International Force East Timor

The International Force East Timor (INTERFET) was a multinational non-United Nations peacemaking taskforce, organised and led by Australia in accordance with United Nations resolutions to address the humanitarian and security crisis that took place in East Timor from 1999–2000 until the arrival of UN peacekeepers.[2] INTERFET was commanded by an Australian, Major General Peter Cosgrove.

International Force East Timor
Part of the Indonesian invasion of East Timor and the Fall of Suharto
INTERFET 12 Feb 2000

Australian members of International Force East Timor (INTERFET), talk to a citizen in Dili, East Timor, in February 2000.
Date20 September 1999 – 28 February 2000

Conflict ended

  • Defeat of pro-Indonesian militia
  • Stabilisation of East Timor

International Force:

  • Australia Australia – 5,500
  • New Zealand New Zealand – 1,200
  • Thailand Thailand – 1,600
  • Brazil Brazil 
  • Canada Canada 
  • Fiji Fiji 
  • France France 
  • Germany Germany 
  • Republic of Ireland Ireland 
  • Italy Italy 
  • Jordan Jordan 
  • Kenya Kenya 
  • Malaysia Malaysia 
  • Norway Norway 
  • Pakistan Pakistan 
  • Philippines Philippines 
  • Portugal Portugal 
  • Singapore Singapore 
  • South Korea South Korea 
  • United Kingdom United Kingdom 
  • United States United States [1]


Commanders and leaders


Indonesia invaded East Timor in 1975 and annexed the former Portuguese colony. The annexation was recognised by few nations (including Australia and the United States) and was resisted by many East Timorese. Cold War security concerns were emphasised,[3] while foreign powers also placed high importance on good relations with Indonesia and were largely reluctant to assist a push for independence as a result. However, following the fall of long-serving Indonesian President Suharto, the new president, B. J. Habibie, was prepared to grant East Timor special autonomy.[4]

In late 1998, the Australian prime minister, John Howard, with his foreign minister, Alexander Downer, drafted a letter to Habibie supporting the idea of autonomy but incorporating a suggestion that the long-term issue of East Timorese self-determination could best be defused by providing the East Timorese with an opportunity for a plebiscite after a substantial period of autonomy. The explicit comparison was with the Matignon Accords involving France and New Caledonia.[5] The letter upset Habibie, who saw it as implying Indonesia was a "colonial power", and he decided in response to announce a snap referendum to be conducted within six months.[4]

News of the proposal provoked a violent reaction from pro-Indonesian militia in East Timor. The Indonesian army did not intervene to restore order. At a summit in Bali, Howard told Habibie that a United Nations peacekeeping force should oversee the process. Habibie rejected the proposal, believing it would have insulted the Indonesian military.[4]

East Timor Special Autonomy Referendum

The United Nations Mission in East Timor (UNAMET) was established to organise and conduct a referendum on the question of independence. It was composed of police and observers rather than military personnel. The UN-sponsored referendum held on 30 August 1999 showed overwhelming approval for East Timorese independence from Indonesia. After the result was announced on 4 September, violent clashes, instigated by a suspected anti-independence militia, sparked a humanitarian and security crisis in the region, with Xanana Gusmão calling for a UN peacekeeping force the same day.[6] Many East Timorese were killed, with as many as 500,000 displaced and around half fleeing the territory.[2]

On 6 September, Operation Spitfire commenced with Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) C-130 Hercules aircraft evacuating UNAMET staff, foreign nationals and refugees, including Bishop Belo, to Darwin from Dili and Baucau airfields with protection provided by unarmed Special Air Service Regiment (SASR) soldiers.[7]

United Nations resolution

The violence was met with widespread public anger in Australia, Portugal and elsewhere, and activists in Portugal, Australia, the United States and other nations pressured their governments to take action. Australia's Opposition Spokesman on Foreign Affairs, Laurie Brereton, was vocal in highlighting evidence of the Indonesian military's involvement in pro-integrationist violence and advocated United Nations peacekeeping to support the East Timor's ballot.[8] The Catholic Church in Australia urged the Australian Government to send an armed peacekeeping force to East Timor to end the violence.[9] Protests occurred outside the Indonesia Consulate in Darwin and the Indonesian Embassy in Canberra.[10][11]

The Australian prime minister, John Howard, gained the support of United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan and U.S. President Bill Clinton for an Australian-led international peacekeeping force to enter East Timor to end the violence. On 12 September, Clinton announced:[12]

[T]he Indonesian military has aided and abetted militia violence in East Timor, in violation of the commitment of its leaders to the international community. This has allowed the militias to murder innocent people, to send thousands fleeing for their lives, to attack the United Nations compound. The United States has suspended all military cooperation, assistance, and sales to Indonesia ... The Indonesian Government and military must not only stop what they are doing but reverse course. They must halt the violence not just in Dili but throughout the nation. They must permit humanitarian assistance and let the U.N. mission do its job ... We are ready to support an effort led by Australia to mobilize a multinational force to help to bring security to East Timor under U.N. auspice ... the eyes of the world are on that tiny place and on those poor innocent, suffering people.

Aileu Falintilcamp Okt '99, Xanana kehrt zurück-01
Return of Xanana Gusmão from Indonesian prison (1999).

Indonesia, in dire economic straits, relented. Under international pressure to allow an international peacekeeping force, President B.J. Habibie announced on 12 September that he would do so.[13] He told a press conference:[4]

A couple of minutes ago I called the United Nations Secretary General, Mr Kofi Annan, to inform about our readiness to accept international peacekeeping forces through the United Nations, from friendly nations, to restore peace and security in East Timor.

On 15 September 1999, the United Nations Security Council expressed concern at the deteriorating situation in East Timor and issued its Resolution 1264 calling for a multinational force to restore peace and security to East Timor, to protect and support the United Nations mission there, and to facilitate humanitarian assistance operations until such time as a United Nations peacekeeping force could be approved and deployed in the area.[14] The resolution also welcomed Australia's letter to accept the leadership of a proposed multinational force in East Timor and to make a substantial contribution to the force itself.[15]

Military operations

The lead-up to the operation remained politically and militarily tense. The Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) re-deployed frontline combat aircraft—F/A-18s and F-111s—northward to Tindal in the Northern Territory to act as a deterrent against escalation of the conflict by the Indonesian military and provide close air support and air defence in support of the landing if required. P-3C Orion maritime patrol aircraft were also deployed.[16] At peak strength the RAAF aerial support assets available to INTERFET included 10 F-111s, 12 F/A-18s, five P-3C Orions, three B707 aerial refuelling tankers, two B200 King Airs, three PC-9A forward control aircraft, and a Falcon F900 VIP jet.[17] Also in support was a significant airlift group, with Australian transport aircraft including thirteen C-130 Hercules and three DHC-4 Caribou, in addition to a number of New Zealand, British, United States, Canadian, French and Thai aircraft.[18][19] On at least one occasion Australian P-3C aircraft were intercepted by Indonesian aircraft,[20] while an Indonesian submarine was also detected by Coalition surveillance within the vicinity of Dili Harbour as INTERFET forces approached. Ultimately no serious incidents occurred and the intervention was successful; however, Australia–Indonesia relations would take several years to recover.[4]

Arriving Dili '99-001
HMAS Jervis Bay in Dili in October 1999

Of the 22 nations involved in INTERFET, 10 provided naval assets. Australia was the single largest provider, with 14 ships deployed with INTERFET between 19 September 1999 and 23 February 2000: the frigates Adelaide, Anzac, Darwin, Sydney, Newcastle, and Melbourne; the landing ship Tobruk, the landing craft Balikpapan, Brunei, Labuan, Tarakan, and Betano; the fast transport Jervis Bay; and the replenishment vessel Success. The United States contributed seven ships: the cruiser Mobile Bay; the amphibious assault ships Belleau Wood, Peleliu, and Juneau; and the replenishment ships Kilauea, San Jose, and Tippecanoe. France supplied four vessels: the frigates Vendémiaire and Prairial plus the landing ships Siroco and Jacques Cartier. Singapore contributed the amphibious landing ships Excellence, Intrepid, and Perseverance. New Zealand deployed the frigates Te Kaha and Canterbury and the replenishment ship Endeavour. Other naval vessels deployed during the operation included the Canadian replenishment ship Protecteur, the Italian amphibious assault ship San Giusto, the Portuguese frigate Vasco da Gama, the Thai landing ship Surin, and the British destroyer Glasgow.[21]

The International Forces East Timor (INTERFET) coalition began deploying to East Timor on 20 September 1999, as a non-UN force operating in accordance with UN Resolutions. Led by Australia, who contributed 5,500 personnel and the force commander, Major General Peter Cosgrove, it was tasked with restoring peace and security, protecting and supporting UNAMET, and facilitating humanitarian assistance.[2] The Australian Deployable Joint Force Headquarters provided overall command and control.[22] The main Australian combat element included infantry and cavalry provided by the 3rd Brigade.[22] Due to the nature of the operation the force deployed without its artillery and other heavy weapons and equipment; however, 105 mm and 155 mm guns and Leopard tanks were available and on standby in Darwin for rapid deployment if required.[23] It was supported by the 3rd Combat Engineer Regiment, 103rd Signals Squadron, 110th Signals Squadron, and elements of the 3rd Brigade Administrative Support Battalion.[22] Twelve Black Hawk helicopters from the 5th Aviation Regiment were also deployed. Other force level troops included military police, an intelligence company, an electronic warfare squadron, elements of an artillery locating battery, and topographic survey personnel.[22]

Special forces played a key role, with an Australian squadron from the Special Air Service Regiment (SASR), a troop from the New Zealand Special Air Service (NZSAS) and a troop from the British Special Boat Service (SBS) forming Response Force (RESPFOR).[24] The SASR flew into Dili by RAAF C-130H Hercules securing Komoro Airport followed by NZSAS and SBS. With the airhead secured, infantry from the 2nd Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment (2 RAR) then flew in from Darwin supported by two M-113 armoured personnel carriers from B Squadron, 3rd/4th Cavalry Regiment. RESPFOR began vehicle patrols into Dili, including reconnaissance of Dili port, after which a rifle company from 2 RAR—borrowing Indonesian military trucks for transport—secured the port prior to the arrival of follow-on forces the next day, while the remainder of the battalion consolidated the position at Komoro. Meanwhile, an advance party of Gurkhas from the 2nd Battalion, The Royal Gurkha Rifles (2 RGR) and British Royal Marines Commandos from the Fleet Standby Rifle Troop (FSRT) secured the foothills and areas to the south of the city. 3rd Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment (3 RAR) began landing the next day at the port, along with the 2nd Cavalry Regiment equipped with ASLAV light armoured vehicles and the remainder of the Company Group from 2 RGR arrived. No. 2 Airfield Defence Squadron (2AFDS) arrived the following day to permanently secure Komoro airport replacing 2 RAR. Additional Australian forces and support personnel arrived in the days that followed as INTERFET continued to grow, as did forces from a number of other countries, in particular from New Zealand.[25]

C-130 Darwin 021205-O-9999G-012
USAF C-130 taking off from Darwin for a mission to East Timor

Most United Nations Mission in East Timor (UNAMET) personnel had already been evacuated from the region in the preceding months by the Royal Australian Air Force, although a small number had remained behind.[26] With the withdrawal of the Indonesian forces and officials, UNAMET re-established its headquarters in Dili on 28 September and on 19 October 1999, Indonesia formally recognised the result of the independence referendum. Soon after, the United Nations Transitional Administration in East Timor (UNTAET) was established as a peacekeeping operation which was also fully responsible for the administration of East Timor to oversee its transition to independence.[2] With only limited forces available, Cosgrove adopted the 'oil spot' concept of dominating key areas from which the surrounding areas could be influenced and then secured, moving quickly by helicopter to keep the militia off balance. The large airfield at Baucau was secured by two platoons from 2 RAR on 22 September, who were relieved by the Philippine Army non-combat contingent known as the Philippine Humanitarian Support Mission to East Timor (PhilHSMET) three days later.[27]

On 26 September D Company, 2 RAR conducted an air-mobile insertion into Liquica, approximately 30 kilometres (19 mi) returning to Dili about 30 hours later.[28][27] On 29 September, the first New Zealand infantry arrived in Dili with V Company from the 1st Battalion, Royal New Zealand Infantry Regiment (1 RNZIR) together with four M-113 APCs from the Queen Alexandra's Mounted Rifles. With Dili secured INTERFET began moving into the western regencies.[25] On 1 October 2 RAR flew in to simultaneously secure Balibo and Batugade, near the western border. Mounted in APCs, elements of the battalion then secured Maliana, before clearing the remainder of the Bobonaro Regency.[29]

ARW EastTimor1
Irish Army Ranger Wing (ARW) on patrol in East Timor

On 6 October, an armoured column of Gurkhas and RESPFOR entered Suai together with RESPFOR in Black Hawks, capturing 116 militia; however, a number of SASR personnel were later ambushed, resulting in two Australians wounded. In the counter-attack two militia were killed, while two escaped but were later found to have died of wounds.[27][30][31] Meanwhile, a third Australian battalion—the 5th/7th Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment (5/7 RAR)—had arrived in Dili relieving 3 RAR. On 10 October, 3 RAR was inserted into Bobonaro and Maliana by helicopter and V Company, 1 RNZIR was inserted in Suai also by Black Hawks relieving the Gurkhas/RESPFOR. The same day a platoon from 2 RAR was fired on by Indonesian police near Mota'ain on the border, and in the ensuing clash one Indonesian was killed.[27]

On 13 October, a major amphibious operation was launched at Suai with the bulk of Headquarters 3rd Brigade (renamed Headquarters West Force) logistic and support units landed.[32] West Force (WESTFOR) consisting of 2RAR, 3RAR, and 1RNZIR, in addition to supporting aviation, engineer and armoured units, was tasked with securing the border region.[33] By 22 October, the 1 RNZIR Battalion Group was fully deployed which included a Canadian infantry company from 3rd Battalion, Royal 22 Regiment and a platoon of Irish special forces from the Army Ranger Wing supported by No. 3 Squadron RNZAF Iroquois helicopters.[34] From mid-October contingents from a number of other countries began to arrive, including battalions from Thailand and South Korea, which were deployed in the eastern part of the country.[34]

The arrival of thousands of international troops in East Timor caused the militia to flee across the border into Indonesia. A major contact at Aidabasalala, 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) from the West Timor border, occurred on 16 October 1999. The action, involving an Australian covert reconnaissance patrol from the SASR, saw the Australians repeatedly attacked in a series of fire-fights by a group of more than 20 militia. The SASR patrol had been detected whilst establishing an observation post and were forced to fight their way to a landing zone, being attacked a further three times over a one-and-a-half hour period, killing a number of their attackers before they were successfully extracted by Black Hawk helicopter. Five militia were killed and three wounded, whilst there were no Australian casualties.[35] Later, intelligence reports speculated on the involvement of Indonesian military personnel in the attempt to cut off and destroy the Australians, whilst conjecture as to the identity of the pro-Indonesian militias and the source of their arms and training increased in the media.[36][Note 1]

NZSAS East Timor
New Zealand Special Air Service (SAS) escorting a port survey team in East Timor

On 21 October 1999, INTERFET launched a combined amphibious and airmobile operation into the Oecussi Enclave, which was the last part of the country to be secured. Following covert reconnaissance of militia activity in the previous weeks, a number of special forces teams from RESPFOR were inserted by Black Hawk helicopter around Port Makasa to secure the beachhead.[40] Meanwhile, Australian Navy Clearance divers infiltrated the area aboard the Collins-class submarine HMAS Waller, conducting a covert beach reconnaissance ahead of the amphibious landing. The following day mechanised infantry from the 5/7 RAR conducted a beach landing at first light.[41] RESPFOR subsequently secured Ambeno. Reinforced by Gurkhas from 2 RGR, the force then swept through the area, capturing a number of militia while the remainder were believed to have fled to West Timor.[42] In mid-November, 3 RAR took over responsibility for the Oecussi Enclave.[43]

On 28 February 2000, INTERFET handed over command of military operations to United Nations Transitional Administration in East Timor (UNTAET).[32] A New Zealand soldier, Private Leonard Manning, was shot dead during a contact on 24 July 2000, becoming the first combat fatality since the United Nations-backed forces had arrived in September.[44] Manning was killed in the south-west town of Suai when his patrol was attacked by a group of militia.[45] Grenades and claymore mines had been withdrawn from New Zealand's forces after the UN took over, a change which was rescinded after Manning's death.[46] Two Australian soldiers also died in East Timor in 2000—Lance Corporal Russell Eisenhuth through illness on 17 January and Corporal Stuart Jones after a weapon accidentally discharged on 10 August 2000.[47]

Countries contributing to INTERFET

Commander INTERFET, Major General Cosgrove, joins hands with the new East Timor leadership during a celebration to mark the official handover to UNTAET.

Australia provided the largest contingent of troops, hardware and equipment for the INTERFET operation–5,500 personnel at its peak–followed by New Zealand.[48] New Zealand's contribution peaked at 1,200 personnel.[49] It was New Zealand's largest overseas military deployment since the Korean War.[50] Eventually 22 nations contributed to INTERFET which grew to over 11,500 strong.[51][22] Other countries to contribute include (in alphabetical order), Bangladesh, Brazil, Canada, Denmark, Egypt, Fiji, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, Malaysia, Norway, Philippines, Portugal, Singapore, South Korea, Thailand, the United Kingdom, and the United States of America.[52] Australia was refused US ground troops but was able to secure vital support for airlift, logistics, specialised intelligence, over the horizon deterrence, and "diplomatic muscle".[4][51] Participants were awarded the International Force East Timor Medal by the Australian Government.[53]

As lead nation Australia provided logistic support for a number of other nations in addition to its own requirements.[54] A Force Logistic Support Group was deployed during October and November based on the 10th Force Support Battalion (10 FSB), which included supply, transport, port operators, water transport and maintenance personnel, while a forward surgical team, preventative medical section, signals squadron, and engineers from the 17th Construction Squadron and a section of the 19th Chief Engineer Works were also attached. Meanwhile, the 9th Force Support Battalion was deployed to Darwin to provide additional support, and later rotated with 10 FSB in East Timor.[55]

Despite the proximity of considerable civilian and military infrastructure in Darwin, the provision of this support proved a major challenge for Australia, which had not been required to provide full logistic support for a deployed force since the Second World War. Reductions in defence spending over the previous decade had led to the run down of its logistic support force, resulting in the requirement to quickly implement a range of ad hoc measures to overcome these shortfalls.[56] Despite relatively short lines of communication, low expenditure of ammunition, fuel and other consumables, and limited personnel and equipment casualties, the operation strained the ADF's limited logistic capability and it was questionable whether it could have sustained a more high intensity deployment.[57]

See also



  1. ^ Sporadic cross-border raids by the militia in 2000 following the hand-over to UNTAET led to further suspicion that the militia had the tacit support of elements of the Indonesian military, or that at the least their actions were being tolerated by them.[37] Heightened activity occurred between July and September 2000, particularly in the southern border held by the New Zealand Army, which resulted in the death of one New Zealand soldier and one from Nepal, as well as the wounding of three others. Several militia were later killed in action in a series of ambushes initiated by the New Zealanders.[38][39]


  1. ^ Cross, Lyle. "East Timor: A Case Study in C4I Innovation". US Navy Information Technology Magazine. Department of Navy (US). Retrieved 9 September 2018.
  2. ^ a b c d "Australians and Peacekeeping". War History. Australian War Memorial. Retrieved 11 January 2015.
  3. ^ Gunderson 2015, p. 15.
  4. ^ a b c d e f "The Howard Years: Episode 2: "Whatever It Takes"". Program Transcript. Australian Broadcasting Commission. 24 November 2008. Archived from the original on 23 September 2010. Retrieved 19 October 2014.
  5. ^ Connery 2010, pp. 147–148.
  6. ^ "Timor chooses independence". BBC News. 4 September 1999.
  7. ^ Horner 2002, pp. 483–489.
  8. ^ Kirk, Alexandra (15 September 1999). "ALP wants commission to gather evidence of war crimes". Transcript - AM Archive. Australian Broadcasting Commission. Retrieved 13 September 2015.
  9. ^ Nelson, Jane (6 September 1999). "Australia churches, unions rally against Indonesia". Reuters.
  10. ^ McIntyre 2013, p. 177.
  11. ^ Pietsch 2010, p. 17.
  12. ^ Clinton, William. "Remarks to American and Asian Business Leaders in Auckland". The American Presidency Project. Retrieved 9 September 2018.
  13. ^ "Habibie accepts Timor peacekeepers". BBC News. 12 September 1999.
  14. ^ "UN approves Timor force". BBC News. 15 September 1999.
  15. ^ "Security Council authorises multinational force in East Timor". United Nations. 15 September 1999.
  16. ^ Wilson 2003, p. 32.
  17. ^ Wilson 2003, p. 34.
  18. ^ Wilson 2003, pp. 13–15.
  19. ^ "RAAF units in East Timor". East Timor, 1999–2000 units. Australian War Memorial. Retrieved 19 October 2014.
  20. ^ Wilson 2003, pp. 32–33.
  21. ^ Stevens 2007, pp. 14–15.
  22. ^ a b c d e Horner 2001, p. 22.
  23. ^ Horner 2001, p. 24.
  24. ^ Horner 2001, p. 20.
  25. ^ a b Farrell 2000, pp. 4–21.
  26. ^ Londey 2004, pp. 240–241.
  27. ^ a b c d Horner 2001, p. 28.
  28. ^ Farrell 2000, pp. 21–22.
  29. ^ Farrell 2000, pp. 43–46.
  30. ^ Breen 2000, p. 70.
  31. ^ Londey 2004, p. 250.
  32. ^ a b Horner 2001, p. 29.
  33. ^ Farrell 2000, p. 55.
  34. ^ a b Farrell 2000, p. 57.
  35. ^ Coulthard-Clark 2001, p. 296.
  36. ^ Farrell 2000, pp. 56–57.
  37. ^ Tanter, Selden & Shalom 2001, pp. 249–250.
  38. ^ Londey 2004, p. 259.
  39. ^ Crawford & Harper 2001, pp. 136–139.
  40. ^ Farrell 2000, pp. 65.
  41. ^ Farrell 2000, p. 66.
  42. ^ Farrell 2000, pp. 65–67.
  43. ^ Dennis et al 2008, p. 192.
  44. ^ "New Zealand soldier is shot dead in East Timor". The Independent. London. 25 July 2000. Retrieved 11 January 2015.
  45. ^ "The World Today Archive - The UN's first combat casualty in East Timor". Retrieved 16 January 2015.
  46. ^ Smith 2005, p. 13.
  47. ^ Londey 2004, pp. 256 & 259.
  48. ^ Horner 2001, p. 9.
  49. ^ McGibbon 2000, p. 419.
  50. ^ Crawford & Harper 2001, p. 6.
  51. ^ a b Londey 2004, p. 244.
  52. ^ Ryan 2000, pp. 127–129.
  53. ^ "International Force East Timor Medal". It's an Honour. Government of Australia. 29 September 2008. Retrieved 11 January 2015.
  54. ^ Horner 2001, p. 32.
  55. ^ Horner 2001, p. 23.
  56. ^ Horner 2001, pp. 32–33.
  57. ^ Horner 2001, p. 38.


  • Breen, Bob (2000). Mission Accomplished, East Timor: The Australian Defence Force Participation in the International Forces East Timor (INTERFET). Crows Nest, New South Wales: Allen & Unwin. ISBN 1865084980.
  • Connery, David (2010). Crisis Policymaking: Australia and the East Timor Crisis of 1999. Canberra: ANU E Press. ISBN 9781921666575.
  • Coulthard-Clark, Chris (2001). The Encyclopaedia of Australia's Battles (Second ed.). Crows Nest: Allen and Unwin. ISBN 1-86508-634-7.
  • Crawford, John; Harper, Glyn (2001). Operation East Timor: The New Zealand Defence Force in East Timor 1999– 2001. Auckland: Reed Publishing. ISBN 0790008238.
  • Dennis, Peter; Grey, Jeffrey; Morris, Ewan; Prior, Robin; Bou, Jean (2008). The Oxford Companion to Australian Military History (Second ed.). Melbourne: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195517849.
  • Farrell, John (2000). Peace Makers: INTERFETs Liberation of East Timor. Rocklea: Fullbore. ISBN 0-646-39424-X.
  • Gunderson, Shane (2015). Momentum and the East Timor Independence Movement: The Origins of America's Debate on East Timor. Lanham, Maryland: Lexington Books. ISBN 9781498502351.
  • Horner, David (2001). Making the Australian Defence Force. The Australian Centenary History of Defence. Volume IV. Melbourne: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-554117-0.
  • Horner, David (2002). SAS: Phantoms of War. A History of the Australian Special Air Service (Second ed.). Sydney, New South Wales: Allen & Unwin. ISBN 1-86508-647-9.
  • Londey, Peter (2004). Other People's Wars: A History of Australian Peacekeeping. Crows Nest, New South Wales: Allen & Unwin. ISBN 1-86508-651-7.
  • McGibbon, Ian, ed. (2000). The Oxford Companion to New Zealand Military History. Auckland: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-558376-0.
  • McIntyre, Iain (2013). How to Make Trouble and Influence People: Pranks, Protests, Graffiti & Political Mischief-Making from Across Australia. Chicago: PM Press. ISBN 9781604868807.
  • Pietsch, Sam (2010). "Australian Imperialism and East Timor" (PDF). Marxist Interventions (2): 7–38. ISSN 1836-6597.
  • Ryan, Alan (2000). Primary Responsibilities and Primary Risks: The Australian Defence Force Contribution to East Timor (PDF). Study Paper No. 304. Duntroon, Australian Capital Territory: Land Warfare Studies Centre. ISBN 9780642129512.
  • Smith, Ron (2005). The Death of Private Leonard Manning (PDF). Hamilton: Department of Political Science and Public Policy, University of Waikato.
  • Stevens, David (2007). Strength Through Diversity: The Combined Naval Role in Operation Stabilise (PDF). Canberra, Australian Capital Territory: Sea Power Centre – Australia. ISBN 978-0-642-29676-4.
  • Tanter, Richard; Selden, Mark; Shalom, Stephen Rosskamm, eds. (2001). Bitter Flowers, Sweet Flowers: East Timor, Indonesia, and the World Community. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 9780742509689.
  • Wilson, David (2003). Warden to Tanager: RAAF Operations in East Timor. Maryborough, Queensland: Banner Books. ISBN 1-875593-26-8.

Further reading

External links

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Batugade is a suco located in Balibo Administrative Post, Bobonaro Municipality of East Timor. The administrative seat of the suco is the village of Batugade.

Batugade is located on the main road between Dili and Kupang, the capital of Nusa Tenggara Timur Province of Indonesia in the western part of Timor island. A major immigration post for the border crossing into Indonesia, called the Batugade Integrated Border Post, is located in the suco about 3km from the village of Batugade.

Common Security and Defence Policy Service Medal

The Common Security and Defence Policy Service Medal (named the European Security and Defence Policy Service Medal prior to 2009), is an international military decoration awarded to individuals, both military and civilian, who have served with CSDP missions. Since the 1990s the European Union has taken a greater role in military missions both in Europe and abroad. These actions were taken under the Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP), which is implemented by the European Union Military Staff, a department of the EU. To recognize service in these missions the EU authorized the creation of a medal with a common obverse and reverse, to which clasps featuring the missions' name are attached to the ribbon bar.

International Force East Timor Medal

The International Force East Timor (INTERFET) Medal recognises members of the Australian Defence Force who served for 30 days (or 30 sorties) in East Timor during the INTERFET campaign (16 September 1999 – 10 April 2000). The qualifying area comprises East Timor and the sea adjacent to East Timor out to a distance of 12 nautical miles (22 km) from the low water mark.Australian Defence Force personnel are also recognised by the 'East Timor' clasp to the Australian Active Service Medal. Australia has also offered this medal to the other 16 nations who participated in the INTERFET operation.

Jaime de los Santos

Jaime de los Santos (born April 1946 in Nueva Écija, Philippines) is a retired military general in the Philippines. He joined the Philippine Army in 1969 after graduating from the Philippine Military Academy with a degree Bachelor of Science in Military Engineering. De los Santos later on served as a Brigade Commander, Chief of Staff and Commanding General of an Infantry Division and Superintendent of the Philippine Military Academy.

In 2000, United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan appointed de los Santos as the Supreme Commander of the United Nations' International Force East Timor (INTERFET) and later as the Supreme Commander of the United Nations Transitional Administration in East Timor (UNTAET) International Peacekeeping Force in East Timor. He was the first Filipino officer to lead an international peacekeeping force in foreign soil.

In 2001, President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo appointed de los Santos as the Chief of Staff and the Commanding General of the Philippine Army of the Armed Forces of the Philippines. He retired from military service on April 2002.

List of Australian campaign medals

Australian campaign medals are listed in order of precedence as defined in references below. Those campaign medals which have been independently issued by Australia to its armed forces are in bold.

List of wars involving Thailand

Thailand has been involved in multiple wars throughout its history. This list describes wars involving the historical Thai states of Sukhothai, Ayutthaya, Thonburi and Rattanakosin, as well as modern Siam and Thailand.

Ayutthaya–Lan Na War (1456–1474)

Burmese–Siamese wars (1548–1855)

Tây Sơn rebellion

Laotian Rebellion (1826–1828)

Siamese–Vietnamese War (1831–34)

Le Van Khoi revolt (1833–1835)

Siamese–Vietnamese War (1841–45)

Haw wars (1865–1890)

Franco-Siamese War (1893)

World War I (1917–1918): see Siam in World War I

Western Front (1917-1918)

Boworadet rebellion (1933)

Franco-Thai War (1940–1941)

World War II (1942–1945): see Thailand in World War II

Japanese invasion of Thailand

Pacific War

Malayan Campaign (1941-1942)

Burma Campaign (1942-1945)

Cold War (1946-1991)

Chinese Civil War (1949-1961)

Malayan Emergency (1948-1960)

Korean War (1950–1955): see Thailand in the Korean War

Third Battle of Seoul

Battle of Pork Chop Hill

Vietnam War (1965–1972): see Thailand in the Vietnam War

Tet Offensive

Battle of Hat Dich

Operation Toan Thang I

Laotian Civil War

Cambodian Civil War

Third Indochina War (1975-1991)

Communist insurgency in Thailand (1965–1983)

Communist insurgency in Malaysia (1968-1989)

Vietnamese border raids in Thailand (1979–1989)

Thai–Laotian Border War (1987–1988)

Persian Gulf War (1990-1991)

United Nations Iraq–Kuwait Observation Mission

United Nations Guards Contingent in Iraq

International Force East Timor (1999-2001)

Global War on Terrorism

Operation Enduring Freedom

Iraq War (2003–2004): See Thailand in the Iraq War. - Thai Humanitarian Assistance Task Force 976 Thai-Iraq Thailand deployed a 423-strong humanitarian contingent as part of the Multi-National Force – Iraq

Operation Enduring Freedom – Horn of Africa (2002 – present) – Rpyal Thai Navy SEALs have deployed on Royal Thai Navy warships for anti-piracy operations in the Gulf of Aden off the coast of Somalia as part of Combined Task Force 151.Anti-Piracy operation in Gulf of Aden

Anti-Piracy in strait of Malacca

Southern Insurgency

United Nations peacekeeping

United Nations Iraq–Kuwait Observation Mission: see Persian Gulf War (1990-1991)

United Nations Guards Contingent in Iraq: see Persian Gulf War (1990-1991)

United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia: see Vietnamese Occupation of Cambodia (1992-1993)

United Nations Observer Mission in Sierra Leone: see Sierra Leone Civil War (1998-1999)

United Nations Transitional Administration in East Timor: see International Force East Timor (1999-2001

United Nations Operation in Burundi: see Burundian Civil War (2004-2007)

United Nations–African Union Mission in Darfur

United Nations Assistance Mission in Afghanistan: see War in Afghanistan(2012)

United Nations Mission in Sudan: see Second Sudanese Civil War (2005-2011)

Cambodian–Thai border stand-off

Marine Service Support Regiment (Thailand)

The Marine Service Support Regiment or MSSR (Thai: กรมสนับสนุน กองพลนาวิกโยธิน หน่วยบัญชาการนาวิกโยธิน) are the marines Combat support of the Royal Thai Marine Corps and Royal Thai Navy. Military units are supplied troops to support the various branches of the Royal Thai Navy. Marine Service Support Regimen is also one of the forces participating in the mission of the unrest in South Thailand insurgency.

Martyn Dunne

Martyn John Dunne, (born 16 January 1950) is a retired New Zealand Army officer, a diplomat and senior public servant. He is the chief executive of the Ministry for Primary Industries. From 2011 until 2013 he was New Zealand High Commissioner to Australia based in Canberra. He was Comptroller of Customs and Chief Executive of the New Zealand Customs Service (2004–2011) after a career as soldier in the New Zealand Army from 1970 ending his military career in 2004 as Commander Joint Forces New Zealand with the rank of major general. In September 1999, Dunne led the New Zealand Force East Timor during New Zealand's largest deployment since World War II, and as the Senior National Officer and, with the rank of brigadier, commanded the Dili Command, an operational formation in the International Force East Timor, until 2000.

Matías Boavida

Matías Freitas Boavida (born 6 November 1968) is a politician and university teacher from East Timor. He is member of the party Fretilin.

Boavida graduated in 1998 in political science from the University of Timor Timur (today Universidade Nasionál Timór Lorosa'e). He received a Diploma in Applied Social Science Methods in 2005 from Charles Darwin University in Darwin, Australia. From 2007, Boavida studied at the Instituto Superior de Ciencias Sociais e Políticas (ISCSP) of the Technical University of Lisbon and graduated with a master's degree in 2009.From 1987 to 1999 Boavida worked in the Indonesian-occupied East Timor as a civil servant. From March 2000 he worked as a lecturer and researcher at the Universidade Nasionál Timór Lorosa'e (UNTL) at the Faculty of Sociology and Policies and at the Center for Gender Studies. From 2000 to 2007 he was also employed in various tasks at the United Nations in East Timor. From January 2001 to May 2004, he served as an administrative assistant to the International Force East Timor (INTERFET) and traveled as an election observer to the parliamentary elections in Portugal in 2002. By the end of 2004, Boavida worked as a researcher on the land and property law program before joining the March 2005 participated in a seminar of the Australian Association of Postgraduate Council (CAPA) in New Zealand.After studying in Lisbon, Boavida worked again as a lecturer at the Faculdade de Ciências Sociais e Políticas of UNTL. In addition, he took over several other parallel tasks. From March to June 2010, Boavida worked as a researcher on the Advisory Committee of the National Petroleum Fund, from June 2010 to December 2012 as a Public Policy Officer at UNMIT, and from January to March 2013 as a member of the advisory team of Finn Reske-Nielsen, the last Special Representative of the Secretary-General for East Timor. From January 2011 to 2015, Boavida headed the Public Policy Department of the UNTL Faculty of Social Sciences. Since December 2014, he also worked for Televisão de Timor Leste (TVTL) and from 2017 also on the radio and television program of Radio Televisão Maubere (RTM) as a moderator.On October 3, Boavida was sworn in to Secretary of State for the Council of Ministers and social communications in the VII. Government of East Timor.Boavida speaks in addition to Tetum and the East Timorese regional languages Galoli and Makasae still English, Portuguese and Indonesian.


Mota'ain, also spelled Motain, Mota'in or Mota Ain, is a village in the Silawan administrative village (desa), East Tasifeto subdistrict (kecamatan), Belu Regency (kabupaten) of Nusa Tenggara Timur Province, Indonesia.

A major border crossing checkpoint with customs, immigration and quarantine services between Indonesia and East Timor, called the Mota'ain Border Crossing Checkpoint, is located in the village. The corresponding checkpoint on the East Timor side is Batugade.

Mota'ain is on main road between Kupang, 290 km to the southwest, and Dili which is 113 km to the east. The nearest major city is Atambua, the capital of Belu Regency. The port of Atapupu is located 5km to the west.

Pete Tomaszewski

Petty Officer Boatswain Peter "Pete" Tomaszewski is a fictional TV character on the show Sea Patrol. He is portrayed by Jeremy Lindsay Taylor.

Peter Cosgrove

General Sir Peter John Cosgrove, (born 28 July 1947) is a retired senior Australian Army officer who served as the 26th Governor-General of Australia, in office from 2014 to 2019.

A graduate of the Royal Military College, Duntroon, Cosgrove fought in the Vietnam War, receiving the Military Cross in 1971. From 1983 to 1984, he was commander of the 1st Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment, and he later served as commander of the 6th Brigade and the 1st Division. Cosgrove rose to prominence in 1999, when he served as commander of the International Force for East Timor (INTERFET), which oversaw the peacekeeping mission in East Timor during its transition to independence.

Cosgrove was Australia's Chief of Army from 2000 to 2002, and then Chief of the Defence Force from 2002 to 2005, receiving corresponding promotions to lieutenant general and general. Cosgrove retired from active service following the end of his term as Chief of the Defence Force, and subsequently served as leader of a taskforce helping to rebuild communities in Queensland after Cyclone Larry in 2006. In January 2014, Cosgrove was named to succeed Dame Quentin Bryce as Governor-General of Australia. He was sworn in on 28 March 2014, and made a Knight of the Order of Australia on the same date. Cosgrove retired as governor-general on 1 July 2019, and was succeeded by General David Hurley.

Royal Thai Army Special Warfare Command

The Royal Thai Army Special Warfare Command (Thai: หน่วยบัญชาการสงครามพิเศษ) also known as Pa Wai Airborne (Thai: พลร่มป่าหวาย) is the special operations force of the Royal Thai Army. Its headquarters are King Narai Camp in Lopburi.

Tim McOwan

Major General Timothy Joseph McOwan, is a retired senior officer of the Australian Army. He served as Special Operations Commander Australia from February 2008 until January 2011, and the Australian Defence Attaché and Head Australian Defence Staff in Washington, D.C. He retired from the army in 2014.


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