International Telecommunication Union

The International Telecommunication Union (ITU; French: Union Internationale des Télécommunications (UIT)), originally the International Telegraph Union (French: Union Télégraphique Internationale), is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) that is responsible for issues that concern information and communication technologies.[1] It is the oldest among all the 15 specialised agencies of UN.

The ITU coordinates the shared global use of the radio spectrum, promotes international cooperation in assigning satellite orbits, works to improve telecommunication infrastructure in the developing world, and assists in the development and coordination of worldwide technical standards. The ITU is active in areas including broadband Internet, latest-generation wireless technologies, aeronautical and maritime navigation, radio astronomy, satellite-based meteorology, convergence in fixed-mobile phone, Internet access, data, voice, TV broadcasting, and next-generation networks. The agency also organizes worldwide and regional exhibitions and forums, such as ITU Telecom World, bringing together representatives of government and the telecommunications and ICT industry to exchange ideas, knowledge and technology.

ITU, based in Geneva, Switzerland, is a member of the United Nations Development Group,[2] and has 12 regional and area offices in the world. ITU has been an intergovernmental public–private partnership organization since its inception. Its membership includes 193 Member States and around 800 public and private sector companies, and academic institutions as well as international and regional telecommunication entities, known as Sector Members and Associates, which undertake most of the work of each Sector.[3]

International Telecommunication Union
Emblem of the United Nations
International Telecommunication Union Logo
AbbreviationITU
Formation17 May 1865
TypeUnited Nations specialised agency
Legal statusActive
HeadquartersGeneva, Switzerland
Head
Secretary-General
Houlin Zhao
Parent organization
United Nations Economic and Social Council
Websitewww.itu.int
UN emblem blue.svg United Nations portal
ITU monument, Bern
ITU Monument in Bern, Switzerland

History

ITU was formed in 1865, in Paris, at the International Telegraph Convention; this makes it one of the oldest intergovernmental organizations in the world.[4][5] The International Radiotelegraph Union was unofficially established at first International Radiotelegraph Convention in 1906. Both were merged into the International Telecommunication Union in 1932.[6] ITU became a United Nations specialized agency in 1947.[5]

ITU sectors

The ITU comprises three sectors, each managing a different aspect of the matters handled by the Union, as well as ITU Telecom.[7] The sectors were created during the restructuring of ITU at its 1992 Plenipotentiary Conference.[8]

Radio communication (ITU-R)
Established in 1927 as the International Radio Consultative Committee or CCIR (from its French name "Comité consultatif international pour la radio"), this sector manages the international radio-frequency spectrum and satellite orbit resources. In 1992, the CCIR became the ITU-R.
Standardisation (ITU-T)
Standardisation was the original purpose of ITU since its inception. Established in 1956 as the International Telephone and Telegraph Consultative Committee or CCITT (from its French name "Comité consultatif international téléphonique et télégraphique"), this sector standardizes global telecommunications (except for radio).[8] In 1993, the CCITT became the ITU-T.
Development (ITU-D)
Established in 1992, this sector helps spread equitable, sustainable and affordable access to information and communication technologies (ICT).
ITU Telecom
ITU Telecom organizes major events for the world's ICT community.

A permanent General Secretariat, headed by the Secretary General, manages the day-to-day work of the Union and its sectors.

Legal framework of ITU

International Telecommunication Union 11c 1965 issue U.S. stamp
International Telecommunication Union – 100th anniversary. U.S. stamp, 1965.
1990 CPA 6190
International Telecommunication Union – anniversary 125 years. Post of USSR, 1990.
1977, Libya Postage Stamp
International Telecommunications Union, 1977 Postage Stamp from Libya
Stamps of Azerbaijan, 2015-1223
International Telecommunication Union – anniversary 150 years. Post of Azerbaijan, 2015.

The basic texts of the ITU[9] are adopted by the ITU Plenipotentiary Conference.[10] The founding document of the ITU was the 1865 International Telegraph Convention, which has since been amended several times and is now entitled the "Constitution and Convention of the International Telecommunication Union". In addition to the Constitution and Convention, the consolidated basic texts include the Optional Protocol on the settlement of disputes, the Decisions, Resolutions and Recommendations in force, as well as the General Rules of Conferences, Assemblies and Meetings of the Union.

Leadership

The ITU is headed by a Secretary-General, a Deputy Secretary General and the three directors of the Bureaux, who are elected to a four-year terms by the member states at the ITU Plenipotentiary Conference.[11]

On 23 October 2014 Houlin Zhao was elected 19th Secretary-General of the ITU at the Plenipotentiary Conference in Busan, Republic of Korea. His four-year mandate started on 1 January 2015, and he was formally inaugurated on 15 January 2015.[12] Houlin Zhao was reelected at the 2018 Plenipotentiary Conference in Dubai.

Directors and Secretaries-General of ITU

Directors of ITU
Name Beginning of term End of term Country
Louis Curchod 1 January 1869 24 May 1872 Switzerland
Karl Lendi 24 May 1872 12 January 1873 Switzerland
Louis Curchod 23 February 1873 18 October 1889 Switzerland
August Frey 25 February 1890 28 June 1890 Switzerland
Timotheus Rothen 25 November 1890 11 February 1897 Switzerland
Emil Frey 11 March 1897 1 August 1921 Switzerland
Henri Étienne 2 August 1921 16 December 1927 Switzerland
Joseph Raber 1 February 1928 30 October 1934 Switzerland
Franz von Ernst 1 January 1935 31 December 1949 Switzerland
Secretaries general
Léon Mulatier 1 January 1950 31 December 1953 France
Marco Aurelio Andrada 1 January 1954 18 June 1958 Argentina
Gerald C. Gross 1 January 1960 29 October 1965 United States
Manohar Balaji Sarwate 30 October 1965 19 February 1967 India
Mohamed Ezzedine Mili 20 February 1967 31 December 1982 Tunisia
Richard E. Butler 1 January 1983 31 October 1989 Australia
Pekka Tarjanne 1 November 1989 31 January 1999 Finland
Yoshio Utsumi 1 February 1999 31 December 2006 Japan
Hamadoun Touré 1 January 2007 31 December 2014 Mali
Houlin Zhao 1 January 2015 present China

[13]

Membership

Member states of the International Telecommunication Union
International Telecommunication Union member states

Membership of ITU is open to only Member States of the United Nations, which may join the Union as Member States, as well as to private organizations like carriers, equipment manufacturers, funding bodies, research and development organizations and international and regional telecommunication organizations, which may join ITU as non-voting Sector Members.[14]

There are 193 Member States of the ITU, including all UN member states except the Republic of Palau, plus the Vatican City.[15] The most recent member state to join the ITU is South Sudan, which became a member on 14 July 2011.[16]

The Republic of China (Taiwan) was blocked from membership[17] by the People's Republic of China, but nevertheless received a country code, being listed as "Taiwan, China".[18] Palestine was admitted as an observer in 2010.[19]

Regional groupings

Six Regional Offices and seven Area Offices guarantee a regional presence of ITU: Regional Office for CSI (in Moscow) Africa Regional Office in Addis Ababa, with Area Offices in Dakar, Harare and Yaoundé Arab States Regional Office in Cairo Asia-Pacific Regional Office in Bangkok, with Area Office in Jakarta America Regional Office in Brasilia, with Area Offices in Bridgetown, Santiago and Tegucigalpa. The sixth is a Coordination office for Europe Region Europe at ITU Headquarters.

Other Regional organizations, connected to ITU, are:

World Summit on the Information Society

The ITU was one of the UN agencies responsible for convening the World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS), along with UNESCO, UNCTAD and UNDP.[20] The Summit was held as two conferences in 2003 and 2005 in Geneva and Tunis, respectively, with the aim of bridging the digital divide.

World Conference on International Telecommunications 2012 (WCIT-12)

In December 2012, the ITU facilitated The World Conference on International Telecommunications 2012 (WCIT-12) in Dubai. WCIT-12 was a treaty-level conference to address International Telecommunications Regulations, the international rules for telecommunications, including international tariffs.[21] The previous conference to update the Regulations (ITRs) was held in Melbourne in 1988.[22]

In August 2012, ITU called for a public consultation on a draft document ahead of the conference.[23] It is claimed the proposal would allow government restriction or blocking of information disseminated via the internet and create a global regime of monitoring internet communications, including the demand that those who send and receive information identify themselves. It would also allow governments to shut down the internet if there is the belief that it may interfere in the internal affairs of other states or that information of a sensitive nature might be shared.[24]

Telecommunications ministers from 193 countries attended the conference in Dubai.[24]

Changes to international telecommunication regulations

The current regulatory structure was based on voice telecommunications, when the Internet was still in its infancy.[25] In 1988, telecommunications operated under regulated monopolies in most countries. As the Internet has grown, organizations such as ICANN have come into existence to manage key resources such as Internet addresses and Domain Names. Some outside the United States believe that the United States exerts too much influence over the governance of the Internet.[26]

Proposed changes to the treaty and concerns

Current proposals look to take into account the prevalence of data communications. Proposals under consideration would establish regulatory oversight by the UN over security, fraud, traffic accounting as well as traffic flow, management of Internet Domain Names and IP addresses, and other aspects of the Internet that are currently governed either by community-based approaches such as Regional Internet Registries, ICANN, or largely national regulatory frameworks.[27] The move by the ITU and some countries has alarmed many within the United States and within the Internet community.[28][29] Indeed, some European telecommunication services have proposed a so-called "sender pays" model that would require sources of Internet traffic to pay destinations, similar to the way funds are transferred between countries using the telephone.[30][31]

The WCIT-12 activity has been attacked by Google, which has characterized it as a threat to the "...free and open internet."[32]

On 22 November 2012, the European Parliament passed a resolution urging member states to prevent ITU WCIT-12 activity that would "negatively impact the internet, its architecture, operations, content and security, business relations, internet governance and the free flow of information online".[33] The resolution asserted that "the ITU [...] is not the appropriate body to assert regulatory authority over the internet".[34]

On 5 December 2012, the lower chamber of the United States Congress passed a resolution opposing U.N. governance of the Internet by a rare unanimous 397–0 vote. The resolution warned that "... proposals have been put forward for consideration at the [WCIT-12] that would fundamentally alter the governance and operation of the Internet ... [and] would attempt to justify increased government control over the Internet ...", and stated that the policy of the United States is "... to promote a global Internet free from government control and preserve and advance the successful Multistakeholder Model that governs the Internet today." The same resolution had previously been passed unanimously by the upper chamber of the Congress in September.[35]

On 14 December 2012, an amended version of the Regulations was signed by 89 of the 152 countries. Countries that did not sign included the United States, Japan, Canada, Germany, New Zealand, India and the United Kingdom. The Head of the U.S. Delegation, Terry Kramer, said "We cannot support a treaty that is not supportive of the multistakeholder model of Internet governance". [36][37][38] The disagreement appeared to be over some language in the revised ITRs referring to ITU roles in addressing unsolicited bulk communications, network security, and a resolution on Internet governance that called for government participation in Internet topics at various ITU forums.[39] Despite the significant number countries not signing, the ITU organisation came out with a press release: "New global telecoms treaty agreed in Dubai".

WCIT-12 conference participation

The conference itself was managed by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU). While certain parts of civil society and industry were able to advise and observe, active participation was restricted to member states.[40] The Electronic Frontier Foundation expressed concern at this, calling for a more transparent multi-stakeholder process.[41] Some leaked contributions can be found on the wcitleaks.org web site. Google-affiliated researchers have suggested that the ITU should completely reform its processes to align itself with the openness and participation of other multistakeholder organizations concerned with the Internet.[42]

See also

Union Internationale des Télécommunications, Genève
International Telecommunications Union, Geneva

References

  1. ^ International Telecommunication Union
  2. ^ "UNDG Members". Undg.org. Archived from the original on 11 May 2011. Retrieved 15 May 2012.
  3. ^ "About ITU". International Telecommunication Union. Retrieved 30 January 2018.
  4. ^ Norman A. Graham; Robert S. Jordan (22 October 2013). The International Civil Service: Changing Role and Concepts. Elsevier. p. 105. ISBN 978-1-4831-4799-4.
  5. ^ a b Carl Malamud (1992). Exploring the Internet: A Technical Travelogue. Carl Malamud. p. 384. ISBN 978-0-13-296898-0.
  6. ^ ICAO and the International Telecommunication Union - ICAO official website
  7. ^ "Sector Members, Associates and Academia". ITU. Retrieved 15 May 2014.
  8. ^ a b Deutsches Institut für Normung (1998). An Introduction to Standards and Standardisation. Beuth Verlag. p. 266. ISBN 9783410141495. Retrieved 15 May 2014.
  9. ^ "Basic texts of the International Telecommunication Union". Itu.int. Retrieved 15 May 2012.
  10. ^ PP10contributions. "2010 Plenipotentiary Conference". Itu.int. Retrieved 15 May 2012.
  11. ^ Darpan, Pratiyogita (27 January 2017). Pratiyogita Darpan. Pratiyogita Darpan.
  12. ^ "ITU Management team inauguration on 15 January 2015". Retrieved 25 March 2015.
  13. ^ "Past and Present Senior Officials". www.itu.int. Retrieved 5 November 2018.
  14. ^ "Constitution of ITU: Chapter I – Basic Provisions". Retrieved 14 April 2013.
  15. ^ "International Telecommunication Union Member States". International Telecommunication Union. Retrieved 18 July 2013.
  16. ^ New Country, New Number – Country code 211 officially assigned to South Sudan ITU Pressroom, 14 July 2011
  17. ^ Lin, Chun Hung (2004). "ITU and the Republic of China". digitalcommons. Academic Journals of GGU Law. Retrieved 2 January 2017.
  18. ^ "ITU-T : International Numbering Resources : National Numbering Plans : China, Taiwan". Itu.int. 26 January 2007. Retrieved 15 May 2012.
  19. ^ "Palestine ITU status". Itu.int. 20 October 2010. Archived from the original on 7 June 2011. Retrieved 15 May 2012.
  20. ^ "World Summit on the Information Society". itu.int. Retrieved 11 October 2012.
  21. ^ "World Conference on International Telecommunications 2012". Itu.int. Retrieved 12 October 2012.
  22. ^ "International Telecommunication Regulations" (PDF). Retrieved 12 October 2012.
  23. ^ "ITU opens public consultation on internet regulation treaty". 16 August 2012. Retrieved 30 November 2012.
  24. ^ a b "United Nations wants control of web kill switch". news.com.au. 12 November 2012. Retrieved 30 November 2012.
  25. ^ Global Internet usage
  26. ^ "Russia calls for internet revolution". Indrus.in. 29 May 2012. Retrieved 12 October 2012.
  27. ^ Internet Society. International Telecommunication Regulations
  28. ^ Mcdowell, Robert M. (21 February 2012). "Robert McDowell:The U.N. Threat to Internet Freedom". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 12 October 2012.
  29. ^ L. Gordon Crovitz (17 June 2012). "Crovitz: The U.N.'s Internet Power Grab". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 12 October 2012.
  30. ^ McCullagh, Declan (7 June 2012). "CNET:U.N. could tax U.S.-based Web sites, leaked docs show". CNET. Retrieved 12 October 2012.
  31. ^ Trivedi, Shamik (28 June 2012). "FOR APPLE AND GOOGLE, IS AN UNAVOIDABLE U.N. 'TAX' COMING?". Tax Notes Today – 2012 TNT 126-5.
  32. ^ "Google attacks UN net conference". BBC News. 21 November 2012. Retrieved 21 November 2012.
  33. ^ "European Parliament warns against UN internet control". BBC News. 22 November 2012. Retrieved 23 November 2012.
  34. ^ "European Parliament resolution on the forthcoming World Conference on International Telecommunications (WCIT-12) of the International Telecommunication Union, and the possible expansion of the scope of international telecommunication regulations". 22 November 2012. Retrieved 23 November 2012.
  35. ^ "House approves resolution to keep Internet control out of UN hands". The Hill. 5 December 2012.
  36. ^ "U.S. Rejects Telecommunications Treaty". The New York Times. 14 December 2012.
  37. ^ "Japan, West snub rules for Net curbs". Japan Times. 16 December 2012.
  38. ^ "WCIT-12 Final Acts Signatories". International Telecommunication Union. Retrieved 16 December 2012.
  39. ^ Siy, Sherwin. (14 December 2012) On the Results at the WCIT. Public Knowledge. Retrieved on 28 April 2014.
  40. ^ "Convention of the ITU". Itu.int. Retrieved 12 October 2012.
  41. ^ "EFF Joins Coalition Denouncing Secretive WCIT Planning Process". Eff.org. 17 May 2012. Retrieved 12 October 2012.
  42. ^ "Ryan/Glick: The ITU Treaty Negotiations: A Call for Openness and Participation". Ssrn.com. SSRN 2077095. Missing or empty |url= (help); |access-date= requires |url= (help)
480i

480i is a shorthand name for the video mode used for standard-definition analog or digital television in Caribbean, Myanmar, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Philippines, Laos, Western Sahara, and most of the Americas (with the exception of Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay). The 480 identifies a vertical resolution of 480 lines, and the i identifies it as an interlaced resolution. The field rate, which is 60 Hz (or 59.94 Hz when used with NTSC color), is sometimes included when identifying the video mode, i.e. 480i60; another notation, endorsed by both the International Telecommunication Union in BT.601 and SMPTE in SMPTE 259M, includes the frame rate, as in 480i/30. The other common standard, used in the other parts of the world, is 576i.

In analogue contexts, this resolution is often called "525 lines". It is mandated by CCIR Systems M and J, which are usually paired with NTSC color - which led to the "NTSC" name being often inaccurately used to refer to this video mode. Other color encodings have also been used with System M, notably PAL-M in Brazil.

Aeronautical station

Aeronautical station (also: aeronautical radio station) is – according to Article 1.81 of the International Telecommunication Union´s (ITU) ITU Radio Regulations (RR) – defined as «A land station in the aeronautical mobile service. In certain instances, an aeronautical station may be located, for example, on board ship or on a platform at sea.»

Each station shall be classified by the service in which it operates permanently or temporarily.

See also

Coast radio station

A coast (or coastal) radio station (short: coast station) is an on-shore maritime radio station which may monitor radio distress frequencies and relays ship-to-ship and ship-to-land communications.

A coast station (also: coast radio station ) is – according to article 1.75 of the International Telecommunication Union´s (ITU) ITU Radio Regulations (RR) – defined as «A land station in the maritime mobile service.»

Experimental radio station

Experimental station (also: experimental radio station ) is – according to article 1.98 of the International Telecommunication Union´s (ITU) ITU Radio Regulations (RR) – defined as «A station utilizing radio waves in experiments with a view to the development of science or technique. This definition does not include amateur stations.»

Each radio station shall be classified by the radiocommunication service in which it operates permanently or temporarily.

See also

Feeder link

Feeder link is – according to Article 1.115 of the International Telecommunication Union´s (ITU) ITU Radio Regulations (RR) – defined as «A radio link from an earth station at a given location to a space station, or vice versa, conveying information for a space radiocommunication service other than for the fixed-satellite service. The given location may be at a specified fixed point, or at any fixed point within specified areas.»

Each station shall be classified by the service in which it operates permanently or temporarily.

See also

LinkedIn

Global Internet usage

Global Internet usage refers to the number of people who use the Internet worldwide, which can be displayed using tables, charts, maps and articles which contain more detailed information on a wide range of usage measures.

ITU-R

The ITU Radiocommunication Sector (ITU-R) is one of the three sectors (divisions or units) of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) and is responsible for radio communication.

Its role is to manage the international radio-frequency spectrum and satellite orbit resources and to develop standards for radiocommunication systems with the objective of ensuring the effective use of the spectrum.ITU is required, according to its Constitution, to allocate spectrum and register frequency allocation, orbital positions and other parameters of satellites, “in order to avoid harmful interference between radio stations of different countries”. The international spectrum management system is therefore based on regulatory procedures for frequency coordination, notification and registration.

ITU-R has a permanent secretariat, the Radiocommunication Bureau, based at the ITU HQ in Geneva, Switzerland. The elected Director of the Bureau is Mr. François Rancy of France; he was first elected by the ITU Membership to the Directorship in 2010.

ITU-T

The ITU Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T) is one of the three sectors (divisions or units) of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU); it coordinates standards for telecommunications.

The standardization efforts of ITU commenced in 1865 with the formation of the International Telegraph Union (ITU). ITU became a specialized agency of the United Nations in 1947. The International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee (CCITT, from French: Comité Consultatif International Téléphonique et Télégraphique) was created in 1956, and was renamed ITU-T in 1993.ITU-T has a permanent secretariat, the Telecommunication Standardization Bureau (TSB), based at the ITU headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland. The current Director of the Bureau is Chaesub Lee, whose 4-year term commenced on 1 January 2015, who replaced Malcolm Johnson of the United Kingdom, who was director from 1 January 2007 to 2014.

ITU Radio Regulations

The ITU Radio Regulations (short: RR) regulates on law of nations scale radiocommunication services and the utilisation of radio frequencies. It is the supplementation to the Constitution and Convention of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU Constitution and Convention). In line to the ITU Constitution and Convention and the ITU International Telecommunication Regulations (ITR), this ITU Radio Regulations belong to the basic documents of the International Telecommunication Union. The ITU Radio Regulations comprise and regulate the part of the allocated electromagnetic spectrum (also: radio frequency spectrum) from 9 kHz to 275 GHz.

ITU Region

The International Telecommunication Union (ITU), in its International Radio Regulations, divides the world into three ITU regions for the purposes of managing the global radio spectrum. Each region has its own set of frequency allocations, the main reason for defining the regions.

Inter-satellite service

Inter-satellite service (also: inter-satellite radiocommunication service) is – according to Article 1.22 of the International Telecommunication Union´s (ITU) Radio Regulations (RR) – defined as «A radiocommunication service providing links between artificial satellites.»

See also

List of countries by number of broadband Internet subscriptions

This article contains a sortable list of countries by number of broadband Internet subscriptions and penetration rates, using data compiled by the International Telecommunication Union.

List of international call prefixes

An international call prefix or dial out code is a trunk prefix used to select an international telephone circuit for placing an international call. It is now called as IDD prefix (international direct dialing) – a country will typically have an NDD prefix as well (national direct dialing). The international dialing prefix must be dialed before the country calling code and the destination telephone number. It is synonymous with international access code or exit code. The international call prefix is part of the telephone numbering plan of a country for calls to another country.

The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) recommends the sequence 00 as a standard for an international call prefix, and this has been implemented by many countries, but not all of them. Some countries use the 00 prefix which is followed by the international carrier code.

When phone numbers are published for use abroad, they typically show a plus sign (+) prefix in place of any international call prefix, to signify that the caller should use the prefix code appropriate for their country. Many phones allow the plus sign to be entered in their saved number lists, often by holding down the zero (0) key (most GSM mobile phones) or with two consecutive presses of the star (*) key. When making a call, the system then automatically converts the plus sign to the correct international prefix, depending on where the phone is being used, which enables callers to use the same stored number when calling from either their own country or any other.

Multi-satellite link

Multi-satellite link is – according to article 1.114 of the International Telecommunication Union´s (ITU) ITU Radio Regulations (RR) – defined as «A radio link between a transmitting earth station and a receiving earth station through two or more satellites, without any intermediate earth station. A multi-satellite link comprises one up-link, one or more satellite-to-satellite links and one down-link.»

Each station shall be classified by the service in which it operates permanently or temporarily.

See also

Port station

Port station (also: port radio station) is – according to Article 1.80 of the International Telecommunication Union´s (ITU) RR – defined as «A coast station in the port operations service.»

Each station shall be classified by the service in which it operates permanently or temporarily.

See also

Satellite link

Satellite link is – according to article 1.113 of the International Telecommunication Union´s (ITU) ITU Radio Regulations (RR) – defined as «A radio link between a transmitting earth station and a receiving earth station through one satellite. A satellite link comprises one up-link and one down-link.»

Each station shall be classified by the service in which it operates permanently or temporarily.

See also

Survival craft station

Survival craft station (also: survival craft radio station) is – according to Article 1.65 of the International Telecommunication Union´s (ITU) RR – defined as «A mobile station in the maritime mobile service or the aeronautical mobile service intended solely for survival purposes and located on any lifeboat, life-craft or other survival equipment.»

Each station shall be classified by the service in which it operates permanently or temporarily.

See also

World Radiocommunication Conference

World Radiocommunication Conference (WRC) is organized by ITU to review and as necessary, revise the Radio Regulations, the international treaty governing the use of the radio-frequency spectrum and the geostationary-satellite and non-geostationary-satellite orbits. It is held every three to four years. Prior to 1993, it was called the World Administrative Radio Conference (WARC); in 1992, at an Additional Plenipotentiary Conference in Geneva, the ITU was restructured, and later conferences became the WRC.At the 2015 conference (WRC-15), the ITU deferred their decision on whether to abolish the leap second to 2023.The next World Radiocommunication Conference (WRC-19) will take place from 28 October to 22 November 2019 in Sharm el-Sheikh, Egypt.

United Nations System
Members and observers
History
Resolutions
Elections
Related
Other
International broadcasting organizations
Current
Former
Coordinators
History
Pioneers
Transmission
media
Network topology
and switching
Multiplexing
Networks
Activities
Culture
Governance
Modes of communication
Technologies
Related

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.