The International Press Telecommunications Council (IPTC), based in London, United Kingdom, is a consortium of the world's major news agencies, other news providers and news industry vendors and acts as the global standards body of the news media.
Currently more than 50 companies and organizations from the news industry are members of the IPTC, including global players like Associated Press (AP), Agence France-Presse (AFP), Deutsche Presse-Agentur (dpa), BBC, Getty Images, Press Association (PA), Reuters and The New York Times.
IPTC aims at simplifying the distribution of information. To achieve this technical standards are developed to improve the management and exchange of information between content providers, intermediaries and consumers. IPTC is committed to open standards and makes all standards freely available to its members and the wider community.
The IPTC was established in 1965 by a group of news organisations including the Alliance Européenne des Agences de Presse (EANA), American Newspaper Publishers Association (then ANPA, now NAA), Fédération Internationale des Editeurs de Journaux (now WAN-IFRA) and the North American News Agencies (a joint committee of Associated Press, Canadian Press and United Press International) to safeguard the telecommunications interests of the world's press.
The IPTC defined a set of metadata properties that can be applied to images, part of a broader standard developed in the early 1990s and known as the IPTC Information Interchange Model (IIM). Embedded IIM image information is often referred to as an "IPTC header". This basic set of metadata fields is branded as IPTC Core, in 2008 a second set branded as IPTC Extension was developed.
The Extensible Metadata Platform (XMP) has largely superseded IIM's image file header structure, but the properties of the IPTC Core are synchronized between the technical structures of XMP and IIM by a vast majority of imaging software.
Because of its nearly universal acceptance among photographers — even amateurs — this is by far IPTC's most widely used standard.
Using XML and the W3C’s model for the Semantic Web, in 2008 IPTC launched a new series of standards that feature modular construction and many opportunities for embedding metadata. This allows developers to build applications that use only the parts of the IPTC NewsML-G2-Standards that are required by the customer, and that reduce programming costs by re-using XML and metadata modules. Further the NewsML-G2-Standards extend the scope of exchange formats beyond news content, they include event data and well organised information about persons, organisations, points of interest, geopolitical areas or abstract concepts.
These members of the family of standards are available now: NewsML-G2, EventsML-G2 and SportsML-G2. Although they have different roles within the news industry they share much of the date model and the same XML coding.
NewsML-G2 acts as an envelope and organizer so that news providers can create single news items — text, photos, video or anything else — and bundle them into concise cohesive packages than can be automatically processed by web CMSs or newsroom systems. The content and relationships of the individual news items can be described using a rich set of metadata.
NewsML-G2 is not a text or image mark-up format. For example, it does not contain paragraph or headline tagging. Rather, it is an envelope and organizer that does not, by itself, act as a content format.
EventsML-G2 optimises the sharing of event information such as meetings, sports events, elections, and even rocket launches — virtually any announced activity that can be broadly classified as an "event." Using XML and metadata, EventsML-G2 allows news providers to create rich descriptions of events plus information about planned coverage, and then share that information with web sites, databases, newsrooms or other customers.
SportsML-G2 is a convenient way to share sports statistics in a concise, unambiguous way. All major sports are supported, and certain sports that are known for rich or especially complex statistics (such as baseball) can use special add-on modules. SportsML-G2 has found wide usage outside the news industry; among the user communities are sports teams, fantasy sports leagues, sports betting firms and sports historians. SportsML-G2 is the newer sibling of SportsML.
NewsCodes is the branding of Controlled Vocabularies created and maintained by IPTC. A set of them can be used to classify news content - regardless of the media type - and another set is used to support the functionality of IPTC's news exchange format standards.
NewsML 1 is an XML standard developed by the IPTC to provide a media-independent, structural enveloping framework for multi-media news. It was recently superseded by NewsML-G2, although IPTC plans to support this standard as NewsML 1.x indefinitely.
ninjs standardizes the representation of news in JSON - a lightweight, easy-to-parse, data interchange format. The format covers the data interchange by APIs and documents in content management systems like search engines.
News Industry Text Format (NITF) is an XML specification published by the IPTC that is designed to standardize the content and structure of text-based news articles.
rNews is a standard for using semantic markup to annotate online news. It defines a data model for embedding machine-readable publishing metadata in web documents and a set of suggested implementations. Some properties of this standard have been adopted by Schema.org for its metadata schema.
SportsML is a convenient way to share sports statistics in a concise, unambiguous way. All major sports are supported, and certain sports that are known for rich or especially complex statistics (such as baseball) can use special add-on modules. SportsML has found wide usage outside the news industry; among the user communities are sports teams, fantasy sports leagues, sports betting firms and sports historians. The newer sibling of SportsML is SportsML-G2.
IPTC 7901 is still a widely used format for plain text news, despite being 30 years old. It is a close relative of the Newspaper Association of America North American standard ANPA-1312, and uses similar control and other special characters to create a file that can be used to drive computerized news editing systems, photo typesetters or even teleprinter machines.
ANPA-1312 is a 7-bit news agency text markup specification published by the Newspaper Association of America, designed to standardize the content and structure of text news articles.
It was last modified in 1989 and is still the most common method of transmitting news to newspapers, web sites and broadcasters from news agencies in North and South America. Although the specification provides for 1200 bit-per-second transmission speeds, modern transmission technology removes any speed limitations.
Using fixed metadata fields and a series of control and other special characters, ANPA 1312 was designed to feed text stories to both teleprinters and computer-based news editing systems.
Although the specification was based upon the 7-bit ASCII character set, some characters were declared to be replaced by traditional newspaper characters, e.g. small fractions and typesetting code. As such, it was a bridge between older typesetting methods, newspaper traditions and newer technology.
Perhaps the best known part of ANPA-1312 was the category code system, which allowed articles to be categorized by a single letter. For example, sports articles were assigned category S, and articles about politics were assigned P. Many newspapers found the system convenient and sorted both incoming news agency and staff articles by ANPA-1312 categories.
Superseded in the early 1990s by IPTC Information Interchange Model and later by the XML-based News Industry Text Format, ANPA-1312's popularity in North America remains strong due, in part, to its widespread support by The Associated Press and the reluctance of newspapers to invest in new computers or software modifications.
A modified version — but with the same name — was implemented by several news agencies after the vendor of some early computer systems modified the specification for its own purposes.
An international standard, IPTC 7901, is widely used in Europe and is closely related to ANPA-1312.Associated Press
The Associated Press (AP) is a U.S.-based not-for-profit news agency headquartered in New York City. Founded in 1846, it operates as a cooperative, unincorporated association. Its members are U.S. newspapers and broadcasters. Its Statement of News Values and Principles spells out its standards and practices.The AP has earned 52 Pulitzer Prizes, including 31 for photography, since the award was established in 1917.
The AP has counted the vote in U.S. elections since 1848, including national, state and local races down to the legislative level in all 50 states, along with key ballot measures. AP collects and verifies returns in every county, parish, city and town across the U.S., and declares winners in over 5,000 contests.
The AP news report, distributed to its members and customers, is produced in English, Spanish and Arabic. AP content is also available on the agency's app, AP News. A 2017 study by NewsWhip revealed that AP content was more engaged with on Facebook than content from any individual English-language publisher.As of 2016, news collected by the AP was published and republished by more than 1,300 newspapers and broadcasters. The AP operates 263 news bureaus in 106 countries. It also operates the AP Radio Network, which provides newscasts twice hourly for broadcast and satellite radio and television stations. Many newspapers and broadcasters outside the United States are AP subscribers, paying a fee to use AP material without being contributing members of the cooperative. As part of their cooperative agreement with the AP, most member news organizations grant automatic permission for the AP to distribute their local news reports. The AP employs the "inverted pyramid" formula for writing which enables the news outlets to edit a story to fit its available publication area without losing the story's essentials.
Cutbacks at rival United Press International in 1993 left the AP as the United States' primary news service, although UPI still produces and distributes stories and photos daily. Other English-language news services, such as the BBC, Reuters and the English-language service of Agence France-Presse, are based outside the United States.Automated Content Access Protocol
Automated Content Access Protocol ("ACAP") was proposed in 2006 as a method of providing machine-readable permissions information for content, in the hope that it would have allowed automated processes (such as search-engine web crawling) to be compliant with publishers' policies without the need for human interpretation of legal terms. ACAP was developed by organisations that claimed to represent sections of the publishing industry (World Association of Newspapers, European Publishers Council, International Publishers Association). It was intended to provide support for more sophisticated online publishing business models, but was criticised for being biased towards the fears of publishers who see search and aggregation as a threat rather than as a source of traffic and new readers.CEPIC
CEPIC, from CEnter of the PICture industry (former: Coordination of European Agencies Press Stock Heritage), is a registered European Economic interest Grouping (EEIG) and international umbrella organization. It representing the interests of 11 national Picture Associations in Europe and further individual Agencies in EU-Institutions and international organizations.EventsML-G2
EventsML-G2 is an XML news exchange standard of the IPTC, the International Press Telecommunications Council. It optimizes the sharing of event information such as meetings, sports events, elections, even rocket launches — virtually anything that can be broadly classified as an "event."
The news industry's ongoing need to maintain calendars of events led to development of EventsML-G2. It is not a calendaring standard, but rather a way for news agencies to share event information to populate their own calendars. The events need not have fixed starting or ending dates, nor do they even need to have a fixed length. EventsML-G2 can contain enough metadata to describe most any announced human activity.
As part of the IPTC G2-standards family, EventsML-G2 is built around standardized building blocks of XML and metadata. These building blocks are reused in other IPTC G2 standards, such as NewsML-G2, so that system programmers can reuse code to handle different IPTC G2 standards.Exif
Exchangeable image file format (officially Exif, according to JEIDA/JEITA/CIPA specifications) is a standard that specifies the formats for images, sound, and ancillary tags used by digital cameras (including smartphones), scanners and other systems handling image and sound files recorded by digital cameras. The specification uses the following existing file formats with the addition of specific metadata tags: JPEG discrete cosine transform (DCT) for compressed image files, TIFF Rev. 6.0 (RGB or YCbCr) for uncompressed image files, and RIFF WAV for audio files (Linear PCM or ITU-T G.711 μ-Law PCM for uncompressed audio data, and IMA-ADPCM for compressed audio data). It is not used in JPEG 2000 or GIF.
This standard consists of the Exif image file specification and the Exif audio file specification.Extensible Metadata Platform
The Extensible Metadata Platform (XMP) is an ISO standard, originally created by Adobe Systems Inc., for the creation, processing and interchange of standardized and custom metadata for digital documents and data sets.
XMP standardizes a data model, a serialization format and core properties for the definition and processing of extensible metadata. It also provides guidelines for embedding XMP information into popular image, video and document file formats, such as JPEG and PDF, without breaking their readability by applications that do not support XMP. Therefore, the non-XMP metadata have to be reconciled with the XMP properties. Although metadata can alternatively be stored in a sidecar file, embedding metadata avoids problems that occur when metadata is stored separately.
The XMP data model, serialization format and core properties is published by the International Organization for Standardization as ISO 16684-1:2012 standard.IPTC 7901
IPTC 7901 is a news service text markup specification published by the International Press Telecommunications Council that was designed to standardize the content and structure of text news articles. It was formally approved in 1979, and is still the world’s most common way of transmitting news articles to newspapers, web sites and broadcasters from news services.
Using fixed metadata fields and a series of control and other special characters, IPTC 7901 was designed to feed text stories to both teleprinters and computer-based news editing systems. Stories can be assigned to broad categories (such as sports or culture) and be given a higher or lower priority based upon importance.
Although superseded in the early 1990s by IPTC Information Interchange Model and later by the XML-based News Industry Text Format, 7901's huge existing user base has persisted.
IPTC 7901 is closely related to ANPA-1312 (also known as ANPA 84-2 and later 89-3) of the Newspaper Association of America.IPTC Information Interchange Model
The Information Interchange Model (IIM) is a file structure and set of metadata attributes that can be applied to text, images and other media types. It was developed in the early 1990s by the International Press Telecommunications Council (IPTC) to expedite the international exchange of news among newspapers and news agencies.
The full IIM specification includes a complex data structure and a set of metadata definitions.
Although IIM was intended for use with all types of news items — including simple text articles — a subset found broad worldwide acceptance as the standard embedded metadata used by news and commercial photographers. Information such as the name of the photographer, copyright information and the caption or other description can be embedded either manually or automatically.
IIM metadata embedded in images are often referred to as "IPTC headers", and can be easily encoded and decoded by most popular photo editing software.
The Extensible Metadata Platform (XMP) has largely superseded IIM's file structure, but the IIM image attributes are defined in the IPTC Core schema for XMP and most image manipulation programs keep the XMP and non-XMP IPTC attributes synchronized.
Because of its nearly universal acceptance among photographers — even amateurs — this is by far IPTC's most widely used standard. On the other hand, the use of IIM structure and metadata for text and graphics is mainly limited to European news agencies.List of XML markup languages
This is a list of notable XML markup languages.Metadata
Metadata is "data [information] that provides information about other data". Many distinct types of metadata exist, among these descriptive metadata, structural metadata, administrative metadata, reference metadata and statistical metadata.
Descriptive metadata describes a resource for purposes such as discovery and identification. It can include elements such as title, abstract, author, and keywords.
Structural metadata is metadata about containers of data and indicates how compound objects are put together, for example, how pages are ordered to form chapters. It describes the types, versions, relationships and other characteristics of digital materials.
Administrative metadata provides information to help manage a resource, such as when and how it was created, file type and other technical information, and who can access it.
Reference metadata describes the contents and quality of statistical data
Statistical metadata may also describe processes that collect, process, or produce statistical data; such metadata are also called process data.NewsML-G2
NewsML-G2 is an XML multimedia news exchange format standard of the IPTC, the International Press Telecommunications Council.
As part of the IPTC G2-Standards family, NewsML-G2 acts as an envelope for one or more news items (such as a text article, a photo, or a video clip) or a structured package of links to news items, and contains metadata to describe the relationships between the items. NewsML-G2 is a business-to-business standard that is intended to help news agencies create complex packages of multimedia news into a single cohesive bundle.
Unlike its predecessor, NewsML 1.x, NewsML-G2 uses standardized XML building blocks and metadata. These building blocks are used in other IPTC G2-Standards, so that system programmers can reuse their code.
Like NewsML, NewsML-G2 is not a text or image mark-up format; it has no way to mark paragraphs or headlines, for example. Instead, it is an envelope and organizer for one or more files of almost any type. For text article formatting, IPTC mentions News Industry Text Format (NITF) or XHTML as common examples.NewsML-G2 is used by several large international news agencies, including Agence France-Presse, Associated Press, Austria Presse Agentur, Deutsche Presse-Agentur, Thomson Reuters, and others.News Industry Text Format
News Industry Text Format (NITF) is an XML specification designed to standardize the content and structure of individual text news articles.News Media Alliance
The News Media Alliance (formerly known as the Newspaper Association of America until 2016) is a trade association representing approximately 2000 newspapers in the United States and Canada. Member newspapers represented by the Alliance include large daily papers, non-daily and small-market publications, as well as digital and multiplatform products. The organization has organized and hosted mediaXchange, the newspaper industry's annual conference.Press Council
Press Council may refer to:
International Press Telecommunications Council, a consortium of the world's major news agencies and news industry vendors
Australian Press Council
Danish Press Council, a Danish independent public tribunal press council under the Ministry of Justice
Myanmar Press Council
New Zealand Press Council, an industry body that oversees complaints against print media
Ontario Press Council
Press Council of India, a statutory body in India that governs the conduct of the print and broadcast media
Press Council (UK), a British voluntary press organisation that was succeeded by the Press Complaints Commission in 1990
Swedish Press CouncilSportsML
SportsML is an XML news exchange standard of the IPTC, the International Press Telecommunications Council. It optimizes the sharing of sports statistics and information such as schedules, results, standings, team statistics and individual statistics.
SportsML can contain enough data and metadata to properly organize and describe almost any sporting event statistic. Special add-on modules are available for certain sports that are known for especially complex or rich statistics, such as baseball and American football.
SportsML and its newer sibling SportsML-G2 were originally intended for business-to-business data sharing between news agencies, newspapers, sports statistics databases other news-related parties. However, both standards have found a wider audience among sports teams, fantasy sports leagues, historians and other sports data users.
As an IPTC standard, SportsML is built on XML and copious amounts of metadata.
In June 2008, the IPTC approved SportsML-G2 as a parallel standard to SportsML. Although SportsML-G2 is built from standardized XML modules that are used by other IPTC G2 standards, both standards effectively accomplish the same task: Sharing sports data in a clean, unambiguous way that promotes easy use of the data by the receiver.SportsML-G2
SportsML-G2 is an XML news exchange standard of the IPTC, the International Press Telecommunications Council. It optimizes the sharing of sports statistics and information such as schedules, results, standings, team statistics and individual statistics.
SportsML-G2 can contain enough data and metadata to properly organize and describe almost any sporting event statistic. Special add-on modules are available for certain sports that are known for especially complex or rich statistics, such as baseball and American football.
SportsML-G2 and its older sibling SportsML were originally intended for business-to-business data sharing between news agencies, newspapers, sports statistics databases other news-related parties. However, both standards have found a wider audience among sports teams, fantasy sports leagues, historians and other sports data users.
As part of the IPTC G2-standards family, SportsML-G2 is built around standardized building blocks of XML and metadata. These building blocks are reused in other IPTC G2 standards, such as NewsML-G2, so that system programmers can reuse code to handle different IPTC G2 standards.
Versions 2.0 of SportsML-G2 was released in October 2008.