International News Service

The International News Service (INS) was a U.S.-based news agency (newswire) founded by newspaper publisher William Randolph Hearst in 1909.[1] In May 1958 it merged with rival United Press to become United Press International.

History

Established two years after Hearst-competitor E.W. Scripps combined three smaller syndicates under his control into United Press Associations,[2] INS battled the other major newswires. It added a picture service, International News Photos, or INP. The Hearst newsreel series Hearst Metrotone News (1914–1967) was released as International Newsreel from January 1919 to July 1929. Always a distant third to its larger rivals the Associated Press and the United Press, INS was merged with UP on May 24, 1958, to become UPI.

New York City's all-news radio station, WINS, then under Hearst ownership, took its call letters from INS,[3] as did the short-lived (1948–49), DuMont Television Network nightly newscast, I.N.S. Telenews.

Among those who worked for INS were future broadcasters William Shirer, Edwin Newman, Bob Clark, Freeman Fulbright, and Irving R. Levine, who in 1950 covered the outbreak of war in Korea for INS.[4] Marion Carpenter, the first woman national press photographer to cover Washington, D.C. and the White House, and to travel with a US President, also had worked for the INS.[5]

Universal Service, another Hearst-owned news agency, merged with International News Service in 1937.[6]

International News Service v. Associated Press

During the early years of World War I, Hearst's INS was barred from using Allied telegraph lines, because of reporting of British losses. INS made do by allegedly taking news stories off AP bulletin boards, rewriting them and selling them to other outlets. AP sued INS and the case reached the United States Supreme Court.[7]

The case was considered important in terms of distinguishing between upholding the common law rule of "no copyright in facts", and applying the common law doctrine of misappropriation through the tort of unfair competition. In International News Service v. Associated Press of 1918, Justice Mahlon Pitney wrote for the majority in ruling that INS was infringing on AP's "lead-time protection", and defining it as an unfair business practice. Pitney narrowed the period for which the newly defined proprietary right would apply: this doctrine "postpones participation by complainant's competitor in the processes of distribution and reproduction of news that it has not gathered, and only to the extent necessary to prevent that competitor from reaping the fruits of complainant's efforts and expenditure."[7] Justice Louis D. Brandeis wrote a minority opinion, objecting to the court's creating a new private property right.

References

  1. ^ Donald Liebenson, "Upi R.i.p.", Chicago Tribune, 4 May 2003, accessed 11 May 2011
  2. ^ Joe Alex Morris (1957). "Deadline Every Minute The Story Of The United Press - ARCHIVE.ORG ONLINE VERSION".
  3. ^ "WINS History: The Early Years From The Airwaves of New York". cbslocal.com. 4 November 2008.
  4. ^ Weber, Bruce (2009-03-28). "Irving R. Levine, NBC News Correspondent, Dies at 86". The New York Times. Retrieved 2009-03-28.
  5. ^ The Associated Press (AP): "Remembering Marion Carpenter: Pioneer White House Photographer Dies," "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2010-11-29. Retrieved 2010-11-25.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link), retrieved November 25, 2002.
  6. ^ The Press: Mouthpiece Merged, Time, August 23, 1937
  7. ^ a b "FindLaw's United States Supreme Court case and opinions". Findlaw.

Further reading

  • Harnett, Richard M. and Billy G. Ferguson, UNIPRESS: United Press International--Covering the 20th Century, Fulcrum Publishing, 2003

External links

1916 Army Cadets football team

The 1916 Army Cadets football team represented the United States Military Academy in the 1916 college football season. In their fourth season under head coach Charles Dudley Daly, the Cadets compiled a 9–0 record and outscored all opponents by a combined total of 235 to 36. In the annual Army–Navy Game, the Cadets defeated the Midshipmen 15 to 7. The Cadets also defeated Notre Dame by a score of 30 to 10 and Villanova by a 69 to 7 score. The 1916 Army team was selected retroactively as the 1916 national champion by Parke H. Davis.Fullback Elmer Oliphant from the 1916 Army team was a consensus first-team All-American and was later inducted into the College Football Hall of Fame in 1955. Center John McEwan received second-team honors from Walter Camp, the United Press, the International News Service, and Walter Eckersall.

1929 Pittsburgh Panthers football team

The 1929 Pittsburgh Panthers football team, coached by Jock Sutherland, represented the University of Pittsburgh in the 1929 college football season. The Panthers finished the regular season undefeated and were considered the champions of the East, and by some, a national championship team. The Panthers concluded the season by traveling by train to California where they lost to USC in the Rose Bowl. Bowls at the time were still widely considered to be exhibition games, and the loss did not prevent football historian Parke H. Davis, recognized as a "major selector" in the official NCAA football records book, from naming Pitt as that season's national champion. The team is also recognized as national champion in 1929 by College Football Data Warehouse and according to a Sports Illustrated study that has served as the historical basis of the university's historical national championship claims since its original publication.

1947 All-Big Nine Conference football team

The 1947 All-Big Nine Conference football team consists of American football players selected to the All-Big Nine Conference teams selected by the Associated Press (AP), United Press (UP) and the International News Service (INS) for the 1947 Big Nine Conference football season. The top vote getters in the AP voting by conference coaches were Leo Nomellini, Bob Chappuis, and Bump Elliott, each receiving 16 of 18 possible points.

1949 All-Big Nine Conference football team

The 1949 All-Big Nine Conference football team consists of American football players selected to the All-Big Nine Conference teams selected by the Associated Press (AP), United Press (UP) and the International News Service (INS) for the 1949 Big Nine Conference football season.

1950 NCAA Men's Basketball All-Americans

The consensus 1950 College Basketball All-American team, as determined by aggregating the results of five major All-American teams. To earn "consensus" status, a player must win honors from a majority of the following teams: the Associated Press, Look Magazine, The United Press International, Collier's Magazine and the International News Service.

1951 NCAA Men's Basketball All-Americans

The consensus 1951 College Basketball All-American team, as determined by aggregating the results of five major All-American teams. To earn "consensus" status, a player must win honors from a majority of the following teams: the Associated Press, Look Magazine, The United Press International, Collier's Magazine and the International News Service.

1952 College Football All-America Team

The 1952 College Football All-America team is composed of college football players who were selected as All-Americans by various organizations and writers that chose College Football All-America Teams in 1952. The eight selectors recognized by the NCAA as "official" for the 1952 season are (1) the Associated Press, (2) the United Press, (3) the All-America Board, (4) the American Football Coaches Association (AFCA), (5) the Football Writers Association of America (FWAA), (6) the International News Service (INS), (7) the Newspaper Enterprise Association (NEA), and (8) the Sporting News.

Maryland quarterback Jack Scarbath and Notre Dame halfback Johnny Lattner were the only two players to be unanimously named first-team All-Americans by all eight official selectors. Lattner was awarded the 1952 Heisman Trophy.

1952 NCAA Men's Basketball All-Americans

The consensus 1952 College Basketball All-American team, as determined by aggregating the results of five major All-American teams. To earn "consensus" status, a player must win honors from a majority of the following teams: the Associated Press, Look Magazine, The United Press International, Collier's Magazine and the International News Service.

1953 All-Big Ten Conference football team

The 1953 All-Big Ten Conference football team consists of American football players selected to the All-Big Ten Conference teams selected by the Associated Press (AP), United Press (UP) and the International News Service (INS) for the 1953 Big Ten Conference football season.

1953 Maryland Terrapins football team

The 1953 Maryland Terrapins football team represented the University of Maryland in National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) college football in its first season as a member of the Atlantic Coast Conference (ACC). Maryland outscored its opponents 298–38 and recorded six defensive shutouts. Jim Tatum served as the head coach for the seventh year of his nine-year tenure. In the postseason, Maryland lost to Oklahoma in the 1954 Orange Bowl. The team was selected national champion by Associated Press, International News Service, and United Press International, leading to a consensus national champion designation.

1953 NCAA Men's Basketball All-Americans

The consensus 1953 College Basketball All-American team, as determined by aggregating the results of six major All-American teams. To earn "consensus" status, a player must win honors from a majority of the following teams: the Associated Press, Look Magazine, The United Press International, the Newspaper Enterprise Association (NEA), Collier's Magazine and the International News Service.

1954 NCAA Men's Basketball All-Americans

The consensus 1954 College Basketball All-American team, as determined by aggregating the results of six major All-American teams. To earn "consensus" status, a player must win honors from a majority of the following teams: the Associated Press, Look Magazine, The United Press International, the Newspaper Enterprise Association (NEA), Collier's Magazine and the International News Service.

1955 All-Big Ten Conference football team

The 1955 All-Big Ten Conference football team consists of American football players selected to the All-Big Ten Conference teams selected by the Associated Press (AP), United Press (UP) and the International News Service (INS) for the 1955 Big Ten Conference football season.

1955 NCAA Men's Basketball All-Americans

The consensus 1955 College Basketball All-American team, as determined by aggregating the results of six major All-American teams. To earn "consensus" status, a player must win honors from a majority of the following teams: the Associated Press, Look Magazine, The United Press International, the Newspaper Enterprise Association (NEA), Collier's Magazine and the International News Service.

1956 NCAA Men's Basketball All-Americans

The consensus 1956 College Basketball All-American team, as determined by aggregating the results of six major All-American teams. To earn "consensus" status, a player must win honors from a majority of the following teams: the Associated Press, Look Magazine, The United Press International, the Newspaper Enterprise Association (NEA), Collier's Magazine and the International News Service.

1957 NCAA Men's Basketball All-Americans

The consensus 1957 College Basketball All-American team, as determined by aggregating the results of six major All-American teams. To earn 'consensus' status, a player must win honors from a majority of the following teams: the Associated Press, the USBWA, The United Press International, the National Association of Basketball Coaches, the Newspaper Enterprise Association (NEA), and the International News Service.

1958 NCAA Men's Basketball All-Americans

The consensus 1958 College Basketball All-American team, as determined by aggregating the results of six major All-American teams. To earn "consensus" status, a player must win honors from a majority of the following teams: the Associated Press, the USBWA, The United Press International, the National Association of Basketball Coaches, the Newspaper Enterprise Association (NEA), and the International News Service.

FBI Ten Most Wanted Fugitives

The FBI Ten Most Wanted Fugitives is a most wanted list maintained by the United States Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). The list arose from a conversation held in late 1949 between J. Edgar Hoover, Director of the FBI, and William Kinsey Hutchinson, International News Service (the predecessor of the United Press International) editor-in-chief, who were discussing ways to promote capture of the FBI's "toughest guys". This discussion turned into a published article, which received so much positive publicity that on March 14, 1950, the FBI officially announced the list to increase law enforcement's ability to capture dangerous fugitives.Individuals are generally only removed from the list if the fugitive is captured, dies, or if the charges against them are dropped; they are then replaced by a new entry selected by the FBI. In nine cases, the FBI removed individuals from the list after deciding that they were no longer a "particularly dangerous menace to society". Machetero member Víctor Manuel Gerena, added to the list in 1984, was on the list for 32 years, which was longer than anyone else. Billie Austin Bryant spent the shortest amount of time on the list, being listed for two hours in 1969. The oldest person to be added to the list was William Bradford Bishop, Jr. on April 10, 2014 at 77 years old. On rare occasions, the FBI will add a "Number Eleven" if that individual is extremely dangerous but the Bureau does not feel any of the current ten should be removed. Despite occasional references in the media, the FBI does not rank their list; no suspect is considered "#1 on the FBI's Most Wanted List" or "The Most Wanted."The list is commonly posted in public places such as post offices. In many cases, fugitives on the list have turned themselves in on becoming aware of their listing. As of December 4, 2014, 504 fugitives had been listed, eight of them women, and 473 (94%) captured or located, 155 (31%) of them due to public assistance. On May 19, 1996, Leslie Isben Rogge became the first person on the FBI Ten Most Wanted Fugitives list to be apprehended due to the Internet. The FBI maintains other lists of individuals, including the Most Wanted Terrorists, along with crime alerts, missing persons, and other fugitive lists.

On June 17, 2013, the list reached a cumulative total of 500 fugitives having been listed.

Universal Newsreel

Universal Newsreel (sometimes known as Universal-International Newsreel or just U-I Newsreel) was a series of 7- to 10-minute newsreels that were released twice a week between 1929 and 1967 by Universal Studios. A Universal publicity official, Sam B. Jacobson, was involved in originating and producing the newsreels. Nearly all of them were filmed in black-and-white, and many were narrated by Ed Herlihy. From January 1919 to July 1929, Universal released International Newsreel, produced by Hearst's International News Service—this series later became Hearst Metrotone News released first by Fox Film Corporation 1929–1934 and then by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer beginning in 1934.

In 1976, the films' owner, MCA, made the unusual decision to turn over ownership of all of the newsreels to the National Archives. The decision effectively ended Universal's copyright claim, releasing the films into the public domain. Because royalties no longer have to be paid in order to broadcast them, Universal Newsreels have become a popular source of file footage in recent years. The History Channel made them a key part of the TV series Year-By-Year. Also, C-SPAN and CNN regularly use the films for video of events that took place before those networks were founded.

Other U.S. newsreel series included Pathé News (1910–1956), Fox Movietone News (1928–1963), Hearst Metrotone News/News of the Day (1914–1967), Paramount News (1927–1957), and The March of Time (1935–1951).

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.