International Institute for Strategic Studies

The International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS) is a British research institute (or think tank) in the area of international affairs. Since 1997 its headquarters have been Arundel House, in London, England. The 2017 Global Go To Think Tank Index ranked IISS as the tenth-best think tank worldwide and the second best Defense and National Security think tank globally,[1] while Transparify ranked it third largest UK think tank by expenditure, but gave it its lowest rating, 'deceptive', on funding transparency.[2]

International Institute for Strategic Studies
Arundel House
Arundel House, Temple, London
TypeInternational relations think tank
HeadquartersLondon, England, United Kingdom
51°30′41″N 0°06′49″W / 51.511502°N 0.113550°WCoordinates: 51°30′41″N 0°06′49″W / 51.511502°N 0.113550°W
Director-General and Chief Executive
John Chipman


The current Director-General and Chief Executive is John Chipman. The Chairman of the Council is Francois Heisbourg, a former Director. Sir Michael Howard, the British military historian, is President Emeritus. Sir Michael founded the institute together with the British Labour M.P. Denis Healey (Defence Secretary 1964–1970 and Chancellor of the Exchequer 1974–1979) and journalist Alastair Buchan.[3]

The IISS describes itself as a:

primary source of accurate, objective information on international strategic issues for politicians and diplomats, foreign affairs analysts, international business, economists, the military, defence commentators, journalists, academics and the informed public. The Institute owes no allegiance to any government, or to any political or other organisation.

The Institute claims 2,500 Individual Members and 450 Corporate and Institutional Members from more than 100 countries.

Based in London, the IISS is both a private company limited by guarantee in UK law and a registered charity.[4] It has branches in Washington, D.C. (IISS-US) and in Singapore (IISS-Asia), with charitable status in each jurisdiction, and in Manama, Bahrain (IISS-Middle East).


The Institute’s work is built on the activities of its 11 research programmes. Dozens of experts and consulting experts contribute to the institute’s studies. Research includes work under seven thematic programmes: Armed Conflict; Future Conflict and Cyber Security; Defence and Military Analysis; Economic and Energy Security; Geo-economics and Strategy; Non-Proliferation and Nuclear Policy; Security and Development. There are also four active regional security programmes: Asia-Pacific; Middle East and the Gulf; South Asia; US Foreign Policy & Transatlantic Affairs.

Notable former employees include HR McMaster, United States National Security Advisor, and diplomat Rose Gottemoeller, currently Deputy Secretary General of NATO. Orwell Prize-winning academic and journalist Anatol Lieven also worked at the Institute, as did James Steinberg, former US Deputy Secretary of State.The institute has worked with governments, defence ministries and global organisations including NATO and the European Union.


The IISS publishes The Military Balance, an annual assessment of nations' military capabilities. Since 2017 it has also published Military Balance+, an online database on the same subject.

Other publications include the Armed Conflict Database; Survival, a journal on global politics and strategy; Strategic Survey, the annual review of world affairs; and Strategic Comments, online analysis of topical issues in international affairs. Since its inception the Institute has published the Adelphi series of books, covering topical strategic issues. Recent editions have covered subjects such as Chinese cyber power, conflict in Ukraine, negotiating with armed groups and the Iraq War.

In 2011 the Institute published the FARC files – documents captured from the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia that shed light on the movement’s inner workings. It regularly publishes one-off briefing papers and dossiers.


Since 2002 the Institute has hosted the annual IISS Shangri-La Dialogue in Singapore, a conference on Asia–Pacific security issues featuring heads of state, defense ministers and security experts from the region and around the world. In 2017 Australian Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull said: “The Shangri-La Dialogue has grown to become one of the world’s great strategic gatherings.” The 2017 Global Go To Think Tank Index ranked the Shangri-La Dialogue as the best Think tank conference worldwide [5]

The annual IISS Manama Dialogue, held in the Kingdom of Bahrain, sees global heads of state and high-ranking ministers discuss defense and political issues related to the Middle East. In 2015 Egyptian president Abdel Fattah Al-Sisi described the dialogue as a “major regional event focusing on regional security issues and everything that impacts upon them”.

In recent years the Institute has hosted smaller conferences including the Bahrain Bay Forum and NATO transformation seminar, and regularly holds debates and panel discussions at its offices around the world.


Founded in 1958, with its original focus nuclear deterrence and arms control, the IISS has strong establishment links, with former US and British government officials among its members. The institute claims that it "was hugely influential in setting the intellectual structures for managing the Cold War."

Raymond L. Garthoff wrote in 2004:[6]

In 1959 the ISS issued a pamphlet on the "military balance" between the Soviet Union and NATO. It was unfortunately replete with errors, having been put together from published sources of widely varying quality. I called this to the attention of Alastair Buchan, the director of the institute, who was quite disturbed. A new version was issued in November 1960, much more correct and accurate, though still not up to the latest intelligence. Again, I called this to Buchan's attention, and he undertook to check out with British authorities what became annual issuances.

The second issue appeared under the title "The Communist Bloc and the Free World: The Military Balance 1960".


In 2016, The Guardian reported that IISS "has been accused of jeopardising its independence after leaked documents showed it has secretly received £25m from the Bahraini royal family", noting that leaked "documents reveal that IISS and Bahrain’s rulers specifically agreed to keep the latter’s funding for the Manama Dialogues secret".[7][8] The IISS did not dispute the authenticity of the leaked documents or deny receiving funding from Bahrain, but issued a response stating that "[a]ll IISS contractual agreements, including those with host governments, contain a clause asserting the Institute’s absolute intellectual and operational independence as an international organisation that does not participate in any manner of advocacy."[9] The Middle East Eye subsequently reported that IISS may have received nearly half of its total income from Bahraini sources in some years.[10]



Council members as of 2017 are:[12]

See also


  1. ^ McGann, James G. (31 January 2018). "2017 Global Go To Think Tank Index Report".
  2. ^ Transparify (16 November 2018). "Pressure grows on UK think tanks that fail to disclose their funders". Retrieved 17 February 2019.
  3. ^ "Authors of the report – Iraq". The Times. 10 September 2002.
  4. ^ "IISS Governance and Advisory Structure".
  5. ^
  6. ^ A Journey Through the Cold War, 2004, p.64. See also "Conflict: An International Journal", 1987 edition, 85-86.
  7. ^ "British thinktank received £25m from Bahraini royals, documents reveal", The Guardian, 06 December 2016 .
  8. ^ "Our funding", IISS, 10 November 2016.
  9. ^ "IISS activities in the Kingdom of Bahrain", IISS, 07 December 2016
  10. ^ "Bahrain and the IISS: The questions that need to be answered", Middle East Eye, 09 December 2016.
  11. ^ IISS, Dr John Chipman CMG
  12. ^ "The Council". International Institute for Strategic Studies. 2017. Retrieved 5 October 2017.

External links

Adelphi Papers

The Adelphi Papers is a monograph series in which the policy-related original academic research of the International Institute for Strategic Studies is principally published. The series was established in 1961 and continues today.The publications are required to be about 28,000 to 30,000 words—longer than typical journal articles, but shorter than books. About eight Adelphi papers are published annually, and 385 issues have been published from 1961 to 2006.

Anatol Lieven

Peter Paul Anatol Lieven is a British author, Orwell Prize-winning journalist, and policy analyst. He is a Senior Researcher (Bernard L. Schwartz fellow and American Strategy Program fellow) at the New America Foundation, where he focuses on US global strategy and the War on Terrorism, Associated Scholar of the Transnational Crisis Project, Chair of International Relations and Terrorism Studies at King's College London.

Between 2000 and 2005, he was a Senior Associate for Foreign and Security Policy at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Previously a journalist with the Financial Times covering Central Europe, with The Times (London) covering Pakistan (where he lived during the 1980s), Afghanistan, the former Soviet Union, and Russia (including the First Chechen War), and wrote from India as a freelancer. He has also served as an editor at the International Institute for Strategic Studies in London, where he worked for the Eastern Services of the BBC. He received a B.A. in history and a doctorate in political science from the University of Cambridge.

Bibliography of Western Sahara

This is a list of published books in English which according to reliable sources deal with the general subject of Western Sahara.

Amnesty International – Morocco: breaking the wall of silence: the 'disappeared' of Morocco

Amnesty International – Morocco: 'disappearances' of people of Western Sahara origin

Anderson, Jon Lee – Guerillas: The Men and Women Fighting Today's Wars

Arts, Karin and Pedro Pinto Leita, eds. – International Law and the Question of Western Sahara. Leiden: International Platform of Jurists for East Timor, 2007.

Barakat, Hakim, ed. – Contemporary North Africa: Issues of Development and Integration

Bender, Gerald J., James J. Coleman, Richard L. Sklar, eds. – African crisis areas and United States foreign policy

Briggs, Lloyd Cabot – The Living Races of the Sahara Desert

Briggs, Lloyd Cabot – The Tribes of the Sahara

The British Yearbook of International Law (1978)

Brownlie, Ian – African Boundaries: A Legal and Diplomatic Encyclopedia

Chaliand, Gerard – The Struggle for Africa

Chopra, Jarat – Peace-Maintenance. The Evolution of International Political Authority.

Chopra, Jarat – United Nations determination of the Western Sahara self

Copson, Raymond W. – Africa's Wars and Prospects for Peace

Cottrell, Alvin J. & James Daniel Theberge, eds. – The Western Mediterranean

Damis, John – Conflict in Northwest Africa

Dean, David J. – The air force role in low-intensity conflict

El-Ayouty, Yassin, ed. – The OAU after thirty years

El-Ayouty, Yassin & I. William Zartman, eds. – The OAU after twenty years

El Ouali, Abdelhamid – Saharan Conflict: Towards Territorial Autonomy as a Right to Democratic Self-Determination. London: Stacey International, 2008.

Elias, Robert & Jennifer Turpin, eds. – Rethinking peace

Firebrace, James and Jeremy Harding – Exiles of the Desert

Furley, Oliver, ed. – Conflict in Africa

Gallagher, Charles F. – Morocco and Its Neighbours, Part I

German Yearbook of International Law, Vol. 19

Gretton, John – Western Sahara: The Fight for Self-Determination

Hacene-Djaballah, Belkacem – Conflict in Western Sahara

Haireche, Abdel-Kader – Conflict, conflict management and cooperation in North Africa

Harding, Jeremy – The Fate of Africa: Trial by Fire

Harkavy, Robert E. & Stephanie Newman, eds. – Lessons of Recent Wars in the Third World, Vol. 1

Harrell-Bond, Barbara – The Struggle for the Western Sahara Part I

Harrell-Bond, Barbara – The Struggle for the Western Sahara Part II

Harrell-Bond, Barbara – The Struggle for the Western Sahara Part III

Hodges, Tony – Historical dictionary of Western Sahara

Hodges, Tony – The Western Saharans

Hodges, Tony – Western Sahara: The Roots of a Desert War

Houser, George M. – No One Can Stop the Rain

Human Rights Watch/Middle East – Keeping It Secret

Jensen, Erik – Western Sahara: Lines in the Sand. Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2005.

Kamil, Leo – Fueling the Fire

Keegan, John & Andrew Wheatcroft – Zones of conflict

Lawless, Richard & Laila Manahan, eds. – War and refugees

Layachi, Azzedino – Images of foreign policy

Layachi, Azzedino – The United States and North Africa

Legum, Colin, ed. – Africa Contemporary Record: Survey and Documents, Vol. I

Legum, Colin, ed. – Africa Contemporary Record: Survey and Documents, Vol. II

Legum, Colin, ed. – Africa Contemporary Record: Survey and Documents, Vol. III

Legum, Colin, ed. – Africa Contemporary Record: Survey and Documents, Vol. IV

Legum, Colin, ed. – Africa Contemporary Record: Survey and Documents, Vol. V

Legum, Colin, ed. – Africa Contemporary Record: Survey and Documents, Vol. VI

Legum, Colin, ed. – Africa Contemporary Record: Survey and Documents, Vol. VII

Legum, Colin, ed. – Africa Contemporary Record: Survey and Documents, Vol. VIII

Legum, Colin, ed. – Africa Contemporary Record: Survey and Documents, Vol. IX

Legum, Colin, ed. – Africa Contemporary Record: Survey and Documents, Vol. X

Legum, Colin, ed. – Africa Contemporary Record: Survey and Documents, Vol. XI

Legum, Colin, ed. – Africa Contemporary Record: Survey and Documents, Vol. XII

Legum, Colin, ed. – Africa Contemporary Record: Survey and Documents, Vol. XIII

Legum, Colin, ed. – Africa Contemporary Record: Survey and Documents, Vol. XIV

Legum, Colin, ed. – Africa Contemporary Record: Survey and Documents, Vol. XV

Legum, Colin, ed. – Africa Contemporary Record: Survey and Documents, Vol. XVI

Legum, Colin, ed. – Africa Contemporary Record: Survey and Documents, Vol. XVII

Legum, Colin, ed. – Africa Contemporary Record: Survey and Documents, Vol. XVIII

Legum, Colin, ed. – Africa Contemporary Record: Survey and Documents, Vol. XIX

Legum, Colin, ed. – Africa Contemporary Record: Survey and Documents, Vol. XX

Legum, Colin, ed. – Africa Contemporary Record: Survey and Documents, Vol. XXI

Lippert, Anne – The Saharawi Refugees

Lodwick, John – The Forbidden Coast

Markovitz, Irving Leonard, ed. – Studies of power and class in Africa

Mercker, John – The Sahrawis of Western Sahara

Mercker, John – Spanish Sahara

Nelson, Harold D. – Morocco: A Country Study

Neuberger, Benyamin – National self-determination in post-colonial Africa

Norris, H. T. – The Arab Conquest of the Western Sahara

Olsson, Claes, ed. – The Western Sarhara Conflict: The Role of Natural Resources in Decolonization. Uppsala, Sweden: Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, 2006.

Palin, Michael with Basil Pao – Sahara. Thomas Dunne Bks: St. Martin's, 2003. ISBN 0-312-30541-9.

Parker, Richard B. – North Africa: regional tensions and strategic concerns

Partingdon, David H., ed. – The Middle East Annual: Issues and Events, Vol. 2, 1982

Pazzanita, Anthony G. & Tony Hodges – A historical dictionary of Western Sahara

Pazzanita, Anthony G. – Western Sahara. Oxford: ABC-Clio Press, 2005, ISBN 1-85109-256-0.

Pazzanita, Anthony G. and Tony Hodges – Historical dictionary of Western Sahara, 2nd ed.

Pickart, George A. – The Western Sahara

Price, David Lynn – Conflict in the Maghreb: the Western Sahara

Price, David Lynn – Morocco and the Sahara

Price, David Lynn – The Western Sahara

Rezette, Robert – The Western Sahara and the Frontiers of Morocco

Rivkin, Benjamin – The Western Sahara: towards a referendum

Rothschild, David & Naomi Chazan, eds. – '"The Precarious Balance

Rubinstein, Alvin Z. – Moscow's third world strategy

Saxena, Suresh Chandra – The Liberation War in Western Sahara

Saxena, Suresh Chandra – '"Self-determination in Western Sahara

Saxena, Suresh Chandra – Western Sahara: No Alternative to Armed Struggle.

Shelley, Toby – ""Endgame in the Western Sahara: What Future for Africa's Last Colony? London and New York: Zed Books, 2004.

Sipe, Lynn F. – Western Sahara: a comprehensive bibliography

Sixth Congress of the Polisario Front

Somerville, Keith – Foreign military intervention in Africa

Spenler, Chris – The Maghreb in the 1990s

Strategic Survey, 1979, London: International Institute for Strategic Studies

Strategic Survey, 1982–1983, London: International Institute for Strategic Studies

Strategic Survey, 1983–1984, London: International Institute for Strategic Studies

Strategic Survey, 1988–1989, London: International Institute for Strategic Studies

Thompson, Virginia & Richard Adloff – The Western Saharans

Trout, Frank E. – Morocco's Saharan Frontiers

United Nations General Assembly Official Records – Report of the United Nations Visiting Mission to Spanish Sahara, 1975

United Nations Yearbook, 1975

United Nations Yearbook, 1976

United Nations Yearbook, 1977

United Nations Yearbook, 1978

United Nations Yearbook, 1979

United Nations Yearbook, 1980

United Nations Yearbook, 1981

United Nations Yearbook, 1982

United Nations Yearbook, 1983

United Nations Yearbook, 1984

United Nations Yearbook, 1985

United Nations Yearbook, 1986

United Nations Yearbook, 1987

United Nations Yearbook, 1988

United Nations Yearbook, 1991

United Nations Yearbook, 1992

United Nations Yearbook, 1993

United States State Department – Spanish Sahara: Background Notes

Vieuchange, Michel; Vieuchange, Jean (editor). – Smara: The Forbidden City

War and Peace. Marshall Cavendish Illustrated Encyclopedia of Postwar Conflict, vol. X

Ware, Lewis B. – Decolonization and the Global Alliance in the Arab Maghrib

Waring, Mowton L. – Spanish Sahara, focus of contention

Weexsteen, Raoul, et al. – The Struggle for Sahara

The World in Conflict 1990, London: Brassey's UK/Maxwell Pergamon

Wright, Stephen & Janice N. Brownfoot, eds. – Africa in world politics

Zartman, I. William – The political economy of Morocco

Zartman, I. William – Ripe for resolution

Zoubir, Yahia H. & Daniel Volman, eds. – International dimensions of the Western Sahara conflict

BvS 10

The BvS 10 is an All Terrain Armoured Vehicle produced by BAE Systems Land Systems Hägglunds of Sweden and under license by FNSS of Turkey. This vehicle, referred to as the All Terrain Vehicle (protected) - ATV(P) or Viking by the UK forces, was originally developed as a collaboration between industry - Hägglunds Vehicle AB - and the UK Ministry of Defence (MoD) on behalf of the Royal Marines.

The BvS 10 is similar to, but distinct from, the Bv 206 or Bv 206S. It is a much larger and fully amphibious armoured vehicle based upon the characteristic twin-cab, articulated steering system typical of Hägglunds all-terrain vehicles. The main differences from the older Bv206s are a more powerful Cummins 5.9 litre diesel engine, improved ground clearance, and newly developed chassis, power train and steering units that give the vehicle considerably enhanced speed (from previous 51.5 km/h on road) and comfort on road and in terrain, as well as greater load-carrying capability (up to 5 tons), and the ability to add various modular sub-systems such as add-on armour, weapon mounts, a load-changer and cargo platforms.

Central Theater Command

Central Theater Command is one of the five military regions of People's Liberation Army of China, and was founded on February 1, 2016. Its predecessor was the Beijing Military Region.

Its jurisdiction includes Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Henan and Hubei. Its commander is Gen. Yi Xiaoguang and its political commissar is Gen. Yin Fanglong.

The International Institute for Strategic Studies attributes to the command of 300,000 personnel, consisting of three group armies (the 27th Army, 38th Army, and the 65th Army), two armoured divisions, one mechanised infantry division, five motorised divisions, one artillery division, three armoured, seven motorised infantry, four artillery, a total of five various anti-aircraft brigades, and one anti-tank regiment. The command is also augmented by the Beijing Capital Garrison, which consists of the 1st Guards and the 3rd Guards Divisions, and the Beijing Garrison Honor Guard Battalion and Color Guard Company, both of them are charged with public duties, and is also home to the PLA Navy (PLAN) North Sea Fleet and the PLA Air Force (PLAAF) 10th Air Force Corps.

In addition to guarding the capital, the CTC is also in charge of training key personnel for leadership positions through the numerous military academies in the region.

Findley Burns Jr.

Findley Burns Jr. (May 4, 1917 in Baltimore, MD – October 14, 2003 in Southern Pines, NC) was an American Foreign Service officer, Vice Consul, and Ambassador.

Graduate of Princeton University (1939), Burns attended Harvard from 1950–51 and was a student at the National War College in Washington from 1961-62. He was a member of the International Institute for Strategic Studies in London.

Burns entered the Foreign Service in 1941. Some of his early assignments were in Madrid, Brussels, Warsaw, Martinique, and Vienna. He later served as ambassador to Jordan from 1966 to 1968 (where he was stationed during the June 1967 Six-Day War) and as ambassador to Ecuador from 1970 to 1973.

From 1974 to 1980, he worked at the United Nations in New York, where he was director of the office of Technical Cooperation.

François Heisbourg

François Heisbourg (born 24 June 1949) is currently Senior Advisor for Europe at the International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS) and Special Advisor at the Paris-based Fondation pour la Recherche Stratégique. He was director of the International Institute for Strategic Studies from 1987 to 1992 and its chairman from 2001 to 2018.

Guangzhou Military Region

The Guangzhou Military Region was from 1955 to 2016 one of the People's Liberation Army PLA Military Regions, located in the south of the People's Republic of China. In May 1949, the Central China (Hua Zhong) Military Region (MR) was formed. In March 1955, it was divided into two, the Guangzhou MR and the Wuhan Military Region. When the Wuhan MR was disbanded in August 1985, its troops stationed around the Hubei province were assigned to the Guangzhou MR.

The region was disestablished in 2016 and reorganised as the Southern Theater Command.

Just before being disbanded, the Guangzhou MR controlled the Guangdong Province, Guangxi Autonomous Region, Hunan Province, Hubei Province, and the Hainan Province Military Districts. The Hong Kong and Macau garrisons were within the Guangzhou MR area but reported directly to the Central Military Commission.

There were two Group Armies within the Region, the 41st Group Army and 42nd Group Army, and in 2006 the International Institute for Strategic Studies said the region had some 180,000 personnel, one mechanised division, three motorised infantry divisions, one artillery division, two armoured brigades, one artillery brigade, and two anti-aircraft brigades. The 123rd (Amphibious) Infantry Division (53023) at Guigang/Guangxi and 124th Infantry Divisions at Boluo, Guangdong had been identified as Rapid Reaction Units. The Hong Kong garrison includes a brigade with a helicopter unit.

The PLA's 15th Airborne Corps was also located in this MR though not under its command.

List of active People's Liberation Army aircraft

The following list of active People's Liberation Army aircraft is a list of military aircraft currently in service with all four branches of the People's Liberation Army. For retired aircraft, see list of historic aircraft of the People's Liberation Army Air Force.

List of countries by level of military equipment

This is a list of countries by level of military equipment, including naval ships, fighter aircraft and nuclear weapons. This list is indicative only, as strict comparisons cannot accurately be made.

List of countries by military expenditure share of GDP

This is a list of countries by military expenditure share of GDP—more specifically, a list of the top 15 countries by percentage share in recent years—the amount spent by a nation on its military as a share of its GDP.

The second list presents this as a share of the general government expenditure. The first list is sourced from the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute for the year 2017 and from Military Balance 2017 published by International Institute for Strategic Studies for the year 2016. The second list is sourced only from the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute for the year 2017.

List of countries by military expenditures

This article is a list of countries by military expenditure in a given year. Military expenditure figures are presented in United States dollars based on either constant or current exchange rates. These results can vary greatly from one year to another based on fluctuations in the exchange rates of each country's currency. Such fluctuations may change a country's ranking from one year to the next.

The first list is based on the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) 2018 fact sheet, which includes a list on the world's top 15 military spenders in 2017, based on current market exchange rates. The second list is based on the 2019 edition of "The Military Balance" published by the International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS) using average market exchange rates.

List of countries by number of military and paramilitary personnel

This is a list of countries by number of military and paramilitary personnel. It includes any government-sponsored soldiers used to further the domestic and foreign policies of their respective government. The term "country" is used in its most common use, in the sense of state which exercises sovereignty or has limited recognition.

Nanjing Military Region

The Nanjing Military Region (Chinese: 南京军区) was one of the former seven military command regions for the Chinese People's Liberation Army. Its jurisdiction covers all military and armed police located in Anhui, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Jiangxi, Fujian, and Shanghai. It also covers Taiwan, which is claimed by the People's Republic of China but administered by the Republic of China. The head of the region was Cai Yingting. This region is now part of the Eastern Theater Command.

The 60th Corps was active in the Nanjing Military Region until disbanded in late 1985.

In 2005, the International Institute for Strategic Studies listed the formation with an estimated 250,000 personnel, three group armies (1st, 12th, and 31st Group Armies), two armoured, one mechanised infantry, three motorised infantry, and one artillery division. There were also one armoured, four motorised infantry, two artillery, three anti-aircraft brigades, plus an anti-tank regiment.

The headquarters for the East Sea Fleet were located within the region, at Ningbo.

Nuclear doctrine of Pakistan

The Nuclear doctrine of Pakistan is a theoretical concept of military strategy that promotes deterrence by guaranteeing an immediate "massive retaliation" to an aggressive attack against the state.

Russian Ground Forces

The Ground Forces of the Russian Federation (Russian: Сухопутные войска Российской Федерации, tr. Sukhoputnye voyska Rossiyskoy Federatsii) are the land forces of the Russian Armed Forces, formed from parts of the collapsing Soviet Army in 1992. The formation of these forces posed economic challenges after the dissolution of the Soviet Union, and required reforms to professionalize the Ground Forces during the transition.

Since 1992, the Ground Forces have withdrawn thousands of troops from former Soviet garrisons abroad, while remaining extensively committed to the Chechen Wars, peacekeeping, and other operations in the Soviet successor states (what is known in Russia as the "near abroad").

Survival (journal)

Survival is a scholarly international studies journal of the International Institute for Strategic Studies, the British international affairs research institute. It is published by Routledge and has six issues a year. It was established in 1959 and the editor is Dana Allin (International Institute for Strategic Studies).

Type 59 tank

The Type 59 (Chinese: 59式; pinyin: Wǔ jiǔ shì; industrial designation: WZ-120) main battle tank is a Chinese-produced version of the Soviet T-54A tank, the earliest model of the ubiquitous T-54/55 series. The first vehicles were produced in 1958 and it was accepted into service in 1959, with serial production beginning in 1963. Over 10,000 of the tanks were produced by the time production ended in 1980 with approximately 5,500 serving with the Chinese armed forces. The tank formed the backbone of the Chinese People's Liberation Army until the early 2000s with an estimated 5,000 of the later Type 59-I and Type 59-II variants in service in 2002.

The Type 59 was modified several times during its service. It was also the basis of several later Chinese tank designs including the Type 69 and Type 79 tanks.

Volunteer military

A volunteer military or all-volunteer military is one which derives its manpower from volunteers rather than conscription or mandatory service. A country may offer attractive pay and benefits through military recruitment to attract potential recruits. Many countries with volunteer militaries reserve the right to renew conscription in the event of an emergency.

The Indian Army is the world's largest standing volunteer army. According to the International Institute for Strategic Studies, in 2010 the army had a strength of 1,129,900 active personnel and 960,000 reserve personnel

In recent decades, the trend among numerous countries has been to move from conscription to all-volunteer military forces. One significant example is in France, which has historically been the first to introduce modern conscription and whose model was followed by many other countries in Europe and elsewhere around the world.

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