International Standard Recording Code

The International Standard Recording Code (ISRC) is an international standard code for uniquely identifying sound recordings and music video recordings. The code was developed by the recording industry in conjunction with the ISO technical committee 46, subcommittee 9 (TC 46/SC 9), which codified the standard as ISO 3901 in 1986, and updated it in 2001.

An ISRC identifies a particular recording, not the work (composition and lyrical content) itself. Therefore, different recordings, edits, and remixes of the same work should each have their own ISRC. Works are identified by ISWC. Recordings remastered without significant audio-quality changes should retain their existing ISRC, but the threshold is left to the discretion of the record company.

History

ISO 3901 was finished in 1986. In 1988, the IFPI recommended that its member companies adopt ISRCs for music videos. In 1989, the ISO designated the IFPI as the registration authority for ISRCs. The IFPI, in turn, delegated part of the administration of ISRCs to several dozen national agencies, which allocate ISRCs to both record companies and individuals.[1] The national agencies began assigning ISRC codes for music videos in August 1989.

The Japanese recording industry began encoding ISRCs on audio CDs in November 1989. The IFPI and the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) then developed detailed recommendations for this practice, as well as for ISRC assignment in general. The IFPI adopted the recommendations in March 1991, and they went into effect for IFPI members on 1 January 1992.

Format

ISRC codes are always 12 characters long, in the form "CC-XXX-YY-NNNNN". The hyphens are not part of the ISRC code itself, but codes are often presented that way in print to make them easier to read. The four parts are as follows:

  • "CC" is the appropriate two-character country code for the ISRC issuer. The code is assigned according to the ISO 3166-1-Alpha-2 standard. (High demand for ISRCs within the United States has caused the supply of available registrant codes to become exhausted; after December 6, 2010, new registrants in the U.S. use country code "QM".[2] The codes "CP", and "DG" are reserved for further overflow, and "ZZ" is reserved for codes assigned by the International ISRC Agency.[3] Further additions continue to be made.[4])
  • "XXX" is a three character alphanumeric registrant code of the ISRC issuer. (This number by itself does NOT uniquely identify the ISRC issuer as the same 3-digit number may be used in various countries for different issuers. To uniquely identify an issuer, the country code and registrant code should be used together.)
  • "YY" represent the last two digits of the reference year – the year that the ISRC was assigned to the recording. This is not necessarily the date the recording was made.
  • "NNNNN" is a 5-digit number that identifies the particular sound or video recording, unique within the scope of the reference year.

An example, a recording of the song "Crazy Eyes" by the American duo Daryl Hall & John Oates has been allocated the ISRC code USRC17607839:

  • US for United States
  • RC1 for RCA
  • 76 for 1976
  • 07839 is the unique id identifying this particular recording

Embedding ISRC in files

The most common file formats that ISRC codes can be embedded into presently are MP3, M4A, AAC, FLAC, and WAV for audio. For video ISRCs, embedding is generally performed on MP4 or M4V files. It is worth pointing out that embedding ISRC into individual files for online distribution differs from embedding ISRC codes in CD. The Red Book standard recommends to also embed ISRCs onto CDs. The two types of ISRC embedding are not generally interchangeable and should be done separately. [5]

The standard for the ID3v2.2 tag, that was designed for use in MP3 files, and was published on March 1998, defined a way to embed ISRC in a 'TSRC' frame. On August 2012, the European Broadcasting Union published a specification for embedding ISRC in Broadcast Wave Format.

Obtaining ISRCs

The provision of ISRCs is overseen by appointed national ISRC agencies. These national ISRC agencies issue codes directly to the public and may also utilize authorized ISRC Managers to issue ISRCs. In the United States, the appointed agency is RIAA. ISRC codes can be obtained in large blocks directly from RIAA for an administrative fee ($95 at time of this publication), in quantities as little as 1 from ISRC.com ($2-$5), or in conjunction with other music-related services from other authorized ISRC managers.[6] In territories where there is no national ISRC agency, users can obtain ISRC codes directly from IFPI or from ISRC.com.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Resources – ISRC – Handbook (incorporating the ISRC Practical Guide) s321" (PDF).
  2. ^ http://www.ifpi.org/content/library/isrc_bulletin-2010-02.pdf
  3. ^ http://www.ifpi.org/content/library/isrc_bulletin-2012-01.pdf
  4. ^ "Archive — International Standard Recording Code". isrc.ifpi.org.
  5. ^ "ISRC Embedding Guide —". ISRC.com.
  6. ^ "List of Approved ISRC Managers". Recording Industry Association of America. Retrieved April 15, 2014.

External links

Audio mastering

Mastering, a form of audio post production, is the process of preparing and transferring recorded audio from a source containing the final mix to a data storage device (the master), the source from which all copies will be produced (via methods such as pressing, duplication or replication). In recent years digital masters have become usual, although analog masters, such as audio tapes, are still being used by the manufacturing industry, notably by a few engineers who have chosen to specialize in analog mastering.

Mastering requires critical listening; however, software tools exist to facilitate the process. Results still depend upon the intent of the engineer, the accuracy of the speaker monitors, and the listening environment. Mastering engineers may also need to apply corrective equalization and dynamic compression in order to optimise sound translation on all playback systems. It is standard practice to make a copy of a master recording, known as a safety copy, in case the master is lost, damaged or stolen.

Barry Grint

Barry Stephen "Bazza" Grint (born April 1959) is an English mastering engineer and member of the mastering group of the Music Producers Guild (MPG). Grint has worked on over 20 UK Number One records and more than 100 UK Top Ten hits. Projects for artists include: Madonna, Prince, Puff Daddy, Eric Clapton, David Bowie, The Beatles, Oasis, Keane, Beach Boys, Jessie J, Rod Stewart, Paul Simon, Van Halen, Michael McDonald and A-ha.

He began cutting records at Trident Studios in 1984 mastering international tracks for the UK and Europe. He identified his work by etching Bazza in the run out groove and of the years various incarnations have included Bazza @ Audio One, Bazza @ Tape One, Bazza @ Porky's, Bazza @ Abbey Road and Bazza @ Alchemy. He is now mastering and cutting vinyl at Alchemy's studios in Brook Green, London.

Representing the Music Producers Guild, Grint worked with the European Broadcasting Union (EBU) to create a standard for embedding the International Standard Recording Code (ISRC) within a Broadcast Wave Format (BWF). This has been adopted by the main manufacturers of mastering software internationally and is supported by The International Federation of the Phonographic Industry (IFPI), the British Phonographic Industry (BPI) and the Association of Independent Music (AIM).

Broadcast Wave Format

Broadcast Wave Format (BWF) is an extension of the popular Microsoft WAV audio format and is the recording format of most file-based non-linear digital recorders used for motion picture, radio and television production. It was first specified by the European Broadcasting Union in 1997, and updated in 2001 and 2003.

The purpose of this file format is the addition of metadata to facilitate the seamless exchange of sound data between different computer platforms and applications. It specifies the format of metadata, allowing audio processing elements to identify themselves, document their activities, and supports timecode to enable synchronization with other recordings. This metadata is stored as extension chunks in a standard digital audio WAV file.

Files conforming to the Broadcast Wave specification have names ending with the file extension .WAV.

Compact Disc subcode

Subcode or subchannel data (called "control bytes" in the CD-ROM specification) refers to data contained in a compact disc (CD) in addition to digital audio or user data, which is used for control and playback of the CD. The original specification was defined in the Red Book standard for CD Digital Audio, though further specifications have extended their use (including the CD-ROM, CD Text and CD+G specifications).

Digital object identifier

In computing, a Digital Object Identifier or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). An implementation of the Handle System, DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos.

A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL, indicating where the object can be found. Thus, by being actionable and interoperable, a DOI differs from identifiers such as ISBNs and ISRCs which aim only to uniquely identify their referents. The DOI system uses the indecs Content Model for representing metadata.

The DOI for a document remains fixed over the lifetime of the document, whereas its location and other metadata may change. Referring to an online document by its DOI is supposed to provide a more stable link than simply using its URL. But every time a URL changes, the publisher has to update the metadata for the DOI to link to the new URL. It is the publisher's responsibility to update the DOI database. If they fail to do so, the DOI resolves to a dead link leaving the DOI useless.

The developer and administrator of the DOI system is the International DOI Foundation (IDF), which introduced it in 2000. Organizations that meet the contractual obligations of the DOI system and are willing to pay to become a member of the system can assign DOIs. The DOI system is implemented through a federation of registration agencies coordinated by the IDF. By late April 2011 more than 50 million DOI names had been assigned by some 4,000 organizations, and by April 2013 this number had grown to 85 million DOI names assigned through 9,500 organizations.

Global Release Identifier

The Global Release Identifier (GRid) is a system to identify releases of digital sound recordings (and other digital data) for electronic distribution. It is designed to be integrated with identification systems deployed by key stakeholders from across the music industry.

(GRid should not be confused with the Global Repertoire Database (GRD), a system to track ownership and control of musical works, which was planned from 2008-2014 but ultimately failed.)

Huozhong

Huozhong (惑众) meaning "Tricks", is the debut album from Guntzepaula. It was released on 27 Jun 2014 in Taiwan.

ISO 3166-1 alpha-2

ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 codes are two-letter country codes defined in ISO 3166-1, part of the ISO 3166 standard published by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), to represent countries, dependent territories, and special areas of geographical interest. They are the most widely used of the country codes published by ISO (the others being alpha-3 and numeric), and are used most prominently for the Internet's country code top-level domains (with a few exceptions). They are also used as country identifiers extending the postal code when appropriate within the international postal system for paper mail, and has replaced the previous one consisting one-letter codes. They were first included as part of the ISO 3166 standard in its first edition in 1974.

ISO TC 46/SC 9

ISO TC 46/SC 9 is the ninth subcommittee of ISO technical committee 46, and is responsible for identification and description of information resources.

As of April 2008, the TC 46/SC 9 Secretariat was transferred to ANSI (U.S.A.).

International Federation of the Phonographic Industry

The International Federation of the Phonographic Industry (IFPI) is the organisation that represents the interests of the recording industry worldwide. It is a non-profit members' organisation registered in Switzerland and founded in Italy in 1933. It operates a Secretariat based in London, with regional offices in Brussels, Hong Kong and Miami.

International Securities Identification Number

An International Securities Identification Number (ISIN) uniquely identifies a security. Its structure is defined in ISO 6166. The ISIN code is a 12-character alphanumeric code that serves for uniform identification of a security through normalization of the assigned National Number, where one exists, at trading and settlement.

International Standard Audiovisual Number

International Standard Audiovisual Number (ISAN) is a unique identifier for audiovisual works and related versions, similar to ISBN for books. It was developed within an ISO (International Organisation for Standardisation) TC46/SC9 working group. ISAN is managed and run by ISAN-IA.

International Standard Book Number

The International Standard Book Number (ISBN) is a numeric commercial book identifier which is intended to be unique. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country.

The initial ISBN identification format was devised in 1967, based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering (SBN) created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108 (the SBN code can be converted to a ten-digit ISBN by prefixing it with a zero digit "0").

Privately published books sometimes appear without an ISBN. The International ISBN agency sometimes assigns such books ISBNs on its own initiative.Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number (ISSN), identifies periodical publications such as magazines and newspapers. The International Standard Music Number (ISMN) covers musical scores.

International Standard Link Identifier

The International Standard Link Identifier (ISLI), is an identifier standard. ISLI is a universal identifier for links between entities in the field of information and documentation. It was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and published on May 15, 2015. ISO/TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for the development of the ISLI standard.ISLI is used for identifying links between entities in the field of information and documentation. A linked entity can be physical, e.g. a print book or an electronic resource (text, audio, and video); or something abstract, e.g. a physical position within a frame of reference or the time of day.

In the context of modern information technology, the application of resources in the field of information and documentation is increasingly getting diversified. Isolated content products can no longer satisfy the ever-increasing user demand.

Using a link identifier to build links between resources in the field of information and documentation provides a basis for a combined application of resources in the field, and supports collaborative creation of content and data interoperability between systems.

The openness of the ISLI system will boost the emergence of new applications in both multimedia and other fields, which increases the value of the linked-resources.

International Standard Music Number

The International Standard Music Number or ISMN (ISO 10957) is a thirteen-character alphanumeric identifier for printed music developed by ISO.

International Standard Musical Work Code

International Standard Musical Work Code (ISWC) is a unique identifier for musical works, similar to ISBN for books. It is adopted as international standard ISO 15707. The ISO subcommittee with responsibility for the standard is TC 46/SC 9.

International Standard Serial Number

An International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication, such as a magazine. The ISSN is especially helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, cataloging, interlibrary loans, and other practices in connection with serial literature.The ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization (ISO) international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard.

When a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in print and electronic media. The ISSN system refers to these types as print ISSN (p-ISSN) and electronic ISSN (e-ISSN), respectively. Conversely, as defined in ISO 3297:2007, every serial in the ISSN system is also assigned a linking ISSN (ISSN-L), typically the same as the ISSN assigned to the serial in its first published medium, which links together all ISSNs assigned to the serial in every medium.

International Standard Text Code

The International Standard Text Code (ISTC) is a unique identifier for text-based works. The ISO standard was developed by TC 46/SC 9 and published in March 2009 as ISO 21047:2009. The authority responsible for implementing the standard is The International ISTC Agency.

Spinlet

Spinlet is a digital media company, focusing on Afro-Centric content. Spinlet’s primary service is music streaming and downloads available globally via web browsers, and the Spinlet app on iOS and Android. The Spinlet platform provides the largest music catalog of licensed African and International content from content licensers such as Content Connect Africa, Africori, Symphonic Distribution, TuneCore, La Cupla Music, Deliver My Tune, and many other indies. It allows the users to purchase, listen, share and discover music while offering integration and storage of the user's music library on their mobile device. As at October 2015, the Spinlet app had been downloaded nearly 2 million times.Spinlet has been appointed by the International Federation of the Phonographic Industry (IFPI) as Nigeria’s first ever manager for ISRCs – the International Standard Recording Code, an essential digital monitoring and revenue tracking tool. In 2014, Spinlet acquired a Nigerian Communications Commission license that will allow it to sell value added services such as caller ring back tunes and short message services in collaboration with Telcos as a means of providing more avenues for content creators/owners to get paid for their content.

International numbering standards
ISO standards by standard number
1–9999
10000–19999
20000+

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