International Standard Book Number

The International Standard Book Number (ISBN) is a numeric commercial book identifier which is intended to be unique.[a][b] Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1]

An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country.

The initial ISBN identification format was devised in 1967, based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering (SBN) created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108 (the SBN code can be converted to a ten-digit ISBN by prefixing it with a zero digit "0").

Privately published books sometimes appear without an ISBN. The International ISBN agency sometimes assigns such books ISBNs on its own initiative.[2]

Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number (ISSN), identifies periodical publications such as magazines and newspapers. The International Standard Music Number (ISMN) covers musical scores.

International Standard Book Number
A 13-digit ISBN, 978-3-16-148410-0, as represented by an EAN-13 bar code
Managing organisationInternational ISBN Agency
No. of digits13 (formerly 10)
Check digitWeighted sum


The Standard Book Numbering (SBN) code is a 9-digit commercial book identifier system created by Gordon Foster, Emeritus Professor of Statistics at Trinity College, Dublin,[3] for the booksellers and stationers WHSmith and others in 1965.[4] The ISBN identification format was conceived in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker[5] (regarded as the "Father of the ISBN")[6] and in 1968 in the United States by Emery Koltay[5] (who later became director of the U.S. ISBN agency R.R. Bowker).[6][7][8]

The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108.[4][5] The United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. ISO has appointed the International ISBN Agency as the registration authority for ISBN worldwide and the ISBN Standard is developed under the control of ISO Technical Committee 46/Subcommittee 9 TC 46/SC 9. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978.[9]

An SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit "0". For example, the second edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has "SBN 340 01381 8" – 340 indicating the publisher, 01381 their serial number, and 8 being the check digit. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8; the check digit does not need to be re-calculated.

Since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with "Bookland" European Article Number EAN-13s.[10]


An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN.[11] The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. An International Standard Book Number consists of 4 parts (if it is a 10-digit ISBN) or 5 parts (for a 13-digit ISBN):

ISBN Details
The parts of a 10-digit ISBN and the corresponding EAN‑13 and barcode. Note the different check digits in each. The part of the EAN‑13 labeled "EAN" is the Bookland country code.
  1. for a 13-digit ISBN, a prefix element – a GS1 prefix: so far 978 or 979 have been made available by GS1,[12]
  2. the registration group element (language-sharing country group, individual country or territory),[13]
  3. the registrant element,
  4. the publication element,[12] and
  5. a checksum character or check digit.[12]

A 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts (prefix element, registration group, registrant, publication and check digit), and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces. Separating the parts (registration group, registrant, publication and check digit) of a 10-digit ISBN is also done with either hyphens or spaces. Figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits.[14]

ISBN is most often used among others special identifiers to describe references in Wikipedia and can help to find the same sources with different description in various language versions (for example different spelling of the title or authors depending on language).[15][16]

How ISBNs are issued

ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for that country or territory regardless of the publication language. The ranges of ISBNs assigned to any particular country are based on the publishing profile of the country concerned, and so the ranges will vary depending on the number of books and the number, type, and size of publishers that are active. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture and thus may receive direct funding from government to support their services. In other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded.[17]

A full directory of ISBN agencies is available on the International ISBN Agency website.[18] Partial listing:

Australia: the commercial library services agency Thorpe-Bowker;[19][20]
Brazil: The National Library of Brazil;[21]
Canada (English): Library and Archives Canada, a government agency;
Canada (French): Bibliothèque et Archives nationales du Québec;
Colombia: Cámara Colombiana del Libro, an NGO;
Hong Kong: Books Registration Office (BRO), under the Hong Kong Public Libraries;[22]
India: The Raja Rammohun Roy National Agency for ISBN (Book Promotion and Copyright Division), under Department of Higher Education, a constituent of the Ministry of Human Resource Development;[23][24]
Iceland: Landsbókasafn (National and University Library of Iceland)
Israel: The Israel Center for Libraries[25]
Italy: EDISER srl, owned by Associazione Italiana Editori (Italian Publishers Association);[26][27]
Maldives: The National Bureau of Classification (NBC);
Malta: The National Book Council (Maltese: Il-Kunsill Nazzjonali tal-Ktieb);[28][29][30]
Morocco: The National Library of Morocco;
New Zealand: The National Library of New Zealand;[31]
Pakistan: National Library of Pakistan;
Philippines: National Library of the Philippines;[32]
South Africa: National Library of South Africa;
Turkey: General Directorate of Libraries and Publications, a branch of the Ministry of Culture;[33]
United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland:Nielsen Book Services Ltd, part of Nielsen Holdings N.V.;[34]
United States: R.R. Bowker.[5][35]

Registration group identifier

The ISBN registration group identifier is a 1- to 5-digit number that is valid within a single prefix element (i.e. one of 978 or 979),[12] and can be separated between hyphens, such as "978-1-...". Registration group identifiers have primarily been allocated within the 978 prefix element.[36] The single-digit group identifiers within the 978-prefix element are: 0 or 1 for English-speaking countries; 2 for French-speaking countries; 3 for German-speaking countries; 4 for Japan; 5 for Russian-speaking countries; and 7 for People's Republic of China. An example 5-digit group identifier is 99936, for Bhutan. The allocated group IDs are: 0–5, 600–622, 65, 7, 80–94, 950–989, 9920–9989, and 99901–99981.[37] Books published in rare languages typically have longer group identifiers.[38]

Within the 979 prefix element, the registration group identifier 0 is reserved for compatibility with International Standard Music Numbers (ISMNs), but such material is not actually assigned an ISBN.[12] The registration group identifiers within prefix element 979 that have been assigned are 10 for France, 11 for the Republic of Korea, and 12 for Italy.[39]

The original 9-digit standard book number (SBN) had no registration group identifier, but prefixing a zero (0) to a 9-digit SBN creates a valid 10-digit ISBN.

Registrant element

The national ISBN agency assigns the registrant element (cf. Category:ISBN agencies) and an accompanying series of ISBNs within that registrant element to the publisher; the publisher then allocates one of the ISBNs to each of its books. In most countries, a book publisher is not required by law to assign an ISBN; however, most bookstores only handle ISBN bearing publications.

A listing of more than 900,000 assigned publisher codes is published, and can be ordered in book form (1399, US$1959). The web site of the ISBN agency does not offer any free method of looking up publisher codes.[40] Partial lists have been compiled (from library catalogs) for the English-language groups: identifier 0 and identifier 1.

Publishers receive blocks of ISBNs, with larger blocks allotted to publishers expecting to need them; a small publisher may receive ISBNs of one or more digits for the registration group identifier, several digits for the registrant, and a single digit for the publication element. Once that block of ISBNs is used, the publisher may receive another block of ISBNs, with a different registrant element. Consequently, a publisher may have different allotted registrant elements. There also may be more than one registration group identifier used in a country. This might occur once all the registrant elements from a particular registration group have been allocated to publishers.

By using variable block lengths, registration agencies are able to customise the allocations of ISBNs that they make to publishers. For example, a large publisher may be given a block of ISBNs where fewer digits are allocated for the registrant element and many digits are allocated for the publication element; likewise, countries publishing many titles have few allocated digits for the registration group identifier and many for the registrant and publication elements.[41] Here are some sample ISBN-10 codes, illustrating block length variations.

ISBN Country or area Publisher
99921-58-10-7 Qatar NCCAH, Doha
9971-5-0210-0 Singapore World Scientific
960-425-059-0 Greece Sigma Publications
80-902734-1-6 Czech Republic; Slovakia Taita Publishers
85-359-0277-5 Brazil Companhia das Letras
1-84356-028-3 English-speaking area Simon Wallenberg Press
0-684-84328-5 English-speaking area Scribner
0-8044-2957-X English-speaking area Frederick Ungar
0-85131-041-9 English-speaking area J. A. Allen & Co.
93-86954-21-4 English-speaking area Edupedia Publications Pvt Ltd.
0-943396-04-2 English-speaking area Willmann–Bell
0-9752298-0-X English-speaking area KT Publishing

Pattern for English language ISBNs

English-language registration group elements are 0 and 1 (2 of more than 220 registration group elements). These two registration group elements are divided into registrant elements in a systematic pattern, which allows their length to be determined, as follows:[42]

element length
0 – Registration group element 1 – Registration group element Total
From To Registrants From To Registrants
6 digits 0-00-xxxxxx-x 0-19-xxxxxx-x 20 1-01-xxxxxx-x 1-08-xxxxxx-x 8 28
5 digits 0-200-xxxxx-x
495 1-000-xxxxx-x
308 803
4 digits 0-2280-xxxx-x
1,539 1-0900-xxxx-x
2,018 3,557
3 digits 0-85000-xxx-x 0-89999-xxx-x 5,000 1-55000-xxx-x
28,640 33,640
2 digits 0-900000-xx-x 0-949999-xx-x 50,000 1-869800-xx-x
113,894 163,894
1 digit 0-6399000-x-x
511,000 1-7320000-x-x
99,060 610,060
Total 568,054 Total 243,928 811,982

Check digits

A check digit is a form of redundancy check used for error detection, the decimal equivalent of a binary check bit. It consists of a single digit computed from the other digits in the number. The method for the ten-digit code is an extension of that for SBNs, the two systems are compatible, and SBN prefixed with "0" will give the same check-digit as without – the digit is base eleven, and can be 0–9 or X. The system for thirteen-digit codes is not compatible and will, in general, give a different check digit from the corresponding 10-digit ISBN, and does not provide the same protection against transposition. This is because the thirteen-digit code was required to be compatible with the EAN format, and hence could not contain an "X".

ISBN-10 check digits

According to the 2001 edition of the official manual of the International ISBN Agency,[43] the ISBN-10 check digit[44] – which is the last digit of the ten-digit ISBN – must range from 0 to 10 (the symbol X is used for 10), and must be such that the sum of all the ten digits, each multiplied by its (integer) weight, descending from 10 to 1, is a multiple of 11.

For example, for an ISBN-10 of 0-306-40615-2:

Formally, using modular arithmetic, this is rendered:

It is also true for ISBN-10's that the sum of all the ten digits, each multiplied by its weight in ascending order from 1 to 10, is a multiple of 11. For this example:

Formally, this is rendered:

The two most common errors in handling an ISBN (e.g., typing or writing it) are a single altered digit or the transposition of adjacent digits. It can be proven that all possible valid ISBN-10s have at least two digits different from each other. It can also be proven that there are no pairs of valid ISBN-10s with eight identical digits and two transposed digits. (These are true only because the ISBN is less than 11 digits long, and because 11 is a prime number.) The ISBN check-digit method therefore ensures that it will always be possible to detect these two most common types of error, i.e., if either of these types of error has occurred, the result will never be a valid ISBN – the sum of the digits multiplied by their weights will never be a multiple of 11. However, if the error occurs in the publishing house and goes undetected, the book will be issued with an invalid ISBN.[45]

In contrast, it is possible for other types of error, such as two altered non-transposed digits, or three altered digits, to result in a valid ISBN (although it is still unlikely).

ISBN-10 check digit calculation

Each of the first nine digits of the ten-digit ISBN—excluding the check digit itself—is multiplied by its (integer) weight, descending from 10 to 2, and the sum of these nine products found. The value of the check digit is simply the one number between 0 and 10 which, when added to this sum, means the total is a multiple of 11.

For example, the check digit for an ISBN-10 of 0-306-40615-? is calculated as follows:

Adding 2 to 130 gives a multiple of 11 (132 = 12 x 11) − this is the only number between 0 and 10 which does so. Therefore, the check digit has to be 2, and the complete sequence is ISBN 0-306-40615-2. The value required to satisfy this condition might be 10; if so, an 'X' should be used.

Alternatively, modular arithmetic is convenient for calculating the check digit using modulus 11. The remainder of this sum when it is divided by 11 (i.e. its value modulo 11), is computed. This remainder plus the check digit must equal either 0 or 11. Therefore, the check digit is (11 minus the remainder of the sum of the products modulo 11) modulo 11. Taking the remainder modulo 11 a second time accounts for the possibility that the first remainder is 0. Without the second modulo operation the calculation could end up with 11 – 0 = 11 which is invalid. (Strictly speaking the first "modulo 11" is unneeded, but it may be considered to simplify the calculation.)

For example, the check digit for the ISBN-10 of 0-306-40615-? is calculated as follows:

Thus the check digit is 2.

It is possible to avoid the multiplications in a software implementation by using two accumulators. Repeatedly adding t into s computes the necessary multiples:

// Returns ISBN error syndrome, zero for a valid ISBN, non-zero for an invalid one.
// digits[i] must be between 0 and 10.
int CheckISBN(int const digits[10])
        int i, s = 0, t = 0;

        for (i = 0; i < 10; i++) {
                t += digits[i];
                s += t;
        return s % 11;

The modular reduction can be done once at the end, as shown above (in which case s could hold a value as large as 496, for the invalid ISBN 99999-999-9-X), or s and t could be reduced by a conditional subtract after each addition.

ISBN-13 check digit calculation

The 2005 edition of the International ISBN Agency's official manual[46] describes how the 13-digit ISBN check digit is calculated. The ISBN-13 check digit, which is the last digit of the ISBN, must range from 0 to 9 and must be such that the sum of all the thirteen digits, each multiplied by its (integer) weight, alternating between 1 and 3, is a multiple of 10.

Formally, using modular arithmetic, this is rendered:

The calculation of an ISBN-13 check digit begins with the first 12 digits of the thirteen-digit ISBN (thus excluding the check digit itself). Each digit, from left to right, is alternately multiplied by 1 or 3, then those products are summed modulo 10 to give a value ranging from 0 to 9. Subtracted from 10, that leaves a result from 1 to 10. A zero (0) replaces a ten (10), so, in all cases, a single check digit results.

For example, the ISBN-13 check digit of 978-0-306-40615-? is calculated as follows:

s = 9×1 + 7×3 + 8×1 + 0×3 + 3×1 + 0×3 + 6×1 + 4×3 + 0×1 + 6×3 + 1×1 + 5×3
  =   9 +  21 +   8 +   0 +   3 +   0 +   6 +  12 +   0 +  18 +   1 +  15
  = 93
93 / 10 = 9 remainder 3
10 –  3 = 7

Thus, the check digit is 7, and the complete sequence is ISBN 978-0-306-40615-7.

In general, the ISBN-13 check digit is calculated as follows.



This check system – similar to the UPC check digit formula – does not catch all errors of adjacent digit transposition. Specifically, if the difference between two adjacent digits is 5, the check digit will not catch their transposition. For instance, the above example allows this situation with the 6 followed by a 1. The correct order contributes 3×6+1×1 = 19 to the sum; while, if the digits are transposed (1 followed by a 6), the contribution of those two digits will be 3×1+1×6 = 9. However, 19 and 9 are congruent modulo 10, and so produce the same, final result: both ISBNs will have a check digit of 7. The ISBN-10 formula uses the prime modulus 11 which avoids this blind spot, but requires more than the digits 0–9 to express the check digit.

Additionally, if the sum of the 2nd, 4th, 6th, 8th, 10th, and 12th digits is tripled then added to the remaining digits (1st, 3rd, 5th, 7th, 9th, 11th, and 13th), the total will always be divisible by 10 (i.e., end in 0).

ISBN-10 to ISBN-13 conversion

An ISBN-10 is converted to ISBN-13 by prepending "978" to the ISBN-10 and recalculating the final checksum digit using the ISBN-13 algorithm. The reverse process can also be performed, but not for numbers commencing with a prefix other than 978, which have no 10 digit equivalent.

Errors in usage

Publishers and libraries have varied policies about the use of the ISBN check digit. Publishers sometimes fail to check the correspondence of a book title and its ISBN before publishing it; that failure causes book identification problems for libraries, booksellers, and readers.[47] For example, ISBN 0-590-76484-5 is shared by two books – Ninja gaiden®: a novel based on the best-selling game by Tecmo (1990) and Wacky laws (1997), both published by Scholastic.

Most libraries and booksellers display the book record for an invalid ISBN issued by the publisher. The Library of Congress catalogue contains books published with invalid ISBNs, which it usually tags with the phrase "Cancelled ISBN".[48] However, book-ordering systems such as will not search for a book if an invalid ISBN is entered to its search engine. OCLC often indexes by invalid ISBNs, if the book is indexed in that way by a member library.


Only the term "ISBN" should be used; the terms "eISBN" and "e-ISBN" have historically been sources of confusion and should be avoided. If a book exists in one or more digital (e-book) formats, each of those formats must have its own ISBN. In other words, each of the three separate EPUB, Amazon Kindle, and PDF formats of a particular book will have its own specific ISBN. They should not share the ISBN of the paper version, and there is no generic "eISBN" which encompasses all the e-book formats for a title.[49]

EAN format used in barcodes, and upgrading

Currently the barcodes on a book's back cover (or inside a mass-market paperback book's front cover) are EAN-13; they may have a separate barcode encoding five digits called an EAN-5 for the currency and the recommended retail price.[50] For 10-digit ISBNs, the number "978", the Bookland "country code", is prefixed to the ISBN in the barcode data, and the check digit is recalculated according to the EAN13 formula (modulo 10, 1x and 3x weighting on alternating digits).

Partly because of an expected shortage in certain ISBN categories, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) decided to migrate to a thirteen-digit ISBN (ISBN-13). The process began 1 January 2005 and was planned to conclude 1 January 2007.[51] As of 2011, all the 13-digit ISBNs began with 978. As the 978 ISBN supply is exhausted, the 979 prefix was introduced. Part of the 979 prefix is reserved for use with the Musicland code for musical scores with an ISMN. The 10-digit ISMN codes differed visually as they began with an "M" letter; the bar code represents the "M" as a zero (0), and for checksum purposes it counted as a 3. All ISMNs are now 13 digits commencing 979–0; 979–1 to 979–9 will be used by ISBN.

Publisher identification code numbers are unlikely to be the same in the 978 and 979 ISBNs, likewise, there is no guarantee that language area code numbers will be the same. Moreover, the ten-digit ISBN check digit generally is not the same as the thirteen-digit ISBN check digit. Because the GTIN-13 is part of the Global Trade Item Number (GTIN) system (that includes the GTIN-14, the GTIN-12, and the GTIN-8), the 13-digit ISBN falls within the 14-digit data field range.[52]

Barcode format compatibility is maintained, because (aside from the group breaks) the ISBN-13 barcode format is identical to the EAN barcode format of existing 10-digit ISBNs. So, migration to an EAN-based system allows booksellers the use of a single numbering system for both books and non-book products that is compatible with existing ISBN based data, with only minimal changes to information technology systems. Hence, many booksellers (e.g., Barnes & Noble) migrated to EAN barcodes as early as March 2005. Although many American and Canadian booksellers were able to read EAN-13 barcodes before 2005, most general retailers could not read them. The upgrading of the UPC barcode system to full EAN-13, in 2005, eased migration to the ISBN-13 in North America.

See also

  • ASIN (Amazon Standard Identification Number)
  • CODEN (serial publication identifier currently used by libraries; replaced by the ISSN for new works)
  • DOI (Digital Object Identifier)
  • ESTC (English Short Title Catalogue)
  • ETTN (Electronic Textbook Track Number)
  • ISAN (International Standard Audiovisual Number)
  • ISMN (International Standard Music Number)
  • ISWC (International Standard Musical Work Code)
  • ISRC (International Standard Recording Code)
  • ISSN (International Standard Serial Number)
  • ISTC (International Standard Text Code)
  • ISWN (International Standard Wine Number)
  • LCCN (Library of Congress Control Number)
  • List of group-0 ISBN publisher codes
  • List of group-1 ISBN publisher codes
  • OCLC number (Online Computer Library Center number)[53]
  • Registration authority
  • BICI (Book Item and Component Identifier)
  • SICI (Serial Item and Contribution Identifier)
  • VD 16 (Verzeichnis der im deutschen Sprachbereich erschienenen Drucke des 16. Jahrhunderts, "Bibliography of Books Printed in the German Speaking Countries of the Sixteenth Century")
  • VD 17 (Verzeichnis der im deutschen Sprachraum erschienenen Drucke des 17. Jahrhunderts, "Bibliography of Books Printed in the German Speaking Countries of the Seventeenth Century")


  1. ^ Occasionally, publishers erroneously assign an ISBN to more than one title—the first edition of The Ultimate Alphabet and The Ultimate Alphabet Workbook have the same ISBN, 0-8050-0076-3. Conversely, books are published with several ISBNs: A German second-language edition of Emil und die Detektive has the ISBNs 87-23-90157-8 (Denmark), 0-8219-1069-8 (United States), 91-21-15628-X (Sweden), 0-85048-548-7 (United Kingdom) and 3-12-675495-3 (Germany).
  2. ^ In some cases, books sold only as sets share ISBNs. For example, the Vance Integral Edition used only two ISBNs for 44 books.


  1. ^ "The International ISBN Agency". Retrieved 20 February 2018.
  2. ^ Bradley, Philip (1992). "Book numbering: The importance of the ISBN" (PDF (245KB)). The Indexer. 18 (1): 25–26.
  3. ^ Foster, Gordon (1966). "INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBERING (ISBN) SYSTEM original 1966 report". Archived from the original on 30 April 2011. Retrieved 20 April 2014.
  4. ^ a b "ISBN History". 20 April 2014. Archived from the original on 20 April 2014. Retrieved 20 April 2014.
  5. ^ a b c d Manwal ghall-Utenti tal-ISBN (PDF) (in Maltese) (6th ed.). Malta: Kunsill Nazzjonali tal-Ktieb. 2016. p. 5. ISBN 978-99957-889-4-0. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 August 2016.
  6. ^ a b Information Standards Quarterly (PDF), 8 (3), ISO, July 1996, p. 12, archived from the original (PDF) on 4 August 2014
  7. ^ US ISBN Agency. " – Products". Retrieved 2015-06-11.
  8. ^ Gregory, Daniel. "ISBN". PrintRS. Archived from the original on 16 May 2016. Retrieved 11 June 2015.
  9. ^ ISO 2108:1978 (PDF), ISO
  10. ^ TC 46/SC 9, Frequently Asked Questions about the new ISBN standard from ISO, CA: LAC‐BAC, archived from the original on 10 June 2007
  11. ^ "See paragraph 5.2 of ISBN Users' Manual International edition (2012)" (PDF). (548 KB)
  12. ^ a b c d e International ISBN Agency (2012). ISBN Users' manual (PDF). (Sixth International ed.). pp. 7, 23. ISBN 978-92-95055-02-5. Archived (PDF) from the original on 29 April 2014. Retrieved 29 April 2014.
  13. ^ Some books have several codes in the first block: e.g. A. M. Yaglom's Correlation Theory..., published by Springer Verlag, has two ISBNs, 0-387-96331-6 and 3-540-96331-6. Though Springer's 387 and 540 codes are different for English (0) and German (3); the same item number 96331 produces the same check digit: 6. Springer uses 431 as their publisher code for Japanese (4) and 4-431-96331-? would also have check digit ? = 6. Other Springer books in English have publisher code 817, and 0-817-96331-? would also get check digit ? = 6. This suggests special considerations were made for assigning Springer's publisher codes, as random assignments of different publisher codes would not lead the same item number to get the same check digit every time. Finding publisher codes for English and German, say, with this effect amounts to solving a linear equation in modular arithmetic.
  14. ^ The International ISBN agency's ISBN User's Manual says: "The ten-digit number is divided into four parts of variable length, which must be separated clearly, by hyphens or spaces" although omission of separators is permitted for internal data processing. If present, hyphens must be correctly placed; see ISBN hyphenation definition. The actual definition for hyphenation contains more than 220 different registration group elements with each one broken down into a few to several ranges for the length of the registrant element (more than 1,000 total). The document defining the ranges, listed by agency, is 29 pages.
  15. ^ Lewoniewski, Włodzimierz; Węcel, Krzysztof; Abramowicz, Witold (2017-09-23). "Analysis of References Across Wikipedia Languages". Communications in Computer and Information Science. 756: 561–573. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-67642-5_47. Retrieved 2019-01-13.
  16. ^ Halfaker, Aaron; Taraborelli, Dario (2017): Scholarly article citations in Wikipedia. figshare. Dataset.
  17. ^ Canada, Library and Archives. "ISBN Canada". Retrieved 2016-01-19.
  18. ^ "Find an agency – International ISBN Agency".
  19. ^ "About the U.S. ISBN Agency".
  20. ^ "Bowker – ISBN". Thorpe-Bowker. 5 Jan 2009. Retrieved 29 March 2012.
  21. ^ "TABELA DE PREÇOS DOS SERVIÇOS". Biblioteca Nacional, Government of Brazil. Retrieved 8 September 2015.
  22. ^ "Introduction to Books Registration". Hong Kong Public Libraries. Retrieved 12 January 2017.
  23. ^ "Union HRD Minister Smt. Smriti Zubin Irani Launches ISBN Portal".
  24. ^ "How to get ISBN in India".
  25. ^ "What is an ISBN ?". ICL – מרכז הספר והספריות. 7 April 2015.
  26. ^ "ISBN – Chi siamo e contatti" [ISBN – Who we are and contacts] (in Italian). EDISER srl. Retrieved 3 January 2015.
  27. ^ "ISBN – Tariffe Servizi ISBN" [ISBN Service Tariffs] (in Italian). EDISER srl. Retrieved 3 January 2015.
  28. ^ "ISBN". Kunsill Nazzjonali tal-Ktieb. 2016. Archived from the original on 23 October 2016.
  29. ^ Manwal ghall-Utenti tal-ISBN (PDF) (in Maltese) (6th ed.). Malta: Kunsill Nazzjonali tal-Ktieb. 2016. pp. 1–40. ISBN 978-99957-889-4-0. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 August 2016.
  30. ^ "Gazzetta tal-Gvern ta' Malta" (PDF). Government Gazette. 23 January 2015. p. 582. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 November 2016.
  31. ^ "ISBNs, ISSNs, and ISMNs". National Library of New Zealand. New Zealand Government. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
  32. ^ "International Standard Book Number". National Library of the Philippines. Retrieved 25 December 2017.
  33. ^ "ISBN – Kültür ve Turizm Bakanlığı Kütüphaneler ve Yayımlar Genel Müdürlüğü OS".
  34. ^ "Nielsen UK ISBN Agency". Nielsen UK ISBN Agency. Retrieved 2 January 2015.
  35. ^ "Bowker – ISBN". RR Bowker. 8 March 2013. Retrieved 8 March 2013.
  36. ^ "ISBN Ranges". 29 April 2014. Select the format you desire and click on the Generate button. Archived from the original on 29 April 2014. Retrieved 29 April 2014.
  37. ^ See a complete list of group identifiers. sometimes calls them group numbers. Their table of identifiers now refers to ISBN prefix ranges, which must be assumed to be group identifier ranges.
  38. ^ Hailman, Jack Parker (2008). Coding and redundancy: man-made and animal-evolved signals. Harvard University Press. p. 209. ISBN 978-0-674-02795-4.
  39. ^ International ISBN Agency (5 December 2014). "International ISBN Agency – Range Message (pdf sorted by prefix)" (PDF). p. 29. Retrieved 15 December 2014.
  40. ^ See Publisher's International ISBN Directory Archived 21 September 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  41. ^ Splane, Lily (2002). The Book Book: A Complete Guide to Creating a Book on Your Computer. Anaphase II Publishing. p. 37. ISBN 978-0-945962-14-4.
  42. ^ "ISBN Ranges". International ISBN Agency. 15 September 2014. Retrieved 15 September 2014.
  43. ^ "The International ISBN Agency – International ISBN Agency".
  44. ^ "ISBN Users' Manual – 4. Structure of ISBN". Archived from the original on 22 May 2013. Retrieved 2013-05-27.
  45. ^ For example, I'saka: a sketch grammar of a language of north-central New Guinea. Pacific Linguistics. ISBN "0-85883-554-4".
  46. ^ "ISBN Users' Manual International edition (2012)" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 April 2014. (284 KB)
  47. ^ Lorimer, Rowland; Shoichet, Jillian; Maxwell, John W. (2005). Book Publishing I. CCSP Press. p. 299. ISBN 978-0-9738727-0-5.
  48. ^ 020 – International Standard Book Number (R) – MARC 21 Bibliographic – Full. Library of Congress.
  49. ^ "The Myth of the eISBN Why Every eBook Edition Needs a Unique Number – Publishing services for self publishing authors and businesses". Publishing services for self publishing authors and businesses. 2013-06-28. Retrieved 2017-01-16.
  50. ^ Frequently asked questions, US: ISBN, 12 March 2014, archived from the original on 16 April 2014 — including a detailed description of the EAN-13 format.
  51. ^ "ISBN", ISO TC49SC9 (FAQ), CA: Collections
  52. ^ "Are You Ready for ISBN-13?", Standards, ISBN
  53. ^ "xISBN (Web service)". Archived from the original on 1 May 2011. Retrieved 27 May 2013.

External links

Accession number (library science)

In libraries, art galleries, museums and archives, an accession number is a unique identifier assigned to, and achieving initial control of, each acquisition. Assignment of accession numbers typically occurs at the point of accessioning or cataloging. The term is something of a misnomer, because the form accession numbers take is often alpha-numeric.If an item is removed from the collection, its number is usually not reused for new items.

In libraries, this numbering system is usually in addition to the library classification number (or alphanumeric code) and to the ISBN or International Standard Book Number assigned by publishers.

Accession numbers are also used in botany, by institutions with living collections like arboreta, botanic gardens, etc., to identify plants or groups of plants that are of the same taxon, are of the same propagule type (or treatment), were received from the same source, were received at the same time. Herbaria and other botanic institutions collecting non living material also use accession numbers.An accession number may include the year acquired, sometimes the full date (as at the British Museum), and a sequential number separated by a period. In addition, departments or art classifications within the collection or museum may reserve sections of numbers. For example, objects identified by the numbers 11.000 through 11.999 may indicate objects obtained by the museum in 1911; the first 300 numbers might be used to indicate American art, while the next fifty (11.301–350) might be used for African art. In some cases, they also include letters and other punctuation, such as commas, hyphens or slashes.In older institutions, simpler numbering systems are sometimes maintained alongside, or incorporated within, newer systems. Where the objects are unique, institutions normally need to retain the original number in some form as it will have been used in old references that are still of use in scholarship. In particular, collections of manuscripts use the prefix "MS", and many well known manuscripts are known by their old MS numbers, often incorporating a prefix for a particular collection within a library. These collections may be divided by former owners, as with several British Library "closed" collections, or by language, as with Froissart of Louis of Gruuthuse (BnF MS Fr. 2643-6), indicating a two volume manuscript in French at the Bibliothèque nationale de France.

Amazon Standard Identification Number

An Amazon Standard Identification Number (ASIN) is a 10-character alphanumeric unique identifier assigned by and its partners for product identification within the Amazon organization.

Book Item and Component Identifier

The Book Item and Component Identifier, or BICI, is a draft standard of the United States National Information Standards Organization (NISO) that would provide a unique identifier for items or components within a book or publication to which an International Standard Book Number (ISBN) has been assigned. It is related to the Serial Item and Contribution Identifier (SICI).


"Bookland" is the informal name for the Unique Country Code (UCC) prefix allocated in the 1980s for European Article Number (EAN) identifiers of published books, regardless of country of origin, so that the EAN namespace can catalogue books by ISBN rather than maintaining a redundant parallel numbering system. In other words, Bookland is a fictitious country that exists solely in EAN for the purposes of non-geographically cataloguing books in the otherwise geographically keyed EAN coding system.

Directorate of Archives and Libraries

Directorate of Archives and Libraries is a government department responsible for the management and operations of the National Library and the National Archives in Bangladesh and is located in Dhaka, Bangladesh. It is the International Standard Book Number agency in Bangladesh responsible for providing publishers with ISBNs.

Global Trade Item Number

Global Trade Item Number (GTIN) is an identifier for trade items, developed by GS1. Such identifiers are used to look up product information in a database (often by entering the number through a barcode scanner pointed at an actual product) which may belong to a retailer, manufacturer, collector, researcher, or other entity. The uniqueness and universality of the identifier is useful in establishing which product in one database corresponds to which product in another database, especially across organizational boundaries.

The GTIN standard has incorporated the International Standard Book Number (ISBN), International Standard Serial Number (ISSN), International Standard Music Number (ISMN), International Article Number (which includes the European Article Number and Japanese Article Number) and some Universal Product Codes (UPCs), into a universal number space.

GTINs may be 8, 12, 13 or 14 digits long, and each of these four numbering structures are constructed in a similar fashion, combining Company Prefix, Item Reference and a calculated Check Digit (GTIN-14 adds another component- the Indicator Digit, which can be 1-8). GTIN-8s will be encoded in an EAN-8 barcode. GTIN-12s may be shown in UPC-A, ITF-14, or GS1-128 barcodes. GTIN-13s may be encoded in EAN-13, ITF-14 or GS1-128 barcodes, and GTIN-14s may be encoded in ITF-14 or GS1-128 barcodes. The choice of barcode will depend on the application; for example, items to be sold at a retail establishment could be marked with EAN-8, EAN-13, UPC-A or UPC-E barcodes.

The EAN-8 code is an eight-digit barcode used usually for very small articles, such as chewing gum, where fitting a larger code onto the item would be difficult. Note: the equivalent UPC small format barcode, UPC-E, encodes a GTIN-12 with a special Company Prefix that allows for "zero suppression" of four zeros in the GTIN-12. The GS1 encoding and decoding rules state that the entire GTIN-12 is used for encoding and that the entire GTIN-12 is to be delivered when scanned.

Gordon Foster

Frederic Gordon Foster (24 February 1921 – 20 December 2010) was an Irish computational engineer, statistician, professor, and college dean who is widely known for devising, in 1965, a nine-digit code upon which the International Standard Book Number (ISBN) is based.

IBooks Author

iBooks Author (iBA) is an e-book authoring application by Apple Inc. Books created with iBooks Author export as .ibooks files and can be published to the Apple iBooks Store, or they may be exported as PDF.

Apple released iBooks Author on January 19, 2012 at an education-focused special event in New York City. Simultaneously, Apple also released iBooks 2 and a new iBooks Bookstore category for textbooks. The software is proprietary and available only for macOS. Apple offers it for free download in the Mac App Store.

Apple describes iBooks Author as a tool for "educators and smaller publishers to create their own books". Documents created by iBooks Author may only be sold for a fee if they are accepted by and distributed by Apple, but authors also have the option to distribute their work anywhere if the work is being distributed for free.Many aspects of a document may be edited in WYSIWYG fashion, including text, fonts, colors, foreground and background images, interactive widgets, and charts. Tables of contents and glossaries may be managed with some automation. The user interface and editing features have been described as nearly identical to Apple's Keynote and Pages products.Apple clarified its position on rights of ebooks generated by iBooks Author on Feb 3, 2012 to address some controversy that its ebooks could be sold only through the Apple Bookstore, specifying that only books carrying the .ibooks suffix were subject to such restrictions. Apple also specified that the use of the software to create text or PDF files are within the terms of its user agreement. To offer your book on the iBookstore, an International Standard Book Number, or ISBN, is recommended but not required. An ISBN is a standardized identifier for books and is necessary for industry-wide sales charts and data sharing. Note that you can only provide an ISBN during the initial book delivery.The output of iBooks Author is a proprietary Apple file format similar to the EPUB standard, but with extensions that prevent it from being universally readable or editable as an EPUB document. The format uses undocumented, proprietary XML namespaces and undocumented extensions to CSS.A new version of iBooks Author was released on October 23, 2012. It includes embedded fonts, mathematical equation rendering, and more interactivity options. On October 22, 2013, iBooks Author received another update which included compatibility with OS X Mavericks.

On October 16, 2014, Apple updated iBooks Author to version 2.2, adding several new features, namely EPUB import, InDesign IDML import, and the addition of a blank template for ease of use.On June 30, 2015, Apple updated iBooks Author to version 2.3, adding two significant new features: iPhone compatibility for Multi-Touch Format books created in iBooks Author, and export of EPUB-format books created in iBooks Author. Further, the terms and conditions of iBooks Author were changed to allow iBooks Author users to monetize EPUB-format books exported out of iBooks Author any way they choose.On October 7, 2015, Apple updated iBooks Author to version 2.4, adding minor updates including the new ability of EPUB-format books created in iBooks Author to use the Pop-Over widget, as well as minor enhancements to the interface and to EPUB-format book function. Version 2.5 was released in late 2016.

iBooks Author adoption has grown since version 2.2's release leading to the creation of the iBooks Author Conference which has taken place in Nashville, Tennessee, in October 2015 and October 2016. A follow-up conference for 2017 has been announced, keynoted by NASA astrophysicist Dr. Scott Bolton.

International Standard Audiovisual Number

International Standard Audiovisual Number (ISAN) is a unique identifier for audiovisual works and related versions, similar to ISBN for books. It was developed within an ISO (International Organisation for Standardisation) TC46/SC9 working group. ISAN is managed and run by ISAN-IA.

International Standard Music Number

The International Standard Music Number or ISMN (ISO 10957) is a thirteen-character alphanumeric identifier for printed music developed by ISO.

International Standard Musical Work Code

International Standard Musical Work Code (ISWC) is a unique identifier for musical works, similar to ISBN for books. It is adopted as international standard ISO 15707. The ISO subcommittee with responsibility for the standard is TC 46/SC 9.

International Standard Recording Code

The International Standard Recording Code (ISRC) is an international standard code for uniquely identifying sound recordings and music video recordings. The code was developed by the recording industry in conjunction with the ISO technical committee 46, subcommittee 9 (TC 46/SC 9), which codified the standard as ISO 3901 in 1986, and updated it in 2001.

An ISRC identifies a particular recording, not the work (composition and lyrical content) itself. Therefore, different recordings, edits, and remixes of the same work should each have their own ISRC. Works are identified by ISWC. Recordings remastered without significant audio-quality changes should retain their existing ISRC, but the threshold is left to the discretion of the record company.

International Standard Text Code

The International Standard Text Code (ISTC) is a unique identifier for text-based works. The ISO standard was developed by TC 46/SC 9 and published in March 2009 as ISO 21047:2009. The authority responsible for implementing the standard is The International ISTC Agency.

Library classification

A library classification is a system of knowledge organization by which library resources are arranged and ordered systematically. Library classifications use a notational system that represents the order of topics in the classification and allows items to be stored in that order. Library classification systems group related materials together, typically arranged in a hierarchical tree structure. A different kind of classification system, called a faceted classification system, is also widely used which allows the assignment of multiple classifications to an object, enabling the classifications to be ordered in multiple ways. The library classification numbers can be considered identifiers for resources but are distinct from the International Standard Book Number (ISBN) or International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) system.

Library of Congress Control Number

The Library of Congress Control Number (LCCN) is a serially-based system of numbering cataloging records in the Library of Congress in the United States. It has nothing to do with the contents of any book, and should not be confused with Library of Congress Classification.

List of ISBN identifier groups

This is a list of ISBN identifier groups, the second element in 13-digit ISBNs (the first element in 10-digit ISBNs). The identifier is assigned to mark either a publisher's place of business or the language of the books it publishes.

The "original" set of identifiers, assigned prior to the introduction of 13-digit ISBNs and, as such, prior to 978-prefix books, ranges from one to five numerical digits according to the following structure:

0–5, 7





99900–99999They are assigned in approximate descending order of publishing volume. Because the smaller identifiers have room for fewer publishers and ISBNs, several countries have had more than one identifier assigned to them. On the other hand, several countries (Australia, the United States, Canada, France, Austria, Switzerland...) have no identifier because they fall in the "language groups".

The structure for the identifiers of the 979- prefix and whether it will have language-specific identifiers is not well known, but three identifiers have been assigned (979-10-, to France, 979-11, to Republic of Korea, and 979-12, to Italy). Also, 979-0 has been reserved for the use of International Standard Music Number for sheet music.

Periodical literature

Periodical literature (also called a periodical publication or simply a periodical) is a category of serial publications that appear in a new edition on a regular schedule. The most familiar example is the magazine, typically published weekly, monthly, or quarterly. Newspapers, often published daily or weekly, are, strictly speaking, a separate category of serial. Other examples of periodicals are newsletters, literary magazines (literary journals), academic journals (including scientific journals), science magazines, yearbooks and comic books.

Progress in Brain Research

Progress in Brain Research is a series of academic books on neuroscience published by Elsevier. The first volume appeared in 1963 and as of January 2014, 207 volumes have been published. The editors-in-chief of the series are Stephen Waxman (Yale University School of Medicine), Donald G. Stein (Emory University), Dick Swaab (Netherlands Institute for Neuroscience), Howard Fields (University of California). Despite being a book series, Progress in Brain Research is abstracted and indexed in the Science Citation Index and according to the Journal Citation Reports, the series has a 2012 impact factor of 4.191. Each volume has its own International Standard Book Number (ISBN). In addition, the series has an International Standard Serial Number (print: ISSN 0079-6123, online: ISSN 1875-7855). The series is also abstracted and indexed in Index Medicus/MEDLINE/PubMed.

Serial number

A serial number is a unique identifier assigned incrementally or sequentially to an item, to uniquely identify it.

Serial numbers need not be strictly numerical. They may contain letters and other typographical symbols, or may consist entirely of a character string.

International numbering standards
ISO standards by standard number

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