International Psychoanalytical Association

The International Psychoanalytical Association (IPA) is an association including 12,000 psychoanalysts as members and works with 70 constituent organizations. It was founded in 1910 by Sigmund Freud, on an idea proposed by Sándor Ferenczi.[1]

IPA mark reversed out of blue
The symbol of the International Psychoanalytical Association is a picture of Oedipus and the Sphinx, with the organisation's name shown in Trajan typeface.


In 1902 Sigmund Freud started to meet every week with colleagues to discuss his work, and so the Psychological Wednesday Society was born. By 1908 there were 14 regular members and some guests including Max Eitingon, Carl Jung, Karl Abraham, and Ernest Jones, all future Presidents of the IPA.[2] Society became the Vienna Psychoanalytical Society.

In 1907 Jones suggested to Jung that an international meeting should be arranged. Freud welcomed the proposal. The meeting took place in Salzburg on April 27, 1908. Jung named it the "First Congress for Freudian Psychology". It is later reckoned to be the first International Psychoanalytical Congress. Even so, the IPA had not yet been founded.

The IPA was established at the next Congress held at Nuremberg in March 1910.[3] Its first President was Carl Jung, and its first Secretary was Otto Rank. Sigmund Freud considered an international organization to be essential to advance his ideas. In 1914 Freud published a paper entitled The History of the Psychoanalytic Movement.

The IPA is the world’s primary accrediting and regulatory body for psychoanalysis. The IPA's aims include creating new psychoanalytic groups, stimulating debate, conducting research, developing training policies and establishing links with other bodies. It organizes a large biennial Congress.

Regional organizations

There is a Regional Organisation for each of the IPA’s 3 regions:

  • Europe—European Psychoanalytical Federation (or EPF), which also includes Australia, India, Israel, Lebanon, South Africa and Turkey;
    • The IPA is incorporated in England, where it is a company limited by guarantee and also a registered charity. Its administrative offices are at The Lexicon in Central London.
  • Latin America—Federation of Psychoanalytic Societies of Latin America (or FEPAL);
  • North America—North American Psychoanalytic Confederation (or NAPSAC), which also includes Japan and Korea.

Each of these three bodies consists of Constituent Organisations and Study Groups that are part of that IPA region. The IPA has a close working relationship with each of these independent organisations and values them highly, but they are not officially or legally part of the IPA.

Constituent organizations

The IPA's members qualify for membership by being a member of a "constituent organisation" (or the sole regional association).

Constituent Organisations

  • Argentine Psychoanalytic Association
  • Argentine Psychoanalytic Society
  • Australian Psychoanalytical Society
  • Belgian Psychoanalytical Society
  • Belgrade Psychoanalytical Society
  • Brasília Psychoanalytic Society
  • Brazilian Psychoanalytic Society of Rio de Janeiro
  • Brazilian Psychoanalytic Society of São Paulo
  • Brazilian Psychoanalytical Society of Porto Alegre
  • Brazilian Psychoanalytical Society of Ribeirão Preto
  • British Psychoanalytic Association
  • British Psychoanalytical Society
  • Buenos Aires Psychoanalytic Association
  • Canadian Psychoanalytic Society
  • Caracas Psychoanalytic Society
  • Chilean Psychoanalytic Association
  • Colombian Psychoanalytic Association
  • Colombian Psychoanalytic Society
  • Contemporary Freudian Society
  • Cordoba Psychoanalytic Society
  • Czech Psychoanalytical Society
  • Danish Psychoanalytical Society
  • Dutch Psychoanalytical Association
  • Dutch Psychoanalytical Group
  • Dutch Psychoanalytical Society
  • Finnish Psychoanalytical Society
  • French Psychoanalytical Association
  • Freudian Psychoanalytical Society of Colombia
  • German Psychoanalytical Association
  • German Psychoanalytical Society
  • Hellenic Psycho-Analytical Society
  • Hungarian Psychoanalytical Society
  • Indian Psychoanalytical Society
  • Institute for Psychoanalytic Training and Research
  • Israel Psychoanalytic Society
  • Italian Psychoanalytical Association
  • Italian Psychoanalytical Society
  • Japan Psychoanalytic Society
  • Los Angeles Institute and Society for Psychoanalytic Studies
  • Madrid Psychoanalytical Association
  • Mato Grosso do Sul Psychoanalytical Society
  • Mendoza Psychoanalytic Society
  • Mexican Assn for Psychoanalytic Practice, Training & Research
  • Mexican Psychoanalytic Association
  • Monterrey Psychoanalytic Association
  • Northwestern Psychoanalytic Society
  • Norwegian Psychoanalytic Society
  • Paris Psychoanalytical Society
  • Pelotas Psychoanalytic Society
  • Peru Psychoanalytic Society
  • Polish Psychoanalytical Society
  • Porto Alegre Psychoanalytical Society
  • Portuguese Psychoanalytical Society
  • Psychoanalytic Center of California
  • Psychoanalytic Institute of Northern California
  • Psychoanalytic Society of Mexico
  • Psychoanalytical Association of The State of Rio de Janeiro
  • Recife Psychoanalytic Society
  • Rio de Janeiro Psychoanalytic Society
  • Romanian Psychoanalytic Society
  • Rosario Psychoanalytic Association
  • Spanish Psychoanalytical Society
  • Swedish Psychoanalytical Association
  • Swiss Psychoanalytical Society
  • Uruguayan Psychoanalytical Association
  • Venezuelan Psychoanalytic Association
  • Vienna Psychoanalytic Society

Provisional Societies

  • Guadalajara Psychoanalytic Association (Provisional Society)
  • Moscow Psychoanalytic Society (Provisional Society)
  • Psychoanalytic Society for Research and Training (Provisional Society)
  • Vienna Psychoanalytic Association

Regional associations

  • American Psychoanalytic Association ("APsaA") is a body which has in membership societies which cover around 75% of psychoanalysts in the United States of America (the remainder are members of "independent" societies which are in direct relationship with the IPA).

IPA Study Groups

"Study Groups" are bodies of analysts which have not yet developed sufficiently to be a freestanding society, but that is their aim.

  • Campinas Psychoanalytical Study Group
  • Center for Psychoanalytic Education and Research
  • Croatian Psychoanalytic Study Group
  • Fortaleza Psychoanalytic Group
  • Goiania Psychoanalytic Nucleus
  • Korean Psychoanalytic Study Group
  • Latvia and Estonia Psychoanalytic Study Group
  • Lebanese Association for the Development of Psychoanalysis
  • Minas Gerais Psychoanalytical Study Group
  • Portuguese Nucleus of Psychoanalysis
  • Psychoanalytical Association of Asuncion SG
  • South African Psychoanalytic Association
  • Study Group of Turkey: Psike Istanbul
  • Turkish Psychoanalytical Group
  • Vermont Psychoanalytic Study Group
  • Vilnius Society of Psychoanalysts

Allied Centres

"Allied Centres" are groups of people with an interest in psychoanalysis, in places where there are not already societies or study groups.

  • Korean Psychoanalytic Allied Centre
  • Psychoanalysis Studying Centre in China
  • Taiwan Centre for The Development of Psychoanalysis
  • The Centre for Psychoanalytic Studies of Panama

International Congresses

The first 23 Congresses of IPA did not have a specific theme.

Number Year City President Theme
1 1908 Austria-Hungary Salzburg
2 1910 German Empire Nuremberg C. G. Jung
3 1911 German Empire Weimar C. G. Jung
4 1913 German Empire Munich C. G. Jung
5 1918 Hungary Budapest Karl Abraham
6 1920 Netherlands The Hague Sándor Ferenczi
7 1922 Germany Berlin Ernest Jones
8 1924 Austria Salzburg Ernest Jones
9 1925 Germany Bad Homburg K Abraham / M Eitingon
10 1927 Austria Innsbruck Max Eitingon
11 1929 United Kingdom Oxford Max Eitingon
12 1932 Germany Wiesbaden Max Eitingon
13 1934 Switzerland Lucerne Ernest Jones
14 1936 Czechoslovakia Marienbad Ernest Jones
15 1938 France Paris Ernest Jones
16 1949 Switzerland Zürich Ernest Jones
17 1951 Netherlands Amsterdam Leo H. Bartemeier
18 1953 United Kingdom London Heinz Hartmann
19 1955 Switzerland Geneva Heinz Hartmann
20 1957 France Paris Heinz Hartmann
21 1959 Denmark Copenhagen William H. Gillespie
22 1961 United Kingdom Edinburgh William H. Gillespie
23 1963 Sweden Stockholm Maxwell Gitelson
24 1965 Netherlands Amsterdam Gillespie/Greenacre Psychoanalytic Treatment of the Obsessional Neurosis
25 1967 Denmark Copenhagen P.J. van der Leeuw On Acting Out and its Role in the Psychoanalytic Process
26 1969 Italy Rome P.J. van der Leeuw New Developments in Psychoanalysis
27 1971 Austria Vienna Leo Rangell The Psychoanalytical Concept of Aggression
28 1973 France Paris Leo Rangell Transference and Hysteria Today
29 1975 United Kingdom London Serge Lebovici Changes in Psychoanalytic Practice and Experience
30 1977 Israel Jerusalem Serge Lebovici Affects and the Psychoanalytic Situation
31 1979 United States New York City Edward D. Joseph Clinical Issues in Psychoanalysis
32 1981 Finland Helsinki Edward D. Joseph Early Psychic Development as Reflected in the Psychoanalytic Process
33 1983 Spain Madrid Adam Limentani The Psychoanalyst at Work
34 1985 Germany Hamburg Adam Limentani Identification and its Vicissitudes
35 1987 Canada Montreal Robert S. Wallerstein Analysis Terminable and Interminable – 50 Years Later
36 1989 Italy Rome Robert S. Wallerstein Common Ground in Psychoanalysis
37 1991 Argentina Buenos Aires Joseph J. Sandler Psychic Change
38 1993 Netherlands Amsterdam Joseph J. Sandler The Psychoanalyst’s Mind – From Listening to Interpretation
39 1995 United States San Francisco R. Horacio Etchegoyen Psychic Reality – Its Impact on the Analyst and Patient Today
40 1997 Spain Barcelona R. Horacio Etchegoyen Psychoanalysis and Sexuality
41 1999 Chile Santiago Otto F. Kernberg Affect in Theory and Practice
42 2001 France Nice Otto F. Kernberg Psychoanalysis – Method and Application
43 2004 United States New Orleans Daniel Widlöcher Working at the Frontiers
44 2005 Brazil Rio de Janeiro Daniel Widlöcher Trauma: New Developments in Psychoanalysis
45 2007 Germany Berlin Cláudio Laks Eizirik Remembering, Repeating and Working Through in Psychoanalysis & Culture Today
46 2009 United States Chicago Cláudio Laks Eizirik Psychoanalytic Practice - Convergences and Divergences
47 2011 Mexico Mexico City Charles Hanly Exploring Core Concepts: Sexuality, Dreams and the Unconscious
48 2013 Czech Republic Prague Charles Hanly Facing the Pain: Clinical Experience and the Development of Psychoanalytic Knowledge
49 2015 United States Boston Stefano Bolognini Changing World: the shape and use of psychoanalytic tools today
50 2017 Argentina Buenos Aires Stefano Bolognini Intimacy
51 2019 United Kingdom London Virginia Ungar The Feminine


In 1975, Erich Fromm questioned this organization and found that the psychoanalytic association was "organized according to standards rather dictatorial".[4]

In 1999, Elisabeth Roudinesco noted that IPA professionalizing psychoanalysis had become "a machine to manufacture significant". She also said that in France, "Lacanian colleagues looked IPA as bureaucrats who had betrayed psychoanalysis in favour of an adaptive psychology in the service of triumphant capitalism".[5] She wrote of the "IPA['s] Legitimist Freudianism, we mistakenly called "orthodox" ".[6] Among Roudinesco's other criticisms, she wrote about "homophobia" in the IPA, considered as a "disgrace of psychoanalysis.[7]

On the other hand, most criticisms against IPA tend to stick to Lacan's point of view from the 1950s,[8] unaware of most of the developments, variety of schools and training models within this association in the last decades.[9] One of the three training models in the IPA (the French Model), is mostly due to Lacan's ideas and their perspectives regarding the training.[10]

See also


  1. ^ nelmeda, jella (7 July 2016). "Google+". Phoenix.
  2. ^ Group portrait: Freud and associates in a photograph taken ca. 1922, Berlin. Sitting (from left to right) : Sigmund Freud, Sándor Ferenczi, Hanns Sachs. Standing (from left to right) : Otto Rank, Karl Abraham, Max Eitingon, Ernest Jones.
  3. ^ How did the IPA begin? Archived 2009-04-21 at the Wayback Machine
  4. ^ "La mission de Sigmund Freud : une analyse de sa personnalité et de son influence'", Erich Fromm, traduction from English by Paul Alexandre. Bruxelles : Complexe, 1975 and in Grandeurs et limites de la pensée freudienne, édition Laffont, 1980
  5. ^ Elisabeth Roudinesco, "Pourquoi la psychanalyse ?" chapter four, « critiques des institutions psychanalytiques ». Fayard, Paris, 1999
  6. ^ E.Roudinesco "Genealogy", p.60
  7. ^ E. Roudinesco « la famille en désordre », in Eric Fassin, « L’inversion de la question homosexuelle » Revue française de psychanalyse, 2003/1 (Vol. 67).
  8. ^ J. Lacan, The situation of psychoanalysis and the training of psychoanalysts in 1956, Ecrits, the first complete edition in English, translated by Bruce Fink, in collaboration with Heloise Fink and Russel Crigg. W. W. Norton & Company, New York, London; Copyright © 1966, 1970, 1971, 1999 by Editions du Seuil English translation copyright © 2006, 2002 by W. W. Norton & Company.
  9. ^ Peter Loewenberg & Nellie L. Thompson, 100 years of the IPA, The Centenary History of the International Psychoanalytical Association, 1910-2010; Evolution and change. First published in 2011 by The International Psychoanalytical Association, Broomhills, Woodside Lane, London N12 8UD, United Kingdom. London, Karnac books.
  10. ^ Gilbert Diatkine, Les lacanismes, les analystes français et l'Association psychanalytique internationale, Revue française de psychanalyse, hors-série, "Courants de la psychanalyse contemporaine", 2001, 389-400.

External links

International Psychoanalytical Association (official website)

Alexander Danilin

Alexander Gennadievich Danilin (Russian: Алекса́ндр Генна́диевич Дани́лин) (b. March 12, 1960) is a Russian psychotherapist, psychiatrist and physician-narcologist, author of ten books, numerous articles, lectures and trainings on addiction psychology and existential psychotherapy.He is married and has two sons.

Since 2003, Alexander Danilin has been an anchorman of radio program Silver Threads (Serebryanye Niti) that is broadcast by Radio Rossii and is dedicated to the human soul in all its manifestations. A number of the media reported that the Danilin was engaged in practical psychotherapy in Moscow clinics for over 20 years. He is a member of the International Psychoanalytical Association and the head of the drug abuse unit in the Moscow drug abuse hospital No 17. The media and websites of wholesale book-selling companies published information that the book by Danilin LSD: Hallucinogens, Psychedelia, and Addiction Phenomenon was withdrawn from the market by the officers of the Federal Drug Control Service of Russia and Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation. Danilin’s articles by about problems of Russian psychiatry (Dead End, Any Diagnosis in Psychiatry is a Myth, etc.) often caused heated controversy.

Anna Freud

Anna Freud (3 December 1895 – 9 October 1982) was an Austrian-British psychoanalyst. She was born in Vienna, the sixth and youngest child of Sigmund Freud and Martha Bernays. She followed the path of her father and contributed to the field of psychoanalysis. Alongside Melanie Klein, she may be considered the founder of psychoanalytic child psychology.Compared to her father, her work emphasized the importance of the ego and its normal "developmental lines" as well as incorporating a distinctive emphasis on collaborative work across a range of analytical and observational contexts.After the Freud family were forced to leave Vienna in 1938, with the advent of the Nazi regime in Austria, she resumed her psychoanalytic practice and her pioneering work in child psychology in London, establishing the Hampstead Child Therapy Course and Clinic in 1952 (now renamed the Anna Freud National Centre for Children and Families) as a centre for therapy, training and research work.

Arlene Kramer Richards

Arlene Kramer Richards is a practicing psychoanalyst and author based in New York, New York. She has written seven children books and papers on female sexuality, perversion and gambling.

British Psychoanalytic Council

The British Psychoanalytic Council (BPC) is an association of training institutions and professional associations which have their roots in established psychoanalysis and analytical psychology. They bring together approximately 1500 practitioners of psychoanalytic and psychodynamic psychotherapy (including psychoanalysts, Jungian analysts and child psychotherapists) who as individuals become registrants of the BPC.

The BPC (then the British Confederation of Psychotherapists) was formed on 8 March 1992, emerging from the United Kingdom Standing Conference for Psychotherapy (now the UKCP) as a specifically psychoanalytically-oriented organisation.

British Psychoanalytical Society

The British Psychoanalytical Society was founded by the British psychiatrist Ernest Jones as the London Psychoanalytical Society on 30 October 1913.

Ernest Jones

Alfred Ernest Jones (1 January 1879 – 11 February 1958) was a Welsh neurologist and psychoanalyst. A lifelong friend and colleague of Sigmund Freud from their first meeting in 1908, he became his official biographer. Jones was the first English-speaking practitioner of psychoanalysis and became its leading exponent in the English-speaking world. As President of both the International Psychoanalytical Association and the British Psycho-Analytical Society in the 1920s and 1930s, Jones exercised a formative influence in the establishment of their organisations, institutions and publications.

Hanna Segal

Hanna Segal (born Hanna Poznanska; 20 August 1918 – 5 July 2011) was a British psychoanalyst and a follower of Melanie Klein. She was president of the British Psychoanalytical Society, vice-president of the International Psychoanalytical Association, and was appointed to the Freud Memorial Chair at University College, London (UCL) in 1987. James Grotstein considered that "Received wisdom suggests that she is the doyen of "classical" Kleinian thinking and technique." Sue Lawley described her as "one of the most distinguished psychological theorists of our time,"

Horacio Etchegoyen

Ricardo Horacio Etchegoyen (January 13, 1919 – July 2, 2016) was an Argentine psychoanalyst who was President of the International Psychoanalytical Association (IPA) in 1993-1997.

Janine Chasseguet-Smirgel

Janine Chasseguet-Smirgel (1928 – March 5, 2006) (whose surname is alternatively spelled Chasseguet-Smirguel, but generally not in English-language publications) was a leading French psychoanalyst, a training analyst, and past President of the Société psychanalytique de Paris in France. From 1983 to 1989, she was Vice President of the International Psychoanalytical Association. Chasseguet-Smirgel was Freud Professor at the University College, London, and Professor of Psychopathology at the Université Lille Nord de France. She is best known for her reworking of the Freudian theory of the ego ideal and its connection to primary narcissism, as well as for her extension of this theory to a critique of utopian ideology.

Jonathan M. Raines

Jonathan M.Raines (born 1953) graduated from the University of Pennsylvania with a B.A. in Psychology. He attended Temple University School of Medicine, where he was awarded the O. Spurgeon English Award as well as his M.D. in 1982. Subsequently, he served his internship at Pennsylvania Hospital and his residency at The Institute of the Pennsylvania Hospital, where he received the Glencairn prize.

He received his Psychoanalytic training at The Philadelphia Association for Psychoanalysis and was subsequently certified by the Board of Professional Standards of the American Psychoanalytic Association. Dr. Raines had faculty appointments at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, The Philadelphia Association for Psychoanalysis and The Delaware Psychiatric Center. He was President and Chairman of the Board of Directors of the Greenspan Foundation from 1989-1997. He is currently a member of the medical staff of Pennsylvania Hospital and Lankenau Hospital. Additionally he holds faculty appointments at The Psychoanalytic Center of Philadelphia, The Center for Psychoanalysis at Albert Einstein Medical Center and The Lankenau Institute for Medical Research.He is a member of many professional associations, including The American Medical Association, American Psychiatric Association, International Psychoanalytical Association, Pennsylvania Psychiatric Society and The Association of American Physicians and Surgeons. Dr. Raines has been the recipient of many awards and honors including Fellow, College of Physicians of Philadelphia; Fellow, American Psychiatric Association; Distinguished Fellow, American Psychiatric Association; Fellow, International Psychoanalytical Association.

He has been recognized by U.S. News & World Report as one of America's Top Doctors with special expertise in Psychoanalysis, Psychotherapy, Anxiety Disorders and Psychosomatic Disorders, as well as one of Philadelphia's Top Doctor's by Philadelphia magazine.A dedicated researcher and writer, Dr. Raines has authored and co-authored publications on Borderline Personality Disorder, Psychopharmacology, Sigmund Freud and a study of Hitler's psychopathology. He also has interests in the basic mechanisms of disease and potential new treatments.

Leo Rangell

Leo Rangell (October 1, 1913 – May 28, 2011) was an American psychoanalyst and clinical professor of psychiatry at the University of California. He was also twice president of the International Psychoanalytical Association and the American Psychoanalytic Association, and was accorded the title "Honorary President" in 1997. Rangell died May 28, 2011 at the Ronald Reagan UCLA Medical Center in Los Angeles. He was 97.

Martin S. Bergmann

Martin S. Bergmann (February 15, 1913 – January 22, 2014) was a clinical professor of psychology of the New York University post-doctoral program where he taught the course on the history of psychoanalysis. He was a major voice in the post-Freudian analysis and authored books on human conditions like the Holocaust, the phenomenology of love and child sacrifice.

He was a member of the International Psychoanalytical Association and an honorary member of the American Psychoanalytic Association. In the wake of 9/11 he wrote an article concerning its implications on psychoanalysis called "Psychoanalytical Reflections on September 11, 2001. He was the son of Hugo Bergmann and father of Michael Bergmann.

Nancy Chodorow

Nancy Julia Chodorow (born January 20, 1944) is an American sociologist, feminist psychoanalyst, and professor. Influenced by Freud, Chodorow has written a number of influential books in contemporary feminist writing, including The Reproduction of Mothering: Psychoanalysis and the Sociology of Gender (1978); Feminism and Psychoanalytic Theory (1989); Femininities, Masculinities, Sexualities: Freud and Beyond (1994); and The Power of Feelings: Personal Meaning in Psychoanalysis, Gender, and Culture (1999). In 1995, Chodorow was awarded the Guggenheim Fellowship for Social Sciences. In 1996, The Reproduction of Mothering was chosen by Contemporary Sociology as one of the ten most influential books of the past 25 years.Chodorow is widely regarded as a leading psychoanalytic feminist theorist and is a member of the International Psychoanalytical Association, often speaking at its congresses. She spent many years as a professor in the departments of sociology and clinical psychology at the University of California, Berkeley. Chodorow retired from the University of California in 2005, and later went on to teach Psychiatry at Harvard Medical School/Cambridge Health Alliance.

Psychodynamic Diagnostic Manual

The Psychodynamic Diagnostic Manual (PDM) is a diagnostic handbook similar to the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD) or the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). The PDM was published on May 28, 2006.

The information contained in the PDM was collected by a collaborative task force which includes members of the American Psychoanalytic Association, the International Psychoanalytical Association, the Division of Psychoanalysis (Division 39) of the American Psychological Association, the American Academy of Psychoanalysis and Dynamic Psychiatry, and the National Membership Committee on Psychoanalysis in Clinical Social Work.

Although it is based on current neuroscience and treatment outcome studies, Carey (2006) points out that many of the concepts in the PDM are adapted from the classical psychoanalytic tradition of psychotherapy. For example, the PDM indicates that the anxiety disorders may be traced to the "four basic danger situations" described by Sigmund Freud (1926) as the loss of a significant other; the loss of love; the loss of body integrity; and the loss of affirmation by one's own conscience. It uses a new perspective on the existing diagnostic system as it enables clinicians to describe and categorize personality patterns, related social and emotional capacities, unique mental profiles, and personal experiences of the patient.The PDM is not intended to compete with the DSM or ICD. The authors report the work emphasizes "individual variations as well as commonalities" by "focusing on the full range of mental functioning" and serves as a "[complement to] the DSM and ICD efforts in cataloguing [sic] symptoms. The task force intends for the PDM to augment the existing diagnostic taxonomies by providing "a multi dimensional approach to describe the intricacies of the patient's overall functioning and ways of engaging in the therapeutic process.".

Rafael E. López-Corvo

Rafael E. Lopez-Corvo is a psychoanalyst. He served on the editorial board of the International Journal of Psycho-Analysis and was an associate professor at McGill University in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. He has a private practice in Toronto. He is a member of the International Psychoanalytical Association.

All along his extended career he has managed to conciliate his mainstream psychoanalytic affiliation with independent and original lines of thought and research, spawning through structuralist approaches to child evolution, group dynamics and psychology, theological determinants of gender psychology, the mind of the addict and its treatment, self-envy and other topics.

Though independent in thought, research and method, Rafael E. López-Corvo is an expert in the teachings of Wilfred Bion whom he considers has laid the foundations of future psychoanalysis.

Robert S. Wallerstein

Robert S. Wallerstein (January 28, 1921 – December 21, 2014) was a prominent German born American psychoanalyst. He has headed the Psychotherapy Research Project of the Menninger Foundation and has been president of the International Psychoanalytical Association.Born in Germany but raised in The Bronx, Wallerstein moved to Topeka, Kansas in 1949 and to Belvedere, California in 1966, where he died on December 21, 2014.

Sheldon Bach

Sheldon Bach is a psychologist and psychoanalyst living in New York City.

Born in 1925, he served in the European Theatre of Operations during World War II, then lived in Paris where he studied at the Sorbonne. He joined the Research Center for Mental Health at New York University in 1956, where he worked with George S. Klein and Leo Goldberger.

He is currently Adjunct Clinical Professor of Psychology at the NYU Postdoctoral Program in Psychotherapy and Psychoanalysis and a Fellow of the International Psychoanalytical Association.

Société Française de Psychanalyse

The Société Française de Psychanalyse (SFP) was a French psychoanalytic professional body formed in 1953, in a split from the main body of French psychoanalysts, the Société Parisienne de Psychanalyse (SPP).

The SFP was eventually dissolved in 1965, its resources and membership being split between the two new bodies, the Association Psychanalytique de France (APF), and the École Freudienne de Paris (EFP), founded by Jacques Lacan.

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