It was one of the first organizations granted general consultative status with the United Nations Economic and Social Council.
|International Organization for Standardization|
Organisation internationale de normalisation
Международная организация по стандартизации
|Formation||23 February 1947|
(40 correspondent, 4 subscriber)
The International Organization for Standardization is an independent, non-governmental organization, the members of which are the standards organizations of the 164 member countries. It is the world's largest developer of voluntary international standards and facilitates world trade by providing common standards between nations. Over twenty thousand standards have been set covering everything from manufactured products and technology to food safety, agriculture and healthcare.
Use of the standards aids in the creation of products and services that are safe, reliable and of good quality. The standards help businesses increase productivity while minimizing errors and waste. By enabling products from different markets to be directly compared, they facilitate companies in entering new markets and assist in the development of global trade on a fair basis. The standards also serve to safeguard consumers and the end-users of products and services, ensuring that certified products conform to the minimum standards set internationally.
The name of the organization in French is Organisation internationale de normalisation, and in Russian, Международная организация по стандартизации (Mezhdunarodnaya organizatsiya po standartizatsii). ISO is not an acronym. The organization adopted ISO as its abbreviated name in reference to the Greek word isos (ίσος, meaning "equal"), as its name in the three official languages would have different acronyms. During the founding meetings of the new organization, the Greek word explanation was not invoked, so this meaning may have been made public later.
ISO gives this explanation of the name: "Because 'International Organization for Standardization' would have different acronyms in different languages (IOS in English, OIN in French), our founders decided to give it the short form ISO. ISO is derived from the Greek isos, meaning equal. Whatever the country, whatever the language, the short form of our name is always ISO."
Both the name ISO and the ISO logo are registered trademarks, and their use is restricted.
The organization today known as ISO began in 1928 as the International Federation of the National Standardizing Associations (ISA). It was suspended in 1942 during World War II, but after the war ISA was approached by the recently formed United Nations Standards Coordinating Committee (UNSCC) with a proposal to form a new global standards body. In October 1946, ISA and UNSCC delegates from 25 countries met in London and agreed to join forces to create the new International Organization for Standardization; the new organization officially began operations in February 1947.
ISO is a voluntary organization whose members are recognized authorities on standards, each one representing one country. Members meet annually at a General Assembly to discuss ISO's strategic objectives. The organization is coordinated by a Central Secretariat based in Geneva.
ISO has formed two joint committees with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) to develop standards and terminology in the areas of electrical and electronic related technologies.
ISO/IEC Joint Technical Committee 1 (JTC 1) was created in 1987 to "[d]evelop, maintain, promote and facilitate IT standards", where IT refers to information technology.
ISO/IEC Joint Technical Committee 2 (JTC 2) was created in 2009 for the purpose of "[s]tandardization in the field of energy efficiency and renewable energy sources".
ISO has three membership categories:
Participating members are called "P" members, as opposed to observing members, who are called "O" members.
ISO is funded by a combination of:
Technical and publicly available specifications
ISO documents are copyrighted and ISO charges for most copies. It does not, however, charge for most draft copies of documents in electronic format. Although they are useful, care must be taken using these drafts as there is the possibility of substantial change before they become finalized as standards. Some standards by ISO and its official U.S. representative (and, via the U.S. National Committee, the International Electrotechnical Commission) are made freely available.
A standard published by ISO/IEC is the last stage of a long process that commonly starts with the proposal of new work within a committee. Here are some abbreviations used for marking a standard with its status:
|Stage code||Stage||Associated document name||Abbreviations|
|00||Preliminary||Preliminary work item||PWI|
|10||Proposal||New work item proposal||
|20||Preparatory||Working draft or drafts||
|30||Committee||Committee draft or drafts||
||(CDV in IEC)|
It is possible to omit certain stages, if there is a document with a certain degree of maturity at the start of a standardization project, for example a standard developed by another organization. ISO/IEC directives allow also the so-called "Fast-track procedure". In this procedure a document is submitted directly for approval as a draft International Standard (DIS) to the ISO member bodies or as a final draft International Standard (FDIS) if the document was developed by an international standardizing body recognized by the ISO Council.
The first step—a proposal of work (New Proposal) is approved at the relevant subcommittee or technical committee (e.g., SC29 and JTC1 respectively in the case of Moving Picture Experts Group – ISO/IEC JTC1/SC29/WG11). A working group (WG) of experts is set up by the TC/SC for the preparation of a working draft. When the scope of a new work is sufficiently clarified, some of the working groups (e.g., MPEG) usually make open request for proposals—known as a "call for proposals". The first document that is produced for example for audio and video coding standards is called a verification model (VM) (previously also called a "simulation and test model"). When a sufficient confidence in the stability of the standard under development is reached, a working draft (WD) is produced. This is in the form of a standard but is kept internal to working group for revision. When a working draft is sufficiently solid and the working group is satisfied that it has developed the best technical solution to the problem being addressed, it becomes committee draft (CD). If it is required, it is then sent to the P-members of the TC/SC (national bodies) for ballot.
The CD becomes final committee draft (FCD) if the number of positive votes is above the quorum. Successive committee drafts may be considered until consensus is reached on the technical content. When it is reached, the text is finalized for submission as a draft International Standard (DIS). The text is then submitted to national bodies for voting and comment within a period of five months. It is approved for submission as a final draft International Standard (FDIS) if a two-thirds majority of the P-members of the TC/SC are in favour and not more than one-quarter of the total number of votes cast are negative. ISO will then hold a ballot with National Bodies where no technical changes are allowed (yes/no ballot), within a period of two months. It is approved as an International Standard (IS) if a two-thirds majority of the P-members of the TC/SC is in favour and not more than one-quarter of the total number of votes cast are negative. After approval, only minor editorial changes are introduced into the final text. The final text is sent to the ISO Central Secretariat, which publishes it as the International Standard.
The fact that many of the ISO-created standards are ubiquitous has led, on occasion, to common use of "ISO" to describe the actual product that conforms to a standard. Some examples of this are:
With the exception of a small number of isolated standards, ISO standards are normally not available free of charge, but for a purchase fee, which has been seen by some as too expensive for small open source projects.
The ISO/IEC JTC1 fast-track procedures ("Fast-track" as used by OOXML and "PAS" as used by OpenDocument) have garnered criticism in relation to the standardization of Office Open XML (ISO/IEC 29500). Martin Bryan, outgoing Convenor of ISO/IEC JTC1/SC34 WG1, is quoted as saying:
I would recommend my successor that it is perhaps time to pass WG1’s outstanding standards over to OASIS, where they can get approval in less than a year and then do a PAS submission to ISO, which will get a lot more attention and be approved much faster than standards currently can be within WG1.
The disparity of rules for PAS, Fast-Track and ISO committee generated standards is fast making ISO a laughing stock in IT circles. The days of open standards development are fast disappearing. Instead we are getting 'standardization by corporation'.
Computer security entrepreneur and Ubuntu founder, Mark Shuttleworth, commented on the Standardization of Office Open XML process by saying "I think it de-values the confidence people have in the standards setting process," and Shuttleworth alleged that ISO did not carry out its responsibility. He also noted that Microsoft had intensely lobbied many countries that traditionally had not participated in ISO and stacked technical committees with Microsoft employees, solution providers and resellers sympathetic to Office Open XML.
When you have a process built on trust and when that trust is abused, ISO should halt the process... ISO is an engineering old boys club and these things are boring so you have to have a lot of passion … then suddenly you have an investment of a lot of money and lobbying and you get artificial results. The process is not set up to deal with intensive corporate lobbying and so you end up with something being a standard that is not clear.
The lack of free online availability has effectively made ISO standard irrelevant to the (home/hacker section of the) Open Source community
A440 or A4 (also known as the Stuttgart pitch), which has a frequency of 440 Hz, is the musical note of A above middle C and serves as a general tuning standard for musical pitch.
The International Organization for Standardization classifies it as ISO 16. Before standardization on 440 Hz, other frequencies were standardized upon. Although not universally accepted, it serves as the audio frequency reference to calibrate acoustic equipment and to tune pianos, violins, and other musical instruments.ANSI C
ANSI C, ISO C and Standard C refer to the successive standards for the C programming language published by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). Historically, the names referred specifically to the original and best-supported version of the standard (known as C89 or C90). Software developers writing in C are encouraged to conform to the standards, as doing so helps portability between compilers.Countries in the International Organization for Standardization
There are, as of 2015, 162 members of the International Organization for Standardization. Three types of membership status can be distinguished:
full member (member body)
subscriber memberISO/IEC 80000
ISO 80000 or IEC 80000 is an international standard promulgated jointly by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC).
The standard introduces the International System of Quantities (ISQ). It is a style guide for the use of physical quantities and units of measurement, formulas involving them, and their corresponding units, in scientific and educational documents for worldwide use. In most countries, the notations used in mathematics and science textbooks at schools and universities follow closely the guidelines in this standard.The ISO/IEC 80000 family of standards was completed with the publication of Part 1 in November 2009.ISO/IEC 8652
ISO/IEC 8652 Information technology — Programming languages — Ada is the international standard for the computer programming language Ada. It was produced by the Ada Working Group, ISO/IEC JTC1/SC22/WG 9, of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO).
The latest edition is ISO/IEC 8652:2012, published 2012-12-10. The text of the earlier 1995 version of the standard, with Technical Corrigendum 1 and Amendment 1, is freely available for download and online reading.ISO/IEC TR 12182
ISO/IEC TR 12182 is an Information technology standard published in 1998 by the Joint Task Committee 1 (JTC1) of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). It defines a software categorization in the field of software engineering.ISO 1000
International standard ISO 1000 (SI units and recommendations for the use of their multiples and of certain other units, International Organization for Standardization, 1992) is the ISO standard describing the International System of Units (SI).
The ISO 1000:1992 standard was withdrawn in 2009, following the publication of ISO/IEC 80000-1.ISO 16750
ISO 16750, Road vehicles—Environmental conditions and electrical testing for electrical and electronic equipment, is an ISO standard which provides guidance regarding environmental conditions commonly encountered by electrical and electronic systems installed in automobiles.ISO 16750 has five parts:
ISO 16750-1: General
ISO 16750-2: Electrical loads
ISO 16750-3: Mechanical loads
ISO 16750-4: Climatic loads
ISO 16750-5: Chemical loadsISO 19114
ISO 19114 Geographic information - Quality evaluation procedures provides a procedural framework for evaluating the quality of digital geographic datasets, consistent with the data quality principles defined in ISO 19113. It consists of three classes of conformance: one for quality evaluation, one for evaluating data quality and on for reporting quality information. It is an international standard developed by the International Organization for Standardization.
This standard has been withdrawn and been revised by ISO 19157.ISO 19439
ISO 19439:2006 Enterprise integration—Framework for enterprise modelling, is an international standard for enterprise modelling and enterprise integration developed by the International Organization for Standardization, based on CIMOSA and GERAM.ISO 2015
ISO 2015 is a standard of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), superseded by ISO standard ISO 8601. The standard ISO week numbering system was introduced in ISO 2015. ISO 2015 was issued as an international standard in 1976, technically identical to ISO Recommendation R 2015, from 1971.ISO 3166
ISO 3166 is a standard published by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) that defines codes for the names of countries, dependent territories, special areas of geographical interest, and their principal subdivisions (e.g., provinces or states). The official name of the standard is Codes for the representation of names of countries and their subdivisions.ISO 3307
ISO 3307 is an international standard for date and time representations issued by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). The standard was issued in 1975, then was superseded by ISO 8601 in 1988.ISO 4
ISO 4 (Information and documentation – Rules for the abbreviation of title words and titles of publications) is an international standard which defines a uniform system for the abbreviation of serial publication titles, i.e., titles of publications such as scientific journals that are published in regular installments.The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has appointed the ISSN International Centre as the registration authority for ISO 4. It maintains the List of Title Word Abbreviations (LTWA), which contains standard abbreviations for words commonly found in serial titles. As of August 2017, the standard's most recent update came in 1997, when its third edition was released.A major use of ISO 4 is to abbreviate the names of scientific journals using the LTWA. For instance, under ISO 4 standards, the Journal of Biological Chemistry is cited as J. Biol. Chem., and the Journal of Polymer Science Part A should be cited as J. Polym. Sci. A (capitalization is not specified by the standard). The standard notes that "Full stops shall only be used to indicate an abbreviation. Full stops may be omitted from abbreviated words in applications that require limited use of punctuation" (section 4.6).
It was initially published in 1972 (ISO 4:1972), with a second edition published in 1984 (ISO 4:1984), and the third edition in 1997 (ISO 4:1997).ISO 5776
ISO 5776, published by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), is an international standard that specifies symbols for proofreading such as of manuscripts, typescripts and printer's proofs. The total number of symbols specified is 16, each in English, French and Russian.The standard is partially derived from the British Standard BS-5261, but is closer to German standards DIN 16511 and 16549-1. All of these standards date from the time before desktop publishing.
A second edition of the standard was published in 2016 which cancels and replaces the first edition from 1983.ISO 80000-2
ISO 80000-2:2009 is a standard describing mathematical signs and symbols developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), superseding ISO 31-11. The Standard, whose full name is Quantities and units — Part 2: Mathematical signs and symbols to be used in the natural sciences and technology, is a part of the group of standards called ISO/IEC 80000.ISO 9529
ISO 9529 is a standard published by the International Organization for Standardization which defines the data format used on 3.5 inch floppy disks. This also known as ECMA-125.List of International Organization for Standardization standards
This is a list of published International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standards and other deliverables. For a complete and up-to-date list of all the ISO standards, see the ISO catalogue.The standards are protected by copyright and most of them must be purchased. However, about 300 of the standards produced by ISO and IEC's Joint Technical Committee 1 (JTC1) have been made freely and publicly available.
International Organization for Standardization
ISO standards by standard number