International Trade Centre

The International Trade Centre (ITC) (French: Centre du commerce international (CCI)) is a multilateral agency which has a joint mandate with the World Trade Organization (WTO) and the United Nations (UN) through the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD).

Through its work, the ITC contributes directly to 10 of the Sustainable Development Goals. These include SDG 1 (no poverty), Goal 2 (zero hunger), Goal 4 (Quality Education), Goal 5 (Gender Equality), Goal 8 (Decent Work and Economic Growth), Goal 9 (Industry, innovation and infrastructure), Goal 10 (Reduced Inequalities), Goal 12 (Responsible Production and Consumption), Goal 16 (Peace, Justice and strong institutions), and Goal 17 (Partnerships for the Goals).

The headquarters of the ITC are situated in Geneva, Switzerland. Their staff consists of approximately 300 employees spanning more than 80 nationalities. Furthermore, ITC has country-based project offices where they employ experts from the specific region.

International Trade Centre
International Trade Centre Logo
MottoTrade impact for good
PredecessorInternational Trade Information Centre
TypeIntergovernmental organization
Legal statusActive
PurposeTo foster inclusive and sustainable economic development
HeadquartersGeneva, Switzerland
CoordinatesCoordinates: 46°13′03″N 6°08′29″E / 46.217429°N 6.141458°E
MethodsEducation, Publications, Training, Knowledge dissemination
FieldsInternational development, Economic development
Executive Director
Arancha González [1]
Parent organization
World Trade Organization
United Nations
Budget (2017)
CHF 116.24 million [1]
Staff (2017)
299 [1]
UN emblem blue.svg United Nations portal


ITC is the successor of the International Trade Information Centre, which the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) established in 1964 “for the purpose of assisting the export promotion efforts of the developing countries” by providing them “with information on export markets and marketing, and to help them develop their export promotion services and train the personnel needed for these services.”[2] In an effort to streamline the United Nation's export promotion efforts, an agreement was reached between the GATT, which at that time and in contrast to its successor, the WTO, was part of the United Nations system, and the newly established UNCTAD, to merge the activities of the two organizations by creating a joint subsidiary. The agreement was reached in 1967 and the International Trade Centre (the explicit reference to "information" was dropped) was officially established on 1 January 1968.[3]

Role within the UN

The ITC enjoys a joint mandate with the World Trade Organization (WTO) as well as with the United Nations (UN) through the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD). Within this framework, ITC is the focal point for trade related technical assistance.[4]


The ITC is involved in projects providing trade technical assistance in countries all over the world.

Advancing Afghan Trade

Launched in 2016 following Afghanistan’s accession to the WTO under the name “Afghanistan: Trade for Economic Growth & Regional Cooperation”, is an initiative undertaken by the European Union (EU) and the ITC that uses trade as a mean to create economic growth and jobs, to reduce poverty and to enhance regional cooperation. The goal of this project is to prepare Afghan enterprises to compete in regional and global markets by helping to provide a business-friendly environment and increasing Afghanistan’s trade capacities. The programme consists of a three-year plan (2016-2019) and the Ministry of Commerce and Industry is involved in its implementation. It is funded by the EU and has a budget of 4.5 million Euros.[5]

Ethical Fashion Initiative

The Ethical Fashion Initiative focuses on the specific skills of artisans and brings them to known fashion brands such as Stella McCartney, Marni, Vivienne Westwood, Edun and Camper. This synergy helps artisans from developing countries such as Kenya, Burkina Faso and Haiti to gain a living while it exposes the designers to unique skills and handmade goods. The initiative also involves mentorship programmes for aspiring African designers as well as collaborations on the continent.[6]

Market analysis tools

ITC developed several free-of-charge online market analysis tools such as the Export Potential Map,[7] Investment Map,[8] Market Access Map,[9] Procurement Map,[10] Standard Map[11] andTrade Map.[12]

EuroMed Trade and Investment Facilitation Mechanism

The EuroMed Trade and Investment Facilitation Mechanism comprises a free-of-charge online portal for country and product-specific information on tariffs and duties, import and export procedures, and market requirements. There are regular updates of the information thanks to a network of national focal points in each participating Mediterranean country. The EuroMed Helpdesk is available in English, French, Arabic, and Turkish.

The goal is to boost economic integration because due partly to a lack of availability and transparency of trade-related information, EuroMed countries don’t engage a lot in intra-regional trade.

The project is funded by the European Union (EU). ITC is in charge of the implementation of the EuroMed Trade and Investment Facilition Mechanism.[13]

EU-Sri Lanka Trade-Related Assistance

The EU-Sri Lanka Trade-Related Assistance project aims to increase the trade competitiveness of Sri Lankan Small and Medium Size Enterprises (SMEs) in regional and European Union (EU) markets.

The project has a duration of four years and is worth 8 million euros. It is funded by the European Union (EU). It supports SME export competitiveness and value addition in various sectors such as spices, food and Information Technology.[14]

The project addresses compliance standards and efficiencies in cross border procedures, which are key constraints to market access, especially for SMEs.[15]

Gambia Youth Empowerment Project YEP

The Gambia Youth Empowerment Project (YEP) aims at the enhancement of the skills and employability of potential and returning migrants. ITC supports youth employment and entrepreneurship through vocational trainings and partnerships with domestic and international skills development institutions and the private sector.[16]

Netherlands Trust Fund – Phase III (NTF III)

The Netherlands Trust Fund III (NTF III) - Export Sector Competitiveness Programme started in 2013 as successor following NTF I and NTF II. It is based on a partnership agreement between the Dutch Centre for the Promotion of Imports from developing countries (CBI) affiliated to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Netherlands and the ITC. The aim of the programme is to strengthen the export competitiveness of IT services in Bangladesh, Kenya and Uganda,[17] as well as the tourism sector in Myanmar,[18] the avocado producers in Kenya, and coffee plantations in Uganda.[19]

Non-tariff measures

The Non-tariff measures programme provides an interactive platform that fosters transparency and understanding of the obstacles that non-tariff measures pose to international trade by limiting exports and imports through compliance to specific requirements.

The programme is a multi-agency initiative that helps countries to find solutions that take their respective specific needs into account. The Non-tariff measures programme is in close collaboration with national and regional stakeholders.[20]

Promoting Intra-regional Trade

The Promoting Intra-regional Trade programme launched in 2013 focuses increasing the export competitiveness of honey, mango and spice producing SMEs in Kenya, the United Republic of Tanzania[21] and Zambia. It is a three-year programme that is implemented by the ITC in collaboration with lead organizations in each country.

The Government of Finland finances the Promoting Intra-regional Trade Programme.[22]

Trade and environment

The certified natural resource based product market helps to reduce poverty and is good for the environment. However, standards and regulations as well as a lack of information and contact pose important obstacles for many entrepreneurs in developing countries to enter this market. The international regulatory framework poses further constraints on this trade. The ITC through its Trade and Environment Programme tries mitigate these constraints and to increase the capacity of SMEs to be competitive in this market.[23]

Women and Trade

The Women and Trade Programme is an initiative aiming at connecting 1 million women entrepreneurs to trade by 2020. This initiative thereby contributes directly to the SDG number 5 by empowering women.[24]


Within the Women and Trade context, the SheTrades initiative, which is a flagship program of the ITC, takes a preeminent place offering women entrepreneurs an online platform to connect to markets. The app allows female entrepreneurs to share information about their companies thereby increasing their visibility and enabling them to connect and internationalize. This helps to include more women entrepreneurs in the supply chains of corporations.

The platform was developed through a competition of suggestions for the platform. The winner, Greenbell Communications of Kenya, was able to team up with Google and CI&T to further develop his suggestion. The end product, the SheTrades platform, was launched in 2015 at the International Women in Business Forum in Nairobi. Since its launch, a growing number of organizations have already signed on to the platform to verify women entrepreneurs that are members of their networks.[25]

Youth and Trade Programme

The Youth and Trade Programme focuses on providing a strong environment in which young entrepreneurs can evolve and receive assistance when needed. This helps them to grow and internationalize while at the same time providing income opportunities thereby helping the economy grow.

The programme contributes directly to the Sustainable Development Goal 4 (Skills for entrepreneurship) as well as goal 8 (decent work and inclusive growth).[26][27]


Export Potential Map

The Export Potential map is an online tool allowing businesses and countries to identify what goods and services to export and to where. The idea is that through the precise economic analysis provided by the Export Potential Map, companies can target new markets and policymakers can optimize their policies and support programmes for their exporters.

The Export Potential Map covers information about 222 countries and territories.[28]

Investment Map

The Investment Map is designed to help investment promotion agencies (IPAs) in defining priority sectors for investment promotion, identifying potential investors in a given sector, identifying competitor countries for inward investment, and defining opportunities for bilateral investment. It holds a vast amount of information and statistics on foreign direct investment and international trade, tariff data and activities of multinational firms and allows an analysis by country, trading partner and sector.

The Investment Map was developed by the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) and ITC in partnership with the World Association of Investment Promotion Agencies (WAIPA) and the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA), which is part of the World Bank Group.[29]

Market Access Map

The Market Access Map assembles information on custom tariffs as well as tariff rate quotas, trade remedies, rules and certificates of origin, non-tariff measures and trade flows. This kind of information is crucial to help users to identify export markets.[30]

Procurement Map

The Procurement Map was designed by the ITC in order to boost entrepreneurship and market opportunities by offering users detailed information over 150 000 public tenders. The map allows users to undertake a search by country or economic sector. This allows them to identify potential buyers.[31]

Standard Map

The Standard Map provides verified and transparent information on more than 200 voluntary sustainability standards and other similar initiatives covering issues ranging from food quality to safety. This allows producers, manufacturers, brands, retailers, researchers and policymakers to identify standards relevant for their own businesses, to compare them and save and share their sustainability diagnostic report with actors along the value chain via the Sustainability Network.[32]

Trade Map

The Trade Map developed by the ITC offers strategic market research with detailed statistical information on international trade flows helps them gauge the competitiveness of national and sectoral trade performance and identify priority products and markets for trade development for both firms and trade support institutions.[33]


SheTrades Global

SheTrades Global is a two-day annual conference. The first forum took place in 2011 and until 2018 the conference was called Women Vendors Exhibition and Forum.[34]

Trade for Sustainable Development Forum (T4SD)

The Trade for Sustainable Development Forum (T4SD) is an annual leading global event organized by the ITC.

T4SD connects communities in policy and business, trade and sustainability, while challenging thought leaders to bridge the gap between debates on sustainability standards, supply chains, and international trade to work towards achieving the UN Global Goals for Sustainable Development (SDGs).[35]

Trade Promotion Organization (TPO) World Conference and Network

Created in 1996 with the intention to offer a platform to facilitate the dynamic exchange of information, good practices, experiences and collaboration about offering export-oriented services among Trade Promotion Organizations (TPOs), the Trade Promotion Organization Network provides a platform where individual organizations may benefit from the synergies of TPOs working together in order to achieve continual and mutual improvement through online and offline forums.

The TPO Network World Conference takes place every two years and is open to all trade support institutions mandated to provide trade related technical support services.

During the conference, TPO Network Awards are awarded to leading national trade promotion organisations mandated by their governments to promote the export promotion strategy of their countries. TPOs participate in the TPO Network Awards in categories defined according to the economic development status of the countries where their national headquarters are located.[36]

The World Export Development Forum (WEDF)

The World Export Development Forum (WEDF) is an annual global platform with the goal to develop SMEs. The first conference was held in 1999. The event is attended by more than 600 senior national and international policymakers, heads of trade support organizations, business leaders and representatives of international agencies.

WEDF comprises high-level plenaries, workshops and facilitated business-to-business meetings enabling participants to increase their practical knowledge in the latest innovations, processes and policies while expanding their networks.[37]

Partner Events

ITC, with its goal to support SMEs and their development impact in international trade, collaborates with its partner organizations, the World Trade Organization (WTO) and the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), for events in order to achieve its aim. Examples for this partnership include amongst others the WTO Public Forum and Aid for Trade conference.

Executive Directors

ITC had since its creation in 1964 six Executive Directors. Twice in its history the position was vacant: in the early Seventies and the early Nineties.[38]

ITC's Executive Director is a senior international civil servant of the United Nations with the level of Assistant Secretary-General.[39] ITC's Executive Director as well as the Deputy-Executive Director are appointed by the heads of its two parent organizations: the Director-General of the WTO and the Secretary-General of the UNCTAD.[40]

Name Start of tenure End of tenure Nationality
Herbert L. Jacobson 1964 1971 USA
vacant 1971 1975 -
Victor E. Santiapillai 1975 1979 Sri Lanka
Padinjarethalakal Cherian Alexander 1979 1981 India
Goran Engblom 1981 1992 Sweden
vacant 1992 1994 -
J. Denis Bélisle 1994 2006 Canada
Patricia Francis 2006 2013 Jamaica
Arancha Gonzalez 2013 Spain


The work of the ITC is financed by contributions from the private sector as well as resources provided by beneficiary countries and international organizations.[41]

See also


  1. ^ a b c International Trade Centre Staff (May 2018). Annual Report 2017 (PDF) (Report). International Trade Centre. Retrieved 25 November 2018.
  2. ^ GATT (1967), “Joint GATT/UNCTAD Trade Centre: Note by the Director-General”, L/2890 (6 Nov 1967), page 7
  3. ^ See General Assembly Resolution 2297, document symbol A/RES/2297(XXII).
  4. ^ ITC, I. (2017). Our role in the UN and WTO. Retrieved 8 September 2017, from
  5. ^
  6. ^
  7. ^ ITC, I. (2017). Home | Export Potential Map. Retrieved 8 September 2017, from
  8. ^ ITC, I. (2017). Foreign investment opportunities, FDI statistics, company data, trade and tariff data. Retrieved 8 September 2017, from
  9. ^ ITC, I. (2017). Foreign investment opportunities, FDI statistics, company data, trade and tariff data. Retrieved 8 September 2017, from
  10. ^ ITC, I. (2017). Procurement Map - Home. Retrieved 8 September 2017, from
  11. ^ ITC, I. (2017). Retrieved 8 September 2017, from
  12. ^ (ITC), I. (2017). Trade Map - Trade statistics for international business development. Retrieved 8 September 2017, from
  13. ^
  14. ^ ITC, I. (2017). SheTrades Global. Retrieved 8 September 2017, from
  15. ^
  16. ^ ITC, I. (2017). Trade for Sustainable Development Forum 2017. Retrieved 8 September 2017, from
  17. ^ ITC News. (2016). E-directories launched for Ugandan, Kenyan IT businesses. ITC News. Retrieved from
  18. ^ ITC News. (2015). ITC launches export promotion training for Myanmar tour operators. ITC News. Retrieved from
  19. ^ ITC News. (2013). Netherlands contributes EUR 6 million to ITC for export-led job creation. ITC News. Retrieved from
  20. ^ ITC, I. (2012). ITC launches NTM survey in Tanzania. ITC News. Retrieved from
  21. ^ All Africa. (2015). Kenyan, Tanzanian Mango Exporters Gain Access to Middle Eastern Markets. Retrieved from International Trade Centre. (2015). ITC partners with CFYI and YBI for youth entrepreneurship. Retrieved from
  22. ^ ITC, I. (2017). Promoting Intra-regional Trade in Eastern Africa. Retrieved 8 September 2017, from
  23. ^ International Trade Centre. (2017). Trade in Environmental Goods and Services: Opportunities and Challenges (pp. 25-27). Geneva. Retrieved from
  24. ^ ITC Communications. (2012). US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton recognizes ITC’s work with women entrepreneurs. ITC News. Retrieved from
  25. ^ ITC News. (2015). Kenya’s GBC team is the winner of the 2015 WVEF Tech Challenge. ITC News. Retrieved from
  26. ^ ITC, I. (2017). Youth and Trade Programme. Retrieved 8 September 2017, from
  27. ^ International Trade Centre. (2015). ITC partners with CFYI and YBI for youth entrepreneurship. Retrieved from
  28. ^ ITC, I. (2017). Home | Export Potential Map. Retrieved 8 September 2017, from
  29. ^ ITC, I. (2017). Foreign investment opportunities, FDI statistics, company data, trade and tariff data. Retrieved 8 September 2017, from
  30. ^ (ITC), I. (2017). Market Access Map - Improving transparency in international trade and market access. Retrieved 11 September 2017, from
  31. ^ ITC, I. (2017). Procurement Map - Home. Retrieved 8 September 2017, from
  32. ^ ITC, I. (2017). Retrieved 8 September 2017, from
  33. ^ ITC, I. (2017). Trade Map - Trade statistics for international business development. Retrieved 8 September 2017, from
  34. ^ ITC, I. (2017). SheTrades Global. Retrieved 8 September 2017, from
  35. ^ ITC, I. (2017). Trade for Sustainable Development Forum 2017. Retrieved 8 September 2017, from
  36. ^ ITC, I. (2017). TPO Network World Conference and Awards 2018. Retrieved 8 September 2017, from
  37. ^ ITC, I. (2017). World Export Development Forum. Retrieved 8 September 2017, from
  38. ^ For short bios of each of the six Executive Directors, please see Stephen Browne and Sam Laird 2011, The International Trade Centre: Export Impact for Good, Routledge, pages 31-32.
  39. ^ For an overview of all positions paid out of ITC's regular budget, please see the biennial budgeting and planning documents of the UN General Assembly. For example: General Assembly 2009, Proposed programme budget for the biennium 2010-2011 Part IV International cooperation for development Section 13 International Trade Centre UNCTAD/WTO, Document symbol A/64/6 (Sect. 13)/Add.1. The UN's Official Document System provides a convenient search tool for such documents.
  40. ^
  41. ^ ITC, I. (2017). Retrieved 8 September 2017, from

External links

Antoni Protazy Potocki

Antoni Protazy Potocki (11 September 1761 – 1801), aka Prot, was a Polish nobleman and an early entrepreneur. He was born to Paula née Szembek and her second husband, Count Jan Prosper Potocki, Starosta of Guzów. He was a younger half-brother of Feliks Lubienski and older half-brother of Michal Kleofas Oginski and his sister, Józefa Ogińska.

Antoni was voivode of Kiev in 1791 and briefly, starost of Guzów. He became a banker in Warsaw.

As proprietor of the Chudniv estate, he established several factories in the village of Makhnivka, near Berdychiv. He was director the Polish Black Sea Trading Company, and ran an import-export business in Russian-ruled Kherson. According to his great nephew, Thomas Wentworth Łubieński, "Prot" turned Odessa from a "sleepy fishing village" into an international trade centre. This subsequently attracted the attention of Catherine the Great who turned the thriving port into one of Russia's leading cities. Potocki had inherited wealth from his father. Due to the economic crisis in the country Potocki was bankrupt in 1793.

He was invested as a Knight of the Order of the White Eagle, awarded on May 8, 1781.

Evraz Place

Evraz Place, formerly known as Regina Exhibition Park, is a 102-acre (0.41 km2) sport complex and exhibition grounds in Regina, Saskatchewan, operated by the Regina Exhibition Association Limited. The area is home to Mosaic Stadium, an outdoor stadium and home of the Saskatchewan Roughriders, and Brandt Centre, an indoor arena and home of the Regina Pats. Brandt Centre is connected to an interconnected series of various convention and sports facilities, including the International Trade Centre, Canada Place, the AffinityPlex (a multi-purpose indoor area that also supports an indoor soccer field), the Queensbury Convention Centre (a convention and banquet facility), and The Co-operators Centre, a 6-rink hockey facility. The complex is host site of the Queen City Ex, as well as Canadian Western Agribition and Canada's Farm Progress Show.

The Regina Exhibition Stadium, a historic indoor arena constructed in 1919, was demolished in 2017 in order to construct the new International Trade Centre, a $37 million, 150,000 square-feet convention space.

Global Enabling Trade Report

The Global Enabling Trade Report was first published in 2008 by the World Economic Forum.The 2008 report covers 118 major and emerging economies. At the core of the report is the Enabling Trade Index which ranks the countries using data from different sources (e.g., World Economic Forum's Executive Opinion Survey, International Trade Centre, World Bank, the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), IATA, ITU, Global Express Association).

The Enabling Trade Index measures the factors, policies and services that facilitate the trade in goods across borders and to destination. It is made up of four sub-indexes:

Market access

Border administration

Transport and communications infrastructure

Business environmentEach of these sub-indexes contains two to three pillars that assess different aspects of a country's trade environment.

Guomao Building

The Guomao Building (Chinese: 国贸大厦; pinyin: guómào dàshà; literally: 'International Trade Centre Building', otherwise known as International Foreign Trade Centre) is an office tower and one of the earliest skyscrapers in Shenzhen, China.Located at the junction of Jiabin Road and Renmin South Road, Luohu District, the building stands 160 metres tall and consists of 50 floors. Construction started on 1 November 1982 and was completed 37 months later on December 29, 1985. This earned the city's rapid development the nickname "Shenzhen Speed". It was the tallest building in China upon completion.The building stands on a slot of 20,000 square metres and a built-up floor area of 100,000 square metres. It consists mainly of office space (floors 5-43, except 24) but features a revolving restaurant at the 48th and 49th floor and a helipad atop the building. The first five floors are retail spaces.

Guomao station (Shenzhen Metro)

Guomao station (simplified Chinese: 国贸站; traditional Chinese: 國貿站; pinyin: Guómào Zhàn; literally: 'International Trade Centre station'; Cantonese Jyutping: Gwok3 Mau6 Zaam6), is a station on Line 1 of the Shenzhen Metro. It opened on 28 December 2004. It is located underneath the junction of Renmin South Road (Chinese: 人民南路) and Jiabin Road (simplified Chinese: 嘉宾路; traditional Chinese: 嘉賓路) in Luohu District, Shenzhen, China. It is named after the Guomao Building (International Trade Centre Building) (simplified Chinese: 国贸大厦; traditional Chinese: 國貿大廈). Along with the adjacent Laojie Station (where it is now used for cross-platform interchange), Guomao Station has an unusual layout with the two tracks situated above each other on two levels.

Ho Chi Minh City ITC fire

The Ho Chi Minh City ITC Inferno, one of the deadliest peacetime disasters in Vietnam, was a fire that occurred on October 29, 2002, at the International Trade Centre in Ho Chi Minh City, the commercial center of the country. The building was a six-story business building that housed a luxurious department store, a disco and offices of several foreign companies. The fire claimed 60 lives and injured a further 100.

Hong Kong shipping register

The port of Hong Kong is a deep water port located in southern China. It is one of the hub ports serving the South-East and East Asia region, and is a gateway to mainland China. The city of Hong Kong began as a colony of the United Kingdom. It was a free port, and became an international trade center connecting land and sea transport between China and other countries. The port has mature infrastructure and well-developed air-sea-land transport. It helps Hong Kong maintain its position on international trade centre and transshipment hub.

As part of the 1997 transfer of sovereignty of Hong Kong from Britain to China, the ship registration system has made some adjustments. In 1990, the Marine Department set up a separate system for the Hong Kong Shipping Register. The ordinance of Hong Kong Ship Registration was amended accordingly.

India International Trade Center

India International Trade Centre is a proposed skyscraper in the city of Mumbai in India. Its set to be 320 m tall with 72 floors.

International Colour Authority

The International Colour Authority (ICA) is a private organization publishing forecasts about colour trends for the coming seasons, to be used by industry designers. It also awards a Seal of Approval that companies may display in their promotional materials if the colour ranges they use are appraised by the ICA.

ICA forecasts were launched in 1968. Since then, a panel of international colour specialists, the Spanish Painter Pepa Poch among them, gathers twice a year in London to select the next colour palette. The selection is published 22 months ahead of the retail selling season, thus constituting the earliest colour trend prediction available to the furniture design and textile industries. Nowadays the ICA is one of the leading colour forecasters for the industry, along with the Color Marketing Group. Their products are "high-quality forecast publications containing an abundance of accurate information on market trends", which ranks them among "the favourite publications of many professionals", according to an article published by the International Trade Centre.Colours in the ICA colour guides are referenced using the Pantone standard, the Natural Color System (NCS) standard, or both.

ICA has now launched an online service through which subscribers can download the forecasts, and is creating an online newsletter, World Colour News.

International trade

International trade is the exchange of capital, goods, and services across international borders or territories.In most countries, such trade represents a significant share of gross domestic product (GDP). While international trade has existed throughout history (for example Uttarapatha, Silk Road, Amber Road, scramble for Africa, Atlantic slave trade, salt roads), its economic, social, and political importance has been on the rise in recent centuries.

Carrying out trade at an international level is a complex process when compared to domestic trade. When trade takes place between two or more nations factors like currency, government policies, economy, judicial system, laws, and markets influence trade.

To smoothen and justify the process of trade between countries of different economic standing, some international economic organisations were formed, such as the World Trade Organization. These organisations work towards the facilitation and growth of international trade.

Jon Ola Norbom

Jon Ola Hauger Norbom (born 15 December 1923 in Bærum), is a Norwegian economist and politician for the Liberal Party.

During World War II, in 1942, Norbom was imprisoned for a brief time at Grini concentration camp. Then, in November 1943, he was among the students who were arrested by the German occupying forces in Norway as part of a general imprisonment of all male, non-NS students at the University of Oslo. He was imprisoned in the German concentration camp Buchenwald.From 1950 to 1952 he was the leader of the Young Liberals of Norway, the youth wing of the Liberal Party. He was State Secretary in the Ministry of Finance from 1967 to 1969, during the cabinet Borten, and became Minister of the Finance in 1972–1973 during the cabinet Korvald. Norbom never held elected political office.He graduated as cand.oecon. from the University of Oslo in 1949, and studied international economics and European integration at the College of Europe in Bruges 1952-1953. He subsequently worked as a researcher with the National Bureau of Economic Research, the United Nations and the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) during the 1950s and 1960s. He was director in the International Trade Centre Unctad/Gatt 1973-1984, the Permanent Secretary in the Norwegian Ministry of Health and Social Affairs 1984-1993, and member of the United Nations Social Policy Committee 1987-1990.

Lebuh SPA

Lebuh SPA (Sungai Udang–Paya Rumput–Ayer Keroh Highway), Federal Route 33 (formerly Malacca State Route M17), is a major highway in Malacca state, Malaysia. This 23.1 km (14.4 mile) highway connects Sungai Udang in the west to Ayer Keroh in the east.

List of tourist attractions in Malacca

This is the list of tourist attractions in Malacca, Malaysia.

Malacca International Trade Centre

The Malacca International Trade Centre (MITC; Malay: Pusat Perdagangan Antarabangsa Melaka) is a convention centre situated in Ayer Keroh, Malacca, Malaysia. The main events that are held here includes: exhibits, conventions, incentives, concerts, dinner, seminar, meetings and shows.

Regina Exhibition Stadium

Regina Exhibition Stadium, also known as Queen City Gardens, was an indoor arena at Evraz Place in Regina, Saskatchewan.

Constructed in 1919, the venue was home arena of the Regina Pats of the Western Hockey League before the construction of the Agridome in 1977. The venue was notable for its use in agricultural exhibitions, sporting events, as well as concerts, having hosted acts such as The Beach Boys, Buddy Holly, Chuck Barry' Biggest Show of Stars tour, and Johnny Cash among others.

In 2015, the arena was used as a filming location for Chokeslam, a professional wrestling-themed romantic comedy film. By 2017, the arena had been described as "deteriorating", and contrasting to other new developments at the grounds such as Mosaic Stadium. In 2017, Regina Exhibition Stadium was demolished in order to construct the International Trade Centre, a new $37 million, 150,000 square-foot convention space that would link all of Evraz Place's indoor facilities.

Tianjin International Trade Centre

Tianjin International Trade Centre is a skyscraper with 60 floors and a floor area of 190,350 m², which is since under construction at 112 Munan Road in Tianjin, China.

Tianjin International Trade Centre has a roof height of 235 m (771 ft).

Construction of Tianjin International Trade Centre commenced in 1998 but was halted in July 2000. Its construction recommenced on 25 November 2010 and it has topped out on 11 July 2012. Its completion is now expected for 2014.

Trade promotion (international trade)

Trade promotion (sometimes referred to as export promotion) is an umbrella term for economic policies, development interventions and private initiatives aimed at improving the trade performance of an economic area. Such an economic area can include just one country, a region within a country, or a group of countries involved in an economic trade area. Specific industries may be targeted. Improvement is mainly sought by increasing exports both in absolute terms and relative to imports. When specific industries are targeted, trade promotion policies tend to target industries that have a comparative advantage over their foreign competitors. Trade promotion can also include expanding the supply of key inputs in a country's strongest industries, via import expansion. If successful, such a tactic would lead to pro-trade biased growth.As an economic policy with the ultimate goal of increasing domestic welfare, trade promotion comprises a large set of policy instruments. One notable tactic is the provision of trade intelligence to domestic enterprises in order to reduce transaction costs and provide them with a competitive advantage vis-à-vis foreign companies. Many countries all over the world have set up special agencies, most of them in the public domain, to implement trade promotion policies and provide support services to domestic enterprises.Some international organizations provide assistance to so-called developing countries to help them promote their exports, most prominently the International Trade Centre in Geneva, which is a subsidiary of the World Trade Organization and the United Nations with a mandate to providing trade-related technical assistance to those countries.

Vanessa Erogbogbo

Vanessa Erogbogbo is a private sector development specialist with a focus on gender, trade and entrepreneurship. She is the head of the Women and Trade programme and the Chief of the Sustainable and Inclusive Value Chains Section at the International Trade Centre (ITC).

Wirral Waters

Wirral Waters is a large scale £4.5bn development that has been proposed by the Peel Group for Birkenhead, on the Wirral Peninsula, England. It is the sister programme of the Liverpool Waters project. Since 2012 the two projects have enjoyed enterprise zone status, together forming the Mersey Waters Enterprise Zone.

United Nations System
Members and observers
and policies
Political economy
Regional organizations
Exports by product

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