing different ways chemistry can and should be used to help the world[7]
Committee on Chemistry Education (CCE)
  • Coordinating IUPAC chemistry research with the educational systems of the world[20]
Committee on Chemistry and Industry (COCI)
Committee on Electronic and Printed Publications (CPEP)
  • Designing and implementing IUPAC publications
  • Heading the Subcommittee on Spectroscopic Data Standards[22]
Evaluation Committee (EvC)
  • Evaluating every project
  • Reporting back to the Executive Committee on every project[10]
Executive Committee (EC)
  • Planning and discussing IUPAC events
  • Discussing IUPAC fundraising
  • Reviewing other committees' work[23]

Current officers of the Executive Committee:

  • President: Moreau, Nicole J.
  • Vice president: Tatsumi, Kazuyuki
  • Treasurer: Corish, John
  • Secretary general: Black, David StC.[24]
Finance Committee (FC)
  • Helping other committees properly manage their budgets
  • Advising union officers on investments [25]
Interdivisional Committee on Green Chemistry for Sustainable Development (ICGCSD)
Interdivisional Committee on Terminology (ICTNS)
  • Managing IUPAC nomenclature
  • Working through many projects to standardize nomenclature
  • Standardizing measurements
  • Discussing atomic weight standardization[6]
Project Committee (PC)
  • Managing funds that are under the jurisdiction of multiple projects
  • Judging if a project is too large for its funding
  • Recommending sources of external funding for projects
  • Deciding how to fund meetings in developing countries and countries in crisis[9]
Pure and Applied Chemistry Editorial Advisory Board (PAC-EAB)

Nomenclature

IUPAC committee has a long history of officially naming organic and inorganic compounds. IUPAC nomenclature is developed so that any compound can be named under one set of standardized rules to avoid duplicate names. The first publication on IUPAC nomenclature of organic compounds was A Guide to IUPAC Nomenclature of Organic Compounds in 1900, which contained information from the International Congress of Applied Chemistry.[26]

Organic nomenclature

IUPAC organic nomenclature has three basic parts: the substituents, carbon chain length and chemical ending.[13] The substituents are any functional groups attached to the main carbon chain. The main carbon chain is the longest possible continuous chain. The chemical ending denotes what type of molecule it is. For example, the ending ane denotes a single bonded carbon chain, as in "hexane" (C
6
H
14
).[27]

Another example of IUPAC organic nomenclature is cyclohexanol:

Cyclohexanol acsv
Cyclohexanol
  • The substituent name for a ring compound is cyclo.
  • The indication (substituent name) for a six carbon chain is hex.
  • The chemical ending for a single bonded carbon chain is ane
  • The chemical ending for an alcohol is ol
  • The two chemical endings are combined for an ending of anol indicating a single bonded carbon chain with an alcohol attached to it.[13][27][28]

Inorganic nomenclature

Basic IUPAC inorganic nomenclature has two main parts: the cation and the anion. The cation is the name for the positively charged ion and the anion is the name for the negatively charged ion.[13]

An example of IUPAC nomenclature of inorganic chemistry is potassium chlorate (KClO3):

Potassium-chlorate-composition
Potassium chlorate

Amino acid and nucleotide base codes

IUPAC also has a system for giving codes to identify amino acids and nucleotide bases. IUPAC needed a coding system that represented long sequences of amino acids. This would allow for these sequences to be compared to try to find homologies.[29] These codes can consist of either a one letter code or a three letter code.

These codes make it easier and shorter to write down the amino acid sequences that make up proteins. The nucleotide bases are made up of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (cytosine and thymine or uracil). These nucleotide bases make up DNA and RNA. These nucleotide base codes make the genome of an organism much smaller and easier to read.[30]

Nucleic acid code Meaning Mnemonic
A A Adenine
C C Cytosine
G G Guanine
T T Thymine
U U Uracil
R A or G Purine
Y C, T or U Pyrimidines
K G, T or U Bases which are ketones
M A or C Bases with amino groups
S C or G Strong interaction
W A, T or U Weak interaction
B Not A (i.e. C, G, T or U) B comes after A
D Not C (i.e. A, G, T or U) D comes after C
H Not G (i.e., A, C, T or U) H comes after G
V Neither T nor U (i.e. A, C or G) V comes after U
N A C G T U Nucleic acid
X Masked
- Gap of indeterminate length

The codes for amino acids (24 amino acids and three special codes) are:

Amino acid code Meaning
A Alanine
B Aspartic acid or asparagine
C Cysteine
D Aspartic acid
E Glutamic acid
F Phenylalanine
G Glycine
H Histidine
I Isoleucine
J Leucine or isoleucine
K Lysine
L Leucine
M Methionine
N Asparagine
O Pyrrolysine
P Proline
Q Glutamine
R Arginine
S Serine
T Threonine
U Selenocysteine
V Valine
W Tryptophan
Y Tyrosine
Z Glutamic acid or glutamine
X Any
* Translation stop
- Gap of indeterminate length

Publications

Non-series books

Book name Description
Principles and Practices of Method Validation

Principles and Practices of Method Validation is a book entailing methods of validating and analyzing many analytes taken from a single aliquot.[31] Also, this book goes over techniques for analyzing many samples at once. Some methods discussed include: chromatographic methods, estimation of effects, matrix induced effects, and the effect of an equipment setup on an experiment.[31]

Fundamental Toxicology

Fundamental Toxicology is a textbook that proposes a curriculum for toxicology courses.[32] Fundamental Toxicology is based on the book Fundamental Toxicology for Chemists.[33] Fundamental Toxicology is enhanced through many revisions and updates. New information added in the revisions includes: risk assessment and management; reproductive toxicology; behavioral toxicology; and ecotoxicology.[33] This book is relatively well received as being useful for reviewing chemical toxicology.[32]

Macromolecular Symposia

Macromolecular Symposia is a journal that publishes fourteen issues a year. This journal includes contributions to the macromolecular chemistry and physics field. The meetings of IUPAC are included in this journal along with the European Polymer Federation, the American Chemical Society, and the Society of Polymer Science in Japan.[34]

Experimental Thermodynamics book series

The Experimental Thermodynamics books series covers many topics in the fields of thermodynamics.

Book Description
Measurement of the Transport Properties of Fluids

Measurement of the Transport Properties of Fluids is a book that is published by Blackwell Science. The topics that are included in this book are low and high temperature measurements, secondary coefficients, diffusion coefficients, light scattering, transient methods for thermal conductivity, methods for thermal conductivity, falling-body viscometers, and vibrating viscometers.[35]

Solution Calorimetry

Solution Calorimetry is a book that gives background information on thermal analysis and calorimetry. Thermoanalytical and calorimetric techniques along with thermodynamic and kinetic properties are also discussed. Later volumes of this book discuss the applications and principles of these thermodynamic and kinetic methods.[36]

Equations of State for Fluids and Fluid Mixtures Part I

Equations of State for Fluids and Fluid Mixtures Part I is a book that gives up to date equations of state for fluids and fluid mixtures. This book covers all ways to develop equations of state. It gives the strengths and weaknesses of each equation. Some equations discussed include: virial equation of state cubic equations; generalized Van der Waals equations; integral equations; perturbation theory; and stating and mixing rules. Other things that Equations of State for Fluids and Fluid Mixtures Part I goes over are: associating fluids, polymer systems, polydisperse fluids, self-assembled systems, ionic fluids, and fluids near their critical points.[37]

Measurement of the Thermodynamic Properties of Single Phases

Measurement of the Thermodynamic Properties of Single Phases is a book that gives an overview of techniques for measuring the thermodynamic quantities of single phases. It also goes into experimental techniques to test many different thermodynamic states precisely and accurately. Measurement of the Thermodynamic Properties of Single Phases was written for people interested in measuring thermodynamic properties.[38]

Measurement of the Thermodynamic Properties of Multiple Phases

Measurement of the Thermodynamic Properties of Multiple Phases is a book that includes multiple techniques that are used to study multiple phases of pure component systems. Also included in this book are the measurement techniques to obtain activity coefficients, interfacial tension, and critical parameters. This book was written for researchers and graduate students as a reference source.[39]

Series of books on analytical and physical chemistry of environmental systems

Book name Description
Atmospheric Particles

Atmospheric Particles is a book that delves into aerosol science. This book is aimed as a reference for graduate students and atmospheric researchers. Atmospheric Particles goes into depth on the properties of aerosols in the atmosphere and their effect. Topics covered in this book are: acid rain; heavy metal pollution; global warming; and photochemical smog. Atmospheric Particles also covers techniques to analyze the atmosphere and ways to take atmospheric samples.[40]

Environmental Colloids and Particles: Behaviour, Separation and Characterisation

Environmental Colloids and Particles: Behaviour, Separation and Characterisation is a book that discusses environmental colloids and current information available on them. This book focuses on environmental colloids and particles in aquatic systems and soils. It also goes over techniques such as: techniques for sampling environmental colloids, size fractionation, and how to characterize of colloids and particles. Environmental Colloids and Particles: Behaviour, Separation and Characterisation also delves into how these colloids and particles interact.[41]

Biophysical Chemistry of Fractal Structures and Processes in Environmental Systems

Biophysical Chemistry of Fractal Structures and Processes in Environmental Systems is meant to give an overview of a technique based on fractal geometry and the processes of environmental systems. This book gives ideas on how to use fractal geometry to compare and contrast different ecosystems. It also gives an overview of the knowledge needed to solve environmental problems. Finally, Biophysical Chemistry of Fractal Structures and Processes in Environmental Systems shows how to use the fractal approach to understand the reactivity of flocs, sediments, soils, microorganisms and humic substances.[42]

Interactions Between Soil Particles and Microorganisms: Impact on the Terrestrial Ecosystem

Interactions Between Soil Particles and Microorganisms: Impact on the Terrestrial Ecosystem is meant to be read by chemists and biologists that study environmental systems. Also, this book should be used as a reference for earth scientists, environmental geologists, environmental engineers, and professionals in microbiology and ecology. Interactions Between Soil Particles and Microorganisms: Impact on the Terrestrial Ecosystem is about how minerals, microorganisms, and organic components work together to affect terrestrial systems. This book identifies that there are many different techniques and theories about minerals, microorganisms, and organic components individually, but they are not often associated with each other. It further goes on to discuss how these components of soil work together to affect terrestrial life. Interactions Between Soil Particles and Microorganisms: Impact on the Terrestrial Ecosystem gives techniques to analyze minerals, microorganisms, and organic components together. This book also has a large section positing why environmental scientists working in the specific fields of minerals, microorganisms, and organic components of soil should work together and how they should do so.[43]

The Biogeochemistry of Iron in Seawater

The Biogeochemistry of Iron in Seawater is a book that describes how low concentrations of iron in Antarctica and the Pacific Ocean are a result of reduced chlorophyll for phytoplankton production.[44] It does this by reviewing information from research in the 1990s. This book goes into depth about: chemical speciation; analytical techniques; transformation of iron; how iron limits the development of high nutrient low chlorophyll areas in the Pacific Ocean.[45]

In Situ Monitoring of Aquatic Systems: Chemical Analysis and Speciation

In Situ Monitoring of Aquatic Systems: Chemical Analysis and Speciation is a book that discusses techniques and devices to monitor aquatic systems and how new devices and techniques can be developed. This book emphasizes the future use of micro-analytical monitoring techniques and microtechnology. In Situ Monitoring of Aquatic Systems: Chemical Analysis and Speciation is aimed at researchers and laboratories that analyze aquatic systems such as rivers, lakes, and oceans.[46]

Structure and Surface Reactions of Soil Particles

Structure and Surface Reactions of Soil Particles is a book about soil structures and the molecular processes that occur in soil. Structure and Surface Reactions of Soil Particles is aimed at any researcher researching soil or in the field of anthropology. It goes into depth on topics such as: fractal analysis of particle dimensions; computer modeling of the structure; reactivity of humics; applications of atomic force microscopy; and advanced instrumentation for analysis of soil particles.[47]

Metal Speciation and Bioavailability in Aquatic Systems, Series on Analytical and Physical Chemistry of Environmental Systems Vol. 3

Metal Speciation and Bioavailability in Aquatic Systems, Series on Analytical and Physical Chemistry of Environmental Systems Vol. 3 is a book about the effect of trace metals on aquatic life.[48] This book is considered a specialty book for researchers interested in observing the effect of trace metals in the water supply. This book includes techniques to assess how bioassays can be used to evaluate how an organism is affected by trace metals. Also, Metal Speciation and Bioavailability in Aquatic Systems, Series on Analytical and Physical Chemistry of Environmental Systems Vol. 3 looks at the limitations of the use of bioassays to observe the effects of trace metals on organisms.

Physicochemical Kinetics and Transport at Biointerfaces

Physicochemical Kinetics and Transport at Biointerfaces is a book created to aid environmental scientists in field work. The book gives an overview of chemical mechanisms, transport, kinetics, and interactions that occur in environmental systems. Physicochemical Kinetics and Transport at Biointerfaces continues from where Metal Speciation and Bioavailability in Aquatic Systems leaves off.[49]

Colored cover book and website series (nomenclature)

IUPAC color code their books in order to make each publication distinguishable.[11]

Title Description
Compendium of Analytical Nomenclature

One extensive book on almost all nomenclature written (IUPAC nomenclature of organic chemistry and IUPAC nomenclature of inorganic chemistry) by IUPAC committee is the Compendium of Analytical Nomenclature – The Orange Book, 1st edition (1978)[50] This book was revised in 1987. The second edition has many revisions that come from reports on nomenclature between 1976 and 1984.[51] In 1992, the second edition went through many different revisions which led to the third edition.[51]

Pure and Applied Chemistry (journal)

Pure and Applied Chemistry is the official monthly journal of IUPAC. This journal debuted in 1960. The goal statement for Pure and Applied Chemistry is to "publish highly topical and credible works at the forefront of all aspects of pure and applied chemistry."[52] The journal itself is available by subscription, but older issues are available in the archive on IUPAC's website.

Pure and Applied Chemistry was created as a central way to publish IUPAC endorsed articles.[53] Before its creation, IUPAC did not have a quick, official way to distribute new chemistry information.

Its creation was first suggested at the Paris IUPAC Meeting of 1957.[53] During this meeting the commercial publisher of the journal was discussed and decided on. In 1959, IUPAC Pure and Applied Chemistry Editorial Advisory Board was created and put in charge of the journal. The idea of one journal being a definitive place for a vast amount of chemistry was difficult for the committee to grasp at first.[53] However, it was decided that the journal would reprint old journal editions to keep all chemistry knowledge available.

Compendium of Chemical Terminology

The Compendium of Chemical Terminology, also known as the "Gold Book", was originally worked on by Victor Gold. This book is a collection of names and terms already discussed in Pure and Applied Chemistry.[54] The Compendium of Chemical Terminology was first published in 1987.[11] The first edition of this book contains no original material, but is meant to be a compilation of other IUPAC works.

The second edition of this book was published in 1997.[28] This book made large changes to the first edition of the Compendium of Chemical Terminology. These changes included updated material and an expansion of the book to include over seven thousand terms.[28] The second edition was the topic of an IUPAC XML project. This project made an XML version of the book that includes over seven thousand terms. The XML version of the book includes an open editing policy, which allows users to add excerpts of the written version.[28]

IUPAC Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry (online publication) IUPAC Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry, also known as the "Blue Book", is a website published by the Advanced Chemistry Department Incorporated with the permission of IUPAC. This site is a compilation of the books A Guide to IUPAC Nomenclature of Organic Compounds and Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry.[55]

International Year of Chemistry

Internationales Jahr der Chemie
International Year of Chemistry logo

IUPAC and UNESCO were the lead organizations coordinating events for the International Year of Chemistry, which took place in 2011.[56][57] The International Year of Chemistry was originally proposed by IUPAC at the general assembly in Turin, Italy.[58] This motion was adopted by UNESCO at a meeting in 2008.[58] The main objectives of the International Year of Chemistry were to increase public appreciation of chemistry and gain more interest in the world of chemistry. This event is also being held to encourage young people to get involved and contribute to chemistry. A further reason for this event being held is to honour how chemistry has made improvements to everyone's way of life.[12]

IUPAC Presidents

IUPAC Presidents are elected by the IUPAC Council during the General Assembly. Below is the list of IUPAC Presidents since its inception in 1919.[59]

Term President Nationality
1920-1922 Charles Moureu  France
1923-1925 William Jackson Pope  United Kingdom
1926-1928 Ernst Julius Cohen  Netherlands
1928-1934 Einar Biilman  Denmark
1934-1938 N. Paravano  Italy
1938-1947 Marston Taylor Bogert  United States
1947-1951 Hugo Rudolph Kruyt  Netherlands
1951-1955 Arne Tiselius  Sweden
1955-1959 Arthur Stoll   Switzerland
1959-1963 William Albert Noyes Jr.  United States
1963-1965 Lord Todd  United Kingdom
1965-1967 Wilhelm Klemm  Germany
1967-1969 V.N. Kondratiev  Soviet Union
1969-1971 Albert Lloyd George Rees  Australia
1971-1973 Jacques Bénard  France
1973-1975 Sir Harold Thompson  United Kingdom
1975-1977 Robert W. Cairns  United States
1977-1979 Georges Smets  Belgium
1979-1981 Heinrich Zollinger   Switzerland
1981-1983 Saburo Nagakura  Japan
1983-1985 William G. Schneider  Canada
1985-1987 C.N.R. Rao  India
1987-1989 Valentin A. Koptyug  Soviet Union
1989-1991 Yves P. Jeannin  France
1991-1993 Allen J. Bard  United States
1993-1995 Kiril I. Zamaraev  Russia
1996-1997 Albert E. Fischli   Switzerland
1998-1999 Joshua Jortner  Israel
2000-2001 Alan Hayes  United Kingdom
2002-2003 Pieter Streicher Steyn  South Africa
2004-2005 Leiv Kristen Sydnes  Norway
2006-2007 Bryan Henry  Canada
2008-2009 Jung-Il Jin  South Korea
2010-2011 Nicole J. Moreau  France
2012-2013 Kazuyuki Tatsumi  Japan
2014-2015 Mark Cesa  United States
2016-2017 Natalia Tarasova  Russia
2018-2019 Qi-Feng Zhou  China
2020-2021 Christopher M.A. Brett  Portugal

See also

References

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  4. ^ "IUPAC contacts". Retrieved 25 October 2015.
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  15. ^ a b Kaderas, Brigitte (2002). Wissenschaften und Wissenschaftspolitik: Bestandsaufnahmen zu Formationen, Brüchen und Kontinuitäten im Deutschland des 20. Jahrhunderts (in German). Franz Steiner Verlag. ISBN 978-3-515-08111-5.
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  29. ^ Amino Acid Codes Archived 5 February 2007 at the Wayback Machine retrieved 15 April 2010
  30. ^ Amino Acid and Nucleotide Base Codes Archived 12 July 2009 at the Wayback Machine retrieved 15 April 2010
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  39. ^ Measurement of the Thermodynamic Properties of Multiple Phases review on Amazon retrieved 15 April 2010
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  42. ^ Wiley on Biophysical Chemistry of Fractal Structures and Processes in Environmental Systems Archived 7 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine. New York: Wiley. Retrieved 15 April 2010
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  44. ^ SciTech Book News, Vol. 26, No. 2, June 2002.
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  56. ^ United Nations Resolution 63/209: International Year of Chemistry. Archived 5 August 2010 at the Wayback Machine 3 February 2009. Retrieved on 24 April 2010.
  57. ^ About IYC: Introduction. Archived 12 June 2010 at the Wayback Machine 9 July 2009. Retrieved on 24 April 2010.
  58. ^ a b "International Year of Chemistry Prospectus". Portal.acs.org. Archived from the original on 5 November 2011. Retrieved 8 June 2011.
  59. ^ "PAST OFFICERS OF IUPAC". iupac.org.

External links

Activated complex

In chemistry an activated complex is defined by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) as "that assembly of atoms which corresponds to an arbitrary infinitesimally small region at or near the col (saddle point) of a potential energy surface". In other words, it refers to a collection of intermediate structures in a chemical reaction that persist while bonds are breaking and new bonds are forming. It therefore represents not one defined state, but rather a range of transient configurations that a collection of atoms passes through in between clearly defined products and reactants.

It is the subject of transition state theory - also known as activated complex theory - which studies the kinetics of reactions that pass through a defined intermediate state with standard Gibbs energy of formation ΔG°‡. The state represented by the double dagger symbol is known as the transition state and represents the exact configuration that has an equal probability of forming either the reactants or products of the given reaction.The activated complex is often confused with the transition state and is used interchangeably in many textbooks. However, it differs from the transition state in that the transition state represents only the highest potential energy configuration of the atoms during the reaction while the activated complex refers to a range of configurations near the transition state that the atoms pass through in the transformation from products to reactants. This can be visualized in terms of a reaction coordinate, where the transition state is the molecular configuration at the peak of the diagram while the activated complex can refer to any point near the maximum.

ChEBI

Chemical Entities of Biological Interest, also known as ChEBI, is a database and ontology of molecular entities focused on 'small' chemical compounds, that is part of the Open Biomedical Ontologies effort. The term "molecular entity" refers to any "constitutionally or isotopically distinct atom, molecule, ion, ion pair, radical, radical ion, complex, conformer, etc., identifiable as a separately distinguishable entity". The molecular entities in question are either products of nature or synthetic products which have potential bioactivity. Molecules directly encoded by the genome, such as nucleic acids, proteins and peptides derived from proteins by proteolytic cleavage, are not as a rule included in ChEBI.

ChEBI uses nomenclature, symbolism and terminology endorsed by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) and Nomenclature Committee of the International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (NC-IUBMB).

Chemical nomenclature

A chemical nomenclature is a set of rules to generate systematic names for chemical compounds. The nomenclature used most frequently worldwide is the one created and developed by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC).

The IUPAC's rules for naming organic and inorganic compounds are contained in two publications, known as the Blue Book and the Red Book, respectively. A third publication, known as the Green Book, describes the recommendations for the use of symbols for physical quantities (in association with the IUPAP), while a fourth, the Gold Book, contains the definitions of a large number of technical terms used in chemistry. Similar compendia exist for biochemistry (the White Book, in association with the IUBMB), analytical chemistry (the Orange Book), macromolecular chemistry (the Purple Book) and clinical chemistry (the Silver Book). These "color books" are supplemented by shorter recommendations for specific circumstances that are published periodically in the journal Pure and Applied Chemistry.

Chemistry International

Chemistry International is a news magazine published by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). According to its website, it is published in editions covering two months at a time.

Compendium of Analytical Nomenclature

The Compendium of Analytical Nomenclature is a IUPAC nomenclature book published by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) containing internationally accepted definitions for terms in analytical chemistry. It has traditionally been published in an orange cover, hence its informal name, the Orange Book.

Group (periodic table)

In chemistry, a group (also known as a family) is a column of elements in the periodic table of the chemical elements. There are 18 numbered groups in the periodic table, and the f-block columns (between groups 3 and 4) are not numbered. The elements in a group have similar physical or chemical characteristics of the outermost electron shells of their atoms (i.e., the same core charge), as most chemical properties are dominated by the orbital location of the outermost electron.

There are three systems of group numbering for the groups, that often assign the same number to different groups. The modern numbering "group 1" to "group 18" has been recommended by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) since about 1990. It replaces two older incompatible naming schemes, used by the Chemical Abstract Service (CAS, more popular in the U. S.), and by IUPAC before 1990 (more popular in Europe).

Groups may also be identified by their topmost element or have a specific name. For example, group 16 is variously described as the "oxygen group" and as the "chalcogens". However, iron group usually does not mean "group 8". In chemistry it may mean either iron, cobalt, and nickel, or some other set of elements with similar chemical properties. In astrophysics and nuclear physics, it usually means those three plus chromium and manganese.

IUPAC/IUPAP Joint Working Party

The IUPAC/IUPAP Joint Working Party is a group convened periodically by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) and the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP) to consider claims for discovery and naming of new chemical elements. It is sometimes called the Joint Working Party on Discovery of Elements. The working party's recommendations are voted on by the General Assembly of the IUPAP.

IUPAC books

The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry publishes many books, which contain its complete list of definitions. The definitions are divided into seven "colour books": Gold, Green, Blue, Purple, Orange, White, and Red. There is also an eighth book—the "Silver Book".

IUPAC nomenclature of chemistry

The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) has published four sets of rules to standardize chemical nomenclature.

There are two main areas:

IUPAC nomenclature of inorganic chemistry (Red Book)

IUPAC nomenclature of organic chemistry (Blue Book)

IUPAC nomenclature of inorganic chemistry

In chemical nomenclature, the IUPAC nomenclature of inorganic chemistry is a systematic method of naming inorganic chemical compounds, as recommended by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). It is published in Nomenclature of Inorganic Chemistry (which is informally called the Red Book). Ideally, every inorganic compound should have a name from which an unambiguous formula can be determined. There is also an IUPAC nomenclature of organic chemistry.

International Year of Chemistry

The International Year of Chemistry 2011 (IYC 2011) was a year-long commemorative event for the achievements of chemistry and its contributions to humankind. The recognition for chemistry was made official by the United Nations in December 2008. Events for the year were coordinated by IUPAC, the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, and by UNESCO, the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization.

Microporous material

A microporous material is a material containing pores with diameters less than 2 nm. Examples of microporous materials include zeolites and metal-organic frameworks.

Porous materials are classified into several kinds by their size. The recommendations of a panel convened by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) are:

microporous materials have pore diameters of less than 2 nm

mesoporous materials have pore diameters between 2 nm and 50 nm

macroporous materials have pore diameters of greater than 50 nm.Micropores may be defined differently in other contexts. For example, in the context of porous aggregations such as soil, micropores are defined as cavities with sizes less than 30 μm.

Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry

Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry, commonly referred to by chemists as the Blue Book, is a collection of recommendations on organic chemical nomenclature published at irregular intervals by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). A full edition was published in 1979, an abridged and updated version of which was published in 1993 as A Guide to IUPAC Nomenclature of Organic Compounds. Both of these are now out-of-print in their paper versions, but are available free of charge in electronic versions. After the release of a draft version for public comment in 2004 and the publication of several revised sections in the journal Pure and Applied Chemistry, a fully revised version was published in print in 2013.

Preferred IUPAC name

In chemical nomenclature, a preferred IUPAC name (PIN) is a unique name, assigned to a chemical substance and preferred among the possible names generated by IUPAC nomenclature. The "preferred IUPAC nomenclature" provides a set of rules for choosing between multiple possibilities in situations where it is important to decide on a unique name. It is intended for use in legal and regulatory situations.Preferred IUPAC names are applicable only for organic compounds, to which the IUPAC has the definition as compounds which contain at least single carbon atom but no alkali, alkaline earth or transition metals and can be named by the nomenclature of organic compounds. (see below). Rules for the remaining organic and inorganic compounds are still under development.

The concept of PINs is defined in the introductory chapter (freely accessible) and chapter 5 of the "Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry: IUPAC Recommendations and Preferred Names 2013", which replace two former publications: the "Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry", 1979 (the Blue Book) and "A Guide to IUPAC Nomenclature of Organic Compounds, Recommendations 1993". The full draft version of the PIN recommendations ("Preferred names in the nomenclature of organic compounds", Draft of 7 October 2004) is also available.

Pure and Applied Chemistry

Pure and Applied Chemistry is the official journal for the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). It is published monthly by Walter de Gruyter and contains recommendations and reports, and lectures from symposia.

Standard state

In chemistry, the standard state of a material (pure substance, mixture or solution) is a reference point used to calculate its properties under different conditions. In principle, the choice of standard state is arbitrary, although the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) recommends a conventional set of standard states for general use. IUPAC recommends using a standard pressure p⦵ = 105 Pa. Strictly speaking, temperature is not part of the definition of a standard state. For example, as discussed below, the standard state of a gas is conventionally chosen to be unit pressure (usually in bar) ideal gas, regardless of the temperature. However, most tables of thermodynamic quantities are compiled at specific temperatures, most commonly 298.15 K (25.00 °C; 77.00 °F) or, somewhat less commonly, 273.15 K (0.00 °C; 32.00 °F).

The standard state should not be confused with standard temperature and pressure (STP) for gases, nor with the standard solutions used in analytical chemistry.For a given material or substance, the standard state is the reference state for the material's thermodynamic state properties such as enthalpy, entropy, Gibbs free energy, and for many other material standards. The standard enthalpy change of formation for an element in its standard state is zero, and this convention allows a wide range of other thermodynamic quantities to be calculated and tabulated. The standard state of a substance does not have to exist in nature: for example, it is possible to calculate values for steam at 298.15 K and 105 Pa, although steam does not exist (as a gas) under these conditions. The advantage of this practice is that tables of thermodynamic properties prepared in this way are self-consistent.

Systematic element name

A systematic element name is the temporary name assigned to a newly synthesized or not yet synthesized chemical element. A systematic symbol is also derived from this name. In chemistry, a transuranic element receives a permanent name and symbol only after its synthesis has been confirmed. In some cases, such as the Transfermium Wars, controversies over the formal name and symbol have been protracted and highly political. In order to discuss such elements without ambiguity, the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) uses a set of rules to assign a temporary systematic name and symbol to each such element. This approach to naming originated in the successful development of regular rules for the naming of organic compounds.

X-ray notation

X-ray notation is a method of labeling atomic orbitals that grew out of X-ray science. Also known as IUPAC notation, it was adopted by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry in 1991 as a simplification of the older Siegbahn notation. In X-ray notation, every principal quantum number is given a letter associated with it. In many areas of physics and chemistry, atomic orbitals are described with spectroscopic notation (1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, etc.), but the more traditional X-ray notation is still used with most X-ray spectroscopy techniques including AES and XPS.

Zhou Qifeng

Zhou Qifeng (simplified Chinese: 周其凤; traditional Chinese: 周其鳳; pinyin: Zhōu Qífèng, born October 1947) is a Chinese chemist and academician of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. He succeeded Xu Zhihong to the office of the President of Peking University on November 14, 2008. He also currently holds the position of president of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, more commonly known as IUPAC.

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