International Standard Musical Work Code

International Standard Musical Work Code (ISWC) is a unique identifier for musical works, similar to ISBN for books. It is adopted as international standard ISO 15707. The ISO subcommittee with responsibility for the standard is TC 46/SC 9.


Each code is composed of three parts:[1]

  1. prefix element (1 character)
  2. work identifier (9 digits)
  3. check digit (1 digit)

Currently, the only prefix defined is "T", indicating Musical works. However, additional prefixes may be defined in the future to expand the available range of identifiers and/or expand the system to additional types of works.

Computation of the check digit


  • : one of the nine digits of the work identifier (i=1 to 9) from left to right.
  • : check digit.

Example: T-034.524.680-C

0 3 4 5 2 4 6 8 0
0 6 12 20 10 24 42 64 0

ISWC identifiers are commonly written the form T-123.456.789-C. The grouping is for ease of reading only; the numbers do not incorporate any information about the work's region, author, publisher, etc. Rather, they are simply issued in sequence. These separators are not required, and no other separators are allowed.

The first ISWC was assigned in 1995, for the song "Dancing Queen" by ABBA; the code is T-000.000.001-0.


To register an ISWC, the following minimal information must be supplied:

  • title
  • names of all composers, arrangers and authors, with their role in the piece (identified by role code) and their CAE/IPI number
  • work classification code (CIS)
  • identification of other works it is a derivative of

Note: an ISWC identifies works, not recordings. ISRC can be used to identify recordings. Nor does it identify individual publications (e.g. issues of a recording on physical media, sheet music, broadcast at a particular frequency/modulation/time/location...)

Its primary purpose is in collecting society administration, and to clearly identify works in legal contracts. It would also be useful in library cataloguing.

Due to the fact that a musical work can have multiple authors, it is inevitable that, on rare occasions, a duplicate ISWC might exist and might not be detected immediately. Because of the existing business practices among collecting societies, it is not possible to simply declare an ISWC as obsolete. In such cases, as soon as they are identified, the system will deal with duplicate registrations by linking such registration records in the ISWC database and its related products.[2]

See also


  1. ^ Willer, Mirna, ed. (2009). "International Standard Musical Work Code (ISWC)". UNIMARC Manual: Authorities Format. IFLA Series on Bibliographic Control. 38 (3rd ed.). München: K. G. Saur Verlag. p. 54. ISBN 978-3-598-24286-1. The third element of the ISWC is the check digit. This is calculated using a MOD 10 algorithm.
  2. ^

External links

Confédération Internationale des Sociétés d'Auteurs et Compositeurs

The International Confederation of Societies of Authors and Composers (French: Confédération Internationale des Sociétés d'Auteurs et Compositeurs, CISAC) is an international non-governmental, not-for-profit organisation that aims to protect the rights and promote the interests of creators worldwide. It advocates for strong legal protection of copyright and authors' rights. It is the world's largest international network of authors' societies, also known as Collective Management Organisations (CMOs), copyright / royalty collection societies, collecting societies, or Performing Rights Organisations (PROs).

The president of CISAC is French electronic music composer Jean Michel Jarre, who was appointed in June 2013. His predecessor was singer/songwriter Robin Gibb of the Bee Gees, who served as President until his death in 2012. Painter Hervé Di Rosa serving as President in the interim, until the appointment of Jarre.

In 2013, the organisation expanded its Vice Presidency to four new positions, allowing for the representation of more territories and a broader range of creative repertoires. The four new Vice Presidents include: Angélique Kidjo, a Grammy award-winning performing artist and activist from Benin, Javed Akhtar, a celebrated scriptwriter, poet, lyricist from India, Marcelo Piñeyro, an Academy Award-winning producer and film director from Argentina, and Ousmane Sow, a revered sculptor from Senegal.

Currently, 238 authors' societies from 121 countries are members of CISAC. Together, these authors' societies represent music publishers and approximately four million creators and publishers from all geographic regions and all artistic fields (music, audiovisual, drama, visual arts and literature).In 2015, CISAC's member societies collected, €8.6bn in royalties from their respective national territories.

CISAC was founded in 1926. Its international headquarters are located in Neuilly-sur-Seine, France, with four regional offices based in Budapest, Hungary (European Affairs), Santiago, Chile (Latin American and Caribbean Affairs), Burkina Faso (African Affairs) and, since January 2013, Beijing, China (Asia-Pacific Affairs).

CISAC is financed by membership dues and has three official languages: English, French and Spanish.

Dancing Queen

"Dancing Queen" is a Europop song by the Swedish group ABBA, and the lead single from their fourth studio album, Arrival. It was written by Benny Andersson, Björn Ulvaeus and Stig Anderson. Andersson and Ulvaeus also produced the song. "Dancing Queen" was released as a single in Sweden on 15 August 1976, followed by a UK release and the rest of Europe a few days later. It was a worldwide hit. It became ABBA's only number one hit in the United States, and topped the charts in Australia, Canada, the Netherlands, Belgium, Ireland, Mexico, New Zealand, Norway, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, the United Kingdom, Germany and Zimbabwe. "Dancing Queen" also reached the top five in many other countries.Musically, "Dancing Queen" is a Europop version of American disco music. As disco music dominated the US charts, the group decided to follow the trend, replicating Phil Spector's Wall of Sound arrangements, actually engineered for ABBA by Michael B. Tretow, as the credited engineer on the album the song was first included on, Arrival. The song alternates between "languid yet seductive verses" and a "dramatic chorus that ascends to heart-tugging high notes." It features keyboard lines by Andersson, which accentuate the melody's sophistication and classical complexity, while Ulvaeus and Andersson interlace many instrumental hooks in and out of the mix. Anni-Frid Lyngstad and Agnetha Fältskog's layered vocals have been noted for their dynamism, "[negotiating] the melody's many turns flawlessly." Lyrically, the song concerns a visit to the discotheque, but approaches the subject from the joy of dancing itself. The music video on YouTube has over 320 million views as of February 2019, and has become ABBA's most recognisable and popular song.

Digital object identifier

In computing, a Digital Object Identifier or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). An implementation of the Handle System, DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos.

A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL, indicating where the object can be found. Thus, by being actionable and interoperable, a DOI differs from identifiers such as ISBNs and ISRCs which aim only to uniquely identify their referents. The DOI system uses the indecs Content Model for representing metadata.

The DOI for a document remains fixed over the lifetime of the document, whereas its location and other metadata may change. Referring to an online document by its DOI is supposed to provide a more stable link than simply using its URL. But every time a URL changes, the publisher has to update the metadata for the DOI to link to the new URL. It is the publisher's responsibility to update the DOI database. If they fail to do so, the DOI resolves to a dead link leaving the DOI useless.

The developer and administrator of the DOI system is the International DOI Foundation (IDF), which introduced it in 2000. Organizations that meet the contractual obligations of the DOI system and are willing to pay to become a member of the system can assign DOIs. The DOI system is implemented through a federation of registration agencies coordinated by the IDF. By late April 2011 more than 50 million DOI names had been assigned by some 4,000 organizations, and by April 2013 this number had grown to 85 million DOI names assigned through 9,500 organizations.


EIDR, or the Entertainment Identifier Registry, is a global unique identifier system for a broad array of audio visual objects, including motion pictures, television, and radio programs. The identification system resolves an identifier to a metadata record that is associated with top-level titles, edits, DVDs, encodings, clips, and mash-ups. EIDR also provides identifiers for Video Service providers, such as broadcast and cable networks.

As of February, 2018, EIDR contains over 1.8 million records, including 298K movies, and 794K episodes of over 25K TV series.

EIDR is an implementation of a Digital Object Identifier (DOI).

Guilty (PJ Harvey song)

"Guilty" is a song by the English alternative rock musician PJ Harvey. Recorded during the sessions for her ninth studio album The Hope Six Demolition Project, it was released as a non-album single on 13 July 2016 on Island Records.


Himmelsrichtungen (Cardinal Points) is the eighth studio album by pianist/composer Juan María Solare, released on 20 March 2016 in the label Janus Music & Sound (based in Germany). The album is a digital only release.

Recorded at the Theatersaal of the university of Bremen (Germany) on 30 September 2014. Grand piano Bösendorfer.

Cover image by the British artist Alban Low. UPC: 5054227090752

ISO TC 46/SC 9

ISO TC 46/SC 9 is the ninth subcommittee of ISO technical committee 46, and is responsible for identification and description of information resources.

As of April 2008, the TC 46/SC 9 Secretariat was transferred to ANSI (U.S.A.).


ISWC may refer to:

International Semantic Web Conference

International Symposium on Wearable Computers

International Standard Musical Work Code

International Speed Windsurfing Class

International Bank Account Number

The International Bank Account Number (IBAN) is an internationally agreed system of identifying bank accounts across national borders to facilitate the communication and processing of cross border transactions with a reduced risk of transcription errors. It was originally adopted by the European Committee for Banking Standards (ECBS), and later as an international standard under ISO 13616:1997. The current standard is ISO 13616:2007, which indicates SWIFT as the formal registrar. Initially developed to facilitate payments within the European Union, it has been implemented by most European countries and numerous countries in the other parts of the world, mainly in the Middle East and in the Caribbean. As of February 2016, 69 countries were using the IBAN numbering system.The IBAN consists of up to 34 alphanumeric characters comprising: a country code; two check digits; and a number that includes the domestic bank account number, branch identifier, and potential routing information. The check digits enable a check of the bank account number to confirm its integrity before submitting a transaction.

International Securities Identification Number

An International Securities Identification Number (ISIN) uniquely identifies a security. Its structure is defined in ISO 6166. The ISIN code is a 12-character alphanumeric code that serves for uniform identification of a security through normalization of the assigned National Number, where one exists, at trading and settlement.

International Standard Audiovisual Number

International Standard Audiovisual Number (ISAN) is a unique identifier for audiovisual works and related versions, similar to ISBN for books. It was developed within an ISO (International Organisation for Standardisation) TC46/SC9 working group. ISAN is managed and run by ISAN-IA.

International Standard Book Number

The International Standard Book Number (ISBN) is a numeric commercial book identifier which is intended to be unique. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country.

The initial ISBN identification format was devised in 1967, based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering (SBN) created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108 (the SBN code can be converted to a ten-digit ISBN by prefixing it with a zero digit "0").

Privately published books sometimes appear without an ISBN. The International ISBN agency sometimes assigns such books ISBNs on its own initiative.Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number (ISSN), identifies periodical publications such as magazines and newspapers. The International Standard Music Number (ISMN) covers musical scores.

International Standard Link Identifier

The International Standard Link Identifier (ISLI), is an identifier standard. ISLI is a universal identifier for links between entities in the field of information and documentation. It was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and published on May 15, 2015. ISO/TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for the development of the ISLI standard.ISLI is used for identifying links between entities in the field of information and documentation. A linked entity can be physical, e.g. a print book or an electronic resource (text, audio, and video); or something abstract, e.g. a physical position within a frame of reference or the time of day.

In the context of modern information technology, the application of resources in the field of information and documentation is increasingly getting diversified. Isolated content products can no longer satisfy the ever-increasing user demand.

Using a link identifier to build links between resources in the field of information and documentation provides a basis for a combined application of resources in the field, and supports collaborative creation of content and data interoperability between systems.

The openness of the ISLI system will boost the emergence of new applications in both multimedia and other fields, which increases the value of the linked-resources.

International Standard Music Number

The International Standard Music Number or ISMN (ISO 10957) is a thirteen-character alphanumeric identifier for printed music developed by ISO.

International Standard Recording Code

The International Standard Recording Code (ISRC) is an international standard code for uniquely identifying sound recordings and music video recordings. The code was developed by the recording industry in conjunction with the ISO technical committee 46, subcommittee 9 (TC 46/SC 9), which codified the standard as ISO 3901 in 1986, and updated it in 2001.

An ISRC identifies a particular recording, not the work (composition and lyrical content) itself. Therefore, different recordings, edits, and remixes of the same work should each have their own ISRC. Works are identified by ISWC. Recordings remastered without significant audio-quality changes should retain their existing ISRC, but the threshold is left to the discretion of the record company.

International Standard Serial Number

An International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication, such as a magazine. The ISSN is especially helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, cataloging, interlibrary loans, and other practices in connection with serial literature.The ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization (ISO) international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard.

When a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in print and electronic media. The ISSN system refers to these types as print ISSN (p-ISSN) and electronic ISSN (e-ISSN), respectively. Conversely, as defined in ISO 3297:2007, every serial in the ISSN system is also assigned a linking ISSN (ISSN-L), typically the same as the ISSN assigned to the serial in its first published medium, which links together all ISSNs assigned to the serial in every medium.

International Standard Text Code

The International Standard Text Code (ISTC) is a unique identifier for text-based works. The ISO standard was developed by TC 46/SC 9 and published in March 2009 as ISO 21047:2009. The authority responsible for implementing the standard is The International ISTC Agency.

List of songs recorded by Brandy

American recording artist Brandy Norwood has recorded songs for her six studio albums and has collaborated with other artists for duets and featured songs on their respective albums and charity singles. After signing a record contract with Atlantic in 1993, Norwood began to work with producers Keith Crouch and R&B group Somethin' for the People, who co-wrote and co-produced most of the songs on her 1994 debut album, Brandy. Musician Robin Thicke co-wrote the ballad "Love Is on My Side", while actor and singer Rahsaan Patterson co-wrote the album's second singles "Baby". Rodney "Darkchild" Jerkins and his team co-wrote and co-produced 10 songs out of 16 on Norwood's second album Never Say Never (1998). The album's lead single "The Boy Is Mine" was written by Norwood, Jerkins, LaShawn Daniels, Fred Jerkins III, and Joana Tejeda, while second single "Have You Ever?" was co-penned by Award-winning songwriter Diane Warren.Norwood reteamed with Jerkins to work on her third studio album Full Moon (2002), for which he again co-wrote and co-produced 10 songs for the standard version, including lead single "What About Us?". Different writers and producers, including Warryn Campbell, Uncle Freddie, Big Bert, and Mike City significantly contributed to the album, the latter of which wrote and produced the album's title track. Norwood's fourth album Afrodisiac (2004) marked a departure from her previous work with Jerkins, who gained no credit on the album due to a disagreement on Norwood's decision to work with Timbaland and his protégé, Walter Millsap III, on the majority of the production of the album. Timbaland composed eleven tracks for the album, including singles "Afrodisiac", "Who Is She 2 U", and buzz single Turn It Up", while rapper Kanye West and Harold Lilly co-wrote the album's lead single "Talk About Our Love". It contains a sample of Mandrill's 1978 song "Gilly Hines," penned by band members Claude Cave II, and Carlos, Louis and Ricardo Wilson, who were credited as a co-writer on the track.Norwood's fifth studio album Human, her first album on Epic Records, saw the singer returning to Jerkins, who co-wrote and produced eight songs on it, including both singles "Right Here (Departed)" and "Long Distance", the latter of which was co-written by fellow singer-songwriter Bruno Mars. Other contributors included Canadian musician Esthero, British singer Natasha Bedingfield, and American singer-songwriter Frank Ocean. Two Eleven, Norwood's sixth studio album and first release on RCA Records, presented a new creative direction for the singer as she decided to include a diverse roster of collaborators. Sean Garrett, Chris Brown, Rico Love, and Bangladesh produced tracks for the album, as well as Mike WiLL Made It, and Mario Winans.

International numbering standards
ISO standards by standard number

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.