International Football Association Board

The International Football Association Board (IFAB) is the body that determines the Laws of the Game of association football. IFAB was founded in 1886 to agree standardised Laws for international competition, and has since acted as the "guardian" of the internationally used Laws. Since its establishment in 1904, FIFA, the sport's top governing body, has recognised IFAB's jurisdiction over the Laws.[1] IFAB is known to take a highly conservative attitude regarding changes to the Laws of the Game.[2]

It is a separate body from FIFA, though FIFA is represented on the board and holds 50% of the voting power. As a legacy of association football's origins in the United Kingdom, the other organisations represented are the governing bodies of the game in the four countries of the UK. Amendments to the Laws require a three-quarter supermajority vote, meaning that FIFA's support is necessary but not sufficient for a motion to pass.

The International
Football Association Board
IFAB logo
Formation1886
PurposeManagement of the Laws of the Game
HeadquartersZurich, Switzerland
Region served
Worldwide
Membership
England The FA
Scotland SFA
Wales FAW
Northern Ireland IFA
Flag of FIFA.svg FIFA
Secretary
Lukas Brud
Websitewww.theifab.com

Operations

IFAB is made up of representatives from each of the United Kingdom's pioneering football associations—England's Football Association (The FA), the Scottish Football Association (SFA), the Football Association of Wales (FAW) and Northern Ireland's Irish Football Association (IFA)—and the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA), the international governing body for football. Each British association has one vote and FIFA has four. IFAB deliberations must be approved by three-quarters of the vote, or at least six of the eight votes.[3] Thus, FIFA's approval is necessary for any IFAB decision, but FIFA alone cannot change the Laws of the Game—they need to be agreed by at least two of the UK members. As of 2016, all members must be present for a binding vote to proceed.[3]

The Board meets twice a year, once to decide on possible changes to the rules governing the game of Football (the Annual General Meeting (AGM)) and once to deliberate on its internal affairs (the Annual Business Meeting (ABM)). In FIFA World Cup years, the AGM is held at FIFA's offices; otherwise, it rotates between Northern Ireland, Wales, England and Scotland in that order.[3] Four weeks before the AGM, the member associations must send their written proposals to the secretary of the host association. FIFA then prints a list of suggestions that are distributed to all other associations for examination. The AGM is held either in February or March and the ABM is held between September and October.[4] In cases of necessity, the Board can meet in a Special Meeting in addition to the two ordinary annual meetings. As of December 2012, the last Special Meeting was hosted by FIFA in Zurich on 5 July 2012.[5]

The decisions of each year's Annual General Meeting of the Board regarding changes to the Laws of the Game enter into force from 1 July (and are binding on FIFA and on the other members of the Board, and, given that FIFA's Statutes establish that FIFA and its member associations and affiliates adhere to the Laws of the Game laid down by IFAB, those changes bind also FIFA's other member associations, FIFA's continental confederations of member associations, and the subnational entities of the national associations) but confederations, member associations and other bodies whose current season has not ended by 1 July may delay the introduction of the adopted alterations to the Laws of the Game in their competitions until the beginning of their next season.[6] As well as permanent changes to the Laws, IFAB also authorises trials of potential amendments.[7]

History

1903 Laws of the Game.pdf
The Laws of the Game in 1903

Though the rules of football had largely been standardised by the early 1880s, the UK's four football associations still each had slightly different rules. This posed a problem with international matches and when matches were played, the rules of whoever was the home team were used. While this solution was workable, it was hardly ideal. To remedy this, the then football associations of England, Wales, Scotland and Ireland met at the International Football Conference on 6 December 1882 in Manchester, in order to set forth a common set of rules that could be applied to matches between the UK football associations' national teams. The conference created the first international competition, the British Home Championship, and proposed the establishment of a permanent board to regulate the laws of the game.

Therefore, the first meeting of IFAB took place at the FA's offices at Holborn Viaduct in London on Wednesday 2 June 1886.[8][9] The FA, SFA, FAW and IFA each had equal voting rights.

Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA), the international organising body for the sport, was formed in Paris in 1904 and declared that, regarding the Laws of the Game itself, they would enforce the rules laid down by IFAB. In 1912, FIFA requested that its representatives be included in IFAB. At a special meeting held in January 1913 in Wrexham, IFAB agreed to FIFA's request. The first regular IFAB meeting to include FIFA occurred in June 1913. Each association (including FIFA) was entitled to send two representatives, with a four-fifths majority required to change the laws (thus that the UK associations could still change the laws against FIFA's wishes if they all voted together). One more meeting of IFAB was held, in Paris in 1914, before regular meetings were curtailed by the First World War.

For the first four post-war IFAB meetings (1920, 1921, 1922, and 1923), FIFA was once again excluded, on account of a dispute between FIFA and the home nations. From 1924, once the dispute had been resolved, FIFA once again attended IFAB meetings. In 1958, the Board agreed on its current voting system.

Since Irish partition in 1921, the IFA has evolved to become the organising body for football in Northern Ireland, with football in the Republic of Ireland being organised by the FAI. A request for the FAI to become a member of IFAB was denied at the 1923 annual general meeting.[10]

List of IFAB Annual General Meetings

Year Date Host Location Venue Votes Notes / references[11]
FA SFA FAW IFA FIFA Required
to amend laws
1886 June 1st FA England London Football Association Offices,
51 Holborn Viaduct
2 2 2 2 0 100% First meeting
1887 June 1st SFA Scotland Glasgow Scottish Football Association Offices,
6 Carlton Place
First meeting to amend the Laws of the Game
1888 June 25th FAW Wales Wrexham Wynnstay Arms Hotel [12]
1889 June 1st IFA Ireland Belfast Commercial Hotel [13]
1890 June 2nd FA England London Anderton's Hotel [14]
1891 June 2nd SFA Scotland Glasgow Alexandra Hotel
1892 June 13th FAW Wales Llandudno Prince of Wales Hotel
1893 June 10th IFA Ireland Belfast Hotel Shaftesbury Date of subsequent meetings fixed to be the third Monday in June.
1894 June 18th FA England Windermere Ferry Hotel
1895 June 17th SFA Scotland Glasgow Alexandra Hotel
1896 June 15th FAW Wales Aberystwyth White Horse Hotel
1897 June 14th IFA Ireland Rostrevor, Newry Mourne Hotel
1898 June 20th FA England London Football Association Offices,
61 Chancery Lane
1899 June 19th SFA Scotland Glasgow St. Enoch's Station Hotel
1900 June 18th FAW Wales Llangollen Royal Hotel
1901 June 17th IFA Ireland Giant's Causeway, Bushmills Royal Hotel
1902 June 16th FA England Scarborough Grand Hotel
1903 June 15th SFA Scotland Ayr Station Hotel Date of subsequent meetings moved to the second Saturday in June.
1904 June 11th FAW Wales Bangor British Hotel [15]
1905 June 17th IFA Ireland Killarney Lake Hotel First meeting to be held outside today's United Kingdom.
1906 June 9th FA England Bowness-on-Windermere Royal Hotel
1907 June 8th SFA Scotland Oban Alexandra Hotel
1908 June 19th-20th FAW Wales Llandrindod Wells Rock Hotel
1909 June 12th IFA Ireland Bundoran Great Northern Hotel
1910 June 11th FA England Brighton Royal York Hotel
1911 June 11th SFA Scotland Turnberry, Ayrshire Station Hotel
1912 June 8th FAW Wales Aberystwyth Queen's Hotel
1913 June 14th IFA Ireland Portrush Northern Counties Hotel 2 2 2 2 2 80% First meeting to include FIFA
1914 June 13th FIFA France Paris Hotel Palais D'Orsay First meeting held outside Britain and Ireland.
Last meeting before the First World War.
1920 June 12th-14th FA England Torquay Torbay Hotel 2 2 2 2 0 100% First meeting after the First World War.
FIFA again excluded.
1921 June 11th SFA Scotland Portpatrick Portpatrick Hotel
1922 June 10th FAW Wales Llandudno Imperial Hotel
1923 June 9th IFA Northern Ireland Giant's Causeway, Bushmills Causeway Hotel Last meeting to exclude FIFA
1924 June 14th FA England London Football Association Offices,
42 Russell Square
2 2 2 2 2 80%
1925 June 13th FIFA France Paris 11 Rue de Londres
1926 June 12th SFA Scotland St Andrews Grand Hotel
1927 June 11th FAW Wales Llandudno Grand Hotel
1928 June 9th IFA Northern Ireland Newcastle Slieve Donard Hotel
1929 June 8th FIFA France Paris Fédération Française de Football Association Offices,
22 Rue de Londres
1930 June 14th FA England Bournemouth Royal Exeter Hotel
1931 June 13th SFA Scotland Auchterarder Gleneagles Hotel
1932 June 11th FAW Wales Llandudno Imperial Hotel
1933 June 10th IFA Northern Ireland Portrush Northern Counties Hotel Rules amended to allow FIFA-hosted meetings to take place in "the territory of a Continental National Association", rather than being restricted to Paris.
1934 June 9th FIFA France Cannes Hôtel des Anglais
1935 June 8th FA England Shanklin Daish's Hotel
1936 June 13th SFA Scotland Troon Marine Hotel
1937 June 12th FAW Wales Llandudno Imperial Hotel
1938 June 11th, 13th IFA Northern Ireland Portrush Northern Counties Hotel
1939 June 10th FIFA France Nice Hotel Negresco Last meeting held before World War II. A meeting was scheduled for London in 1940, but was abandoned when FIFA and IFA delegates were unable to attend.
1947 June 14th FA England Torquay Imperial Hotel First meeting held after World War II.
1948 June 12th FIFA Switzerland Montreux Palace Hotel First meeting held outside Britain, Ireland and France.
Meeting would have regularly been hosted by the SFA, but it was unanimously agreed to accept an invitation from FIFA to host this meeting.
1949 June 11th SFA Scotland Pitlochry Hydro Hotel
1950 June 10th FAW Wales Beaumaris Bulkeley Arms Hotel
1951 June 9th IFA Northern Ireland Portrush Northern Counties Hotel
1952 June 14th FIFA Italy Capri Morgano-Tiberio Hotel Date of future meetings moved to third Saturday in June.
1953 June 20th FA England Eastbourne Cavendish Hotel
1954 June 19th FIFA Switzerland Berne Schweizerhof Hotel The SFA agreed to forego its regularly scheduled hosting duties in order to allow FIFA to host the meeting at its 50th anniversary celebrations preceding the 1954 World Cup.
1955 June 18th SFA Scotland North Berwick Marine Hotel
1956 June 16th FAW Wales Llandudno Imperial Hotel
1957 June 15th IFA Northern Ireland Portrush Northern Counties Hotel
1958 June 7th FIFA Sweden Stockholm Hotel Foresta 1 1 1 1 4 75% Meeting held on the day before the opening of the 1958 World Cup.
New rules adopted, with greater voting weight given to FIFA "on behalf of all other National Associations in membership with it".
Hosting rules changed to provide that "when the FIFA Congress and the World Cup coincide", FIFA should host the meeting at the World Cup venue, if practicable.
Date of meeting may be any time in June.
1959 June 20th FA Jersey St. Helier, Jersey Pomme d'Or Hotel First of four consecutive meetings hosted by the FA outside England in the Channel Islands
1960 June 18th SFA Scotland St Andrews Rusack's Marine Hotel
1961 June 17th FAW Wales Porthcawl Seabank Hotel
1962 June 23rd IFA Northern Ireland Newcastle Slieve Donard Hotel
1963 June 15th FIFA Italy Venice Palazzo della Camera di Commercio
1964 June 20th FA Jersey St. Helier, Jersey Grand Hotel
1965 June 19th SFA Scotland Edinburgh Caledonian Hotel
1966 June 11th FAW Wales Llandudno Marine Hotel
1967 June 17th IFA Northern Ireland Newcastle Slieve Donard Hotel Last meeting hosted by the IFA for 13 years. The IFA withdrew from its regular hosting schedule during the 1970s owing to the "Troubles" in Northern Ireland.
1968 June 15th FIFA Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Dubrovnik Hotel Excelsior
1969 June 21st FA Jersey St. Helier, Jersey Grand Hotel
1970 June 27th SFA Scotland Inverness Caledonian Hotel
1971 June 19th FAW Wales Swansea Dragon Hotel
1972 June 10th FIFA Austria Vienna Parkhotel Schönbrunn FIFA stepped in to replace the IFA.
1973 June 23rd FA Guernsey St Peter Port, Guernsey Duke of Richmond Hotel
1974 July 9th FIFA West Germany Rottach-Egern Hotel Bachmair Meeting held two days after the final of the 1974 World Cup in nearby Munich.
First meeting not held in June.
1975 June 21st SFA Scotland Auchterarder Gleneagles Hotel
1976 June 18th FAW Wales Porthcawl Seabank Hotel
1977 June 19th FA England London Royal Garden Hotel The IFA withdrew from hosting this meeting.
1978 June 1st FIFA Argentina Buenos Aires Hotel Sheraton First meeting outside Europe. Held on the opening day of the 1978 World Cup.
1979 June 16th SFA Scotland Auchterarder Gleneagles Hotel
1980 June 7th IFA Northern Ireland Craigavad, Holywood, near Belfast Culloden Hotel
1981 June 13th FAW Wales Ruthin Ruthin Castle IFAB had accepted an invitation by FIFA President João Havelange to host this meeting in Brazil, but the invitation was subsequently withdrawn, with Havelange missing this meeting for personal reasons.
1982 July 6th FIFA Spain Madrid Palacio de Congresos Meeting held the day after the final of the 1982 World Cup
1983 July 9th FA England New Milton Chewton Glen Hotel
1984 June 2nd SFA Scotland Turnberry, Ayrshire Turnberry Hotel
1985 June 15th IFA Northern Ireland Craigavad, Holywood, near Belfast Culloden Hotel
1986 May 30th FIFA Mexico Mexico City Camino Real Hotel First (and, as of 2018, only) meeting in North America.
Originally scheduled to be held in Zurich, but moved to Mexico in connection with the 1986 World Cup.
1987 June 13th FAW Wales Llandudno Bodysgallen Hall
1988 June 4th FA England London Royal Lancaster Hotel
1989 June 7nd SFA Scotland Edinburgh Caledonian Hotel
1990 June 28th FIFA Italy Rome Hilton Cavalieri Hotel Held during the 1990 World Cup
1991 June 8th IFA Northern Ireland Craigavad, Holywood, near Belfast Culloden Hotel
1992 May 30th FAW Wales Usk Valley, Newport Celtic Manor Hotel New rules adopted by IFAB: in future years there will be two annual meetings: the Annual General Meeting, held in February / March, and the Annual Business Meeting in September / October.
1993 February 27th FA England Thundridge, Hertfordshire Hanbury Manor
1994 March 5th FIFA Switzerland Zurich FIFA House,
Hitzigweg 11
1995 March 4th SFA Scotland Turnberry, Ayrshire Turnberry Hotel
1996 March 9th FIFA Brazil Rio de Janeiro Copacabana Palace Hotel Last meeting held outside Europe (as of 2018).
Originally scheduled to be hosted by the IFA in Northern Ireland, but moved to Brazil at the instigation of outgoing FIFA President João Havelange.
1997 March 1st, IFA Northern Ireland Craigavad, Holywood, near Belfast Culloden Hotel
1998 March 6th FIFA France Paris Hôtel Plaza Athénée
1999 February 20th FAW Wales Groesfaen, Vale of Glamorgan Miskin Manor Hotel
2000 February 19th FA England Taplow, Berkshire Cliveden
2001 March 10th SFA Scotland Edinburgh Balmoral Hotel
2002 March 16th FIFA Switzerland Zermatt Hôtel Mont Cervin
2003 March 15th IFA Northern Ireland Craigavad, Holywood, near Belfast Culloden Hotel
2004 February 28th FIFA England London Claridge's Hotel Hosted in London by FIFA as part of its centenary celebrations, to celebrate the role of the four Home Associations in the development of the game.[16][17]
2005 February 26th FAW Wales Groesfaen, Vale of Glamorgan Miskin Manor Hotel
2006 March 4th FIFA Switzerland Lucerne Palace Hotel
2007 March 3rd FA England Manchester Lowry Hotel
2008 March 8th SFA Scotland Auchterarder Gleneagles Hotel
2009 February 28th IFA Northern Ireland Newcastle Slieve Donard Hotel
2010 March 6th FIFA Switzerland Zurich Home of FIFA,
FIFA-Strasse 20
2011 March 5th FAW Wales Usk Valley, Newport Celtic Manor Hotel
2012 March 3rd FA England Bagshot, Surrey Pennyhill Park Hotel
2013 March 2nd SFA Scotland Edinburgh Balmoral Hotel
2014 March 1st FIFA Switzerland Zurich Home of FIFA,
FIFA-Strasse 20
[18]
2015 February 27th - March 1st IFA Northern Ireland Craigavad, Holywood, near Belfast Culloden Hotel [19][20]
2016 March 5th FAW Wales Cardiff St. David's Hotel and Spa [21]
2017 March 3rd FA England Wembley, London Wembley Stadium [22]
2018 March 3rd FIFA Switzerland Zurich Home of FIFA,
FIFA-Strasse 20
[23]
2019 March 2nd SFA Scotland Aberdeen Marcliffe Hotel [24]

References

  1. ^ Tom Dunmore (16 September 2011). Historical Dictionary of Soccer. Scarecrow Press. pp. 150–. ISBN 978-0-8108-7188-5.
  2. ^ "Sin-bins will by considered by Fifa rulemakers Ifab after support from Sepp Blatter and Michel Platini". The Telegraph. 13 January 2014. Retrieved 6 October 2014.
  3. ^ a b c "Article 7: General Assembly" (PDF). Statutes of the International Association Football Board (IFAB). 5 March 2016. Retrieved 21 July 2016.
  4. ^ Form & Function FIFA - FIFA paper on the role of the IFAB
  5. ^ https://www.fifa.com/mm/document/affederation/ifab/01/65/91/74/03_07_2012_ifab_meeting_agenda.pdf
  6. ^ FIFA Statutes FIFA
  7. ^ Gibson, Owen (5 March 2016). "Football's lawmakers approve live trials for video technology to aid referees". The Observer. Retrieved 7 June 2016.
  8. ^ The First Meeting of the International Football Association Board Archived 2007-10-07 at the Wayback Machine Soccer South Bay Referee Association
  9. ^ TheFA.com - History of The FA Football Association
  10. ^ "Minutes of the 1923 Annual General Meeting" (PDF). p. 5. Retrieved 2019-01-16.
  11. ^ Details from the IFAB archives
  12. ^ "International Football Conference at Wrexham". Wrexham Advertiser: 8. 1888-06-30.
  13. ^ "International Football Conference". Northern Whig. Belfast (25215): 7. 1889-06-03.
  14. ^ "Football: The International Association Board". Lancashire Evening Post (1127): 6. 1890-06-03.
  15. ^ "International Football Board". The Standard. London (24953): 8. 1904-06-13.
  16. ^ "FIFA to pay tribute to British football at International Football Association Board meeting in London". 2004-02-13. Retrieved 2019-01-15.
  17. ^ "FIFA Executive Committee and 118th International Football Association Board AGM Media Accreditation Request". Retrieved 2019-01-15.
  18. ^ "Agenda: 128th Annual General Meeting of the International Football Association Board" (PDF). Retrieved 2019-01-15.
  19. ^ "Minutes: 129th Annual General Meeting of the International Football Association Board" (PDF). Retrieved 2019-01-15.
  20. ^ "Irish Football Association: Activity Report 2014-2015" (PDF). p. 20. Retrieved 2019-01-15.
  21. ^ "Agenda: 130th Annual General Meeting of the International Football Association Board" (PDF). Retrieved 2019-01-15.
  22. ^ "Agenda: 131st Annual General Meeting of the International Football Association Board" (PDF). Retrieved 2019-01-15.
  23. ^ "132nd IFAB Annual General Meeting Agenda" (PDF). Retrieved 2019-01-15.
  24. ^ "SFA top brass will attend IFAB meeting to discuss rule changes". Retrieved 2019-03-03.

External links

2017–18 Irish Cup

The 2017–18 Irish Cup (known as the Tennent's Irish Cup for sponsorship purposes) was the 138th edition of the premier knock-out cup competition in Northern Irish football since its introduction in 1881. The competition began on 19 August 2017 and concluded with the final at Windsor Park in May 2018.

Linfield are the defending champions, having defeated Coleraine 3-0 in the 2017 final.

A new system for penalty shoot-outs will be trialled as sanctioned by the International Football Association Board to test a different sequence of taking penalties. Known as "ABBA", it mirrors the serving sequence in a tennis tie-break i.e. team A takes the first penalty, team B takes the second penalty, team B takes the third penalty, etc.

Association football

Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played with a spherical ball between two teams of eleven players. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies, making it the world's most popular sport. The game is played on a rectangular field called a pitch with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by moving the ball beyond the goal line into the opposing goal.

Association football is one of a family of football codes, which emerged from various ball games played worldwide since antiquity. The modern game traces its origins to 1863 when the Laws of the Game were originally codified in England by The Football Association.

Players are not allowed to touch the ball with hands or arms while it is in play, except for the goalkeepers within the penalty area. Other players mainly use their feet to strike or pass the ball, but may also use any other part of their body except the hands and the arms. The team that scores most goals by the end of the match wins. If the score is level at the end of the game, either a draw is declared or the game goes into extra time or a penalty shootout depending on the format of the competition. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football (FIFA; French: Fédération Internationale de Football Association), which organises World Cups for both men and women every four years.

Ball (association football)

A football, soccer-ball, or association football ball is the ball used in the sport of association football. The name of the ball varies according to whether the sport is called "football", "soccer", or "association football". The ball's spherical shape, as well as its size, weight, and material composition, are specified by Law 2 of the Laws of the Game maintained by the International Football Association Board. Additional, more stringent, standards are specified by FIFA and subordinate governing bodies for the balls used in the competitions they sanction.

Early footballs began as animal bladders or stomachs that would easily fall apart if kicked too much. Improvements became possible in the 19th century with the introduction of rubber and discoveries of vulcanization by Charles Goodyear. The modern 32-panel ball design was developed in 1962 by Eigil Nielsen, and technological research continues today to develop footballs with improved performance. The 32-panel ball design was soon overcome by 24-panel balls as well as 42-panel balls, both of which improved performance compared to before, in 2007.A black-and-white patterned truncated icosahedron design, brought to prominence by the Adidas Telstar, has become an icon of the sport. Many different designs of balls exist, varying both in appearance and physical characteristics.

Corner kick

A corner kick is the method of restarting play in a game of association football when the ball goes out of play over the goal line, without a goal being scored, and having last been touched by a member of the defending team. The kick is taken from the corner of the field of play nearest to where it went out. Corners are considered to be a reasonable goal scoring opportunity for the attacking side, though not as much as a penalty kick or a direct free kick near the edge of the penalty area.

A corner kick is also awarded instead of an own goal if a team places the ball directly into its own goal from certain restarts (e.g., throw-in, free kick, etc.), though this is rare.

Determining the Outcome of a Match (association football)

Determining the Outcome of a Match is the 10th of the Laws of the Game of association football.It addresses two aspects of the game:

The procedure for scoring a goal

Procedures for determining, when necessary, the winner of a "drawn" match, in which each team has scored the same number of goals after 90 minutes.The current name and content of Law 10 date from 2016. From 1938 until 2016, Law 10 was titled "Method of Scoring", and addressed only the procedure for scoring a goal. Procedures for breaking ties were addressed, if at all, in a supplemental section of the laws.

FIFA

The Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA FEEF-ə; French for International Federation of Association Football, Spanish: Federación Internacional

de Fútbol Asociación, German: Internationaler Verband des Association Football) is a non-profit organization which describes itself as an international governing body of association football, fútsal, beach soccer, and efootball. It is the highest governing body of football.

FIFA was founded in 1904 to oversee international competition among the national associations of Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, and Switzerland. Headquartered in Zürich, its membership now comprises 211 national associations. Member countries must each also be members of one of the six regional confederations into which the world is divided: Africa, Asia, Europe, North & Central America and the Caribbean, Oceania, and South America.

Today, FIFA outlines a number of objectives in the organizational Statues, including growing football internationally, providing efforts to ensure football is accessible to everyone, and advocating for integrity and fair play. FIFA is responsible for the organization and promotion of football's major international tournaments, notably the World Cup which commenced in 1930 and the Women's World Cup which commenced in 1991. Although FIFA does not set the rules of football, that being the responsibility of the International Football Association Board, it applies and enforces the rules across all FIFA competitions. All FIFA tournaments generate revenue from sponsorship; in 2018, FIFA had revenues of over US $4.6 billion, ending the 2015-2018 cycle with a net positive of US $1.2 billion, and had cash reserves of over US $2.7 billion.

Reports by investigative journalists have linked FIFA leadership with corruption, bribery, and vote-rigging related to the election of FIFA president Sepp Blatter and the organization's decision to award the 2018 and 2022 World Cups to Russia and Qatar, respectively. These allegations led to the indictments of nine high-ranking FIFA officials and five corporate executives by the U.S. Department of Justice on charges including racketeering, wire fraud, and money laundering. On 27 May 2015, several of these officials were arrested by Swiss authorities, who were launching a simultaneous but separate criminal investigation into how the organization awarded the 2018 and 2022 World Cups. Those among these officials who were also indicted in the U.S. are expected to be extradited to face charges there as well. Many officials were suspended by FIFA's ethics committee including Sepp Blatter and Michel Platini. In early 2017 reports became public about FIFA president Gianni Infantino attempting to prevent the re-elections of both chairmen of the ethics committee, Cornel Borbély and Hans-Joachim Eckert, during the FIFA congress in May 2017. On May 9, 2017, following Infantino's proposal, FIFA Council decided not to renew the mandates of Borbély and Eckert. Together with the chairmen, 11 of 13 committee members were removed.

Football Association of Wales

The Football Association of Wales (FAW; Welsh: Cymdeithas Bêl-droed Cymru) is the governing body of association football and futsal in Wales, and controls the Welsh national football team, its corresponding women's team, as well as the Welsh national futsal team. It is a member of FIFA, UEFA and the IFAB.Established in 1876, it is the third-oldest national association in the world, and one of the four associations, along with the English Football Association, Scottish Football Association, Irish Football Association and FIFA, that make up the International Football Association Board, responsible for the Laws of the Game.

Fouls and misconduct (association football)

In the sport of association football, fouls and misconduct are acts committed by players which are deemed by the referee to be unfair and are subsequently penalized. An offense may be a foul, misconduct or both depending on the nature of the offence and the circumstances in which it occurs. Fouls and misconduct are addressed in Law 12 of the Laws of the Game.

A foul is an unfair act by a player, deemed by the referee to contravene the game's laws, that interferes with the active play of the game. Fouls are punished by the award of a free kick (possibly a penalty kick) to the opposing team. A list of specific offences that can be fouls are detailed in Law 12 of the Laws of the Game (other infractions, such as technical infractions at restarts, are not deemed to be fouls); these mostly concern unnecessarily aggressive physical play and the offence of handling the ball. An infringement is classified as a foul when the infringement meets ALL of conditions of: 1) It is committed by a player (not a substitute), 2) on the field of play, 3) while the ball is in play and 4) committed against an opponent. For example, a player striking the referee or a teammate is not a foul, but is misconduct.Misconduct is any conduct by a player that is deemed by the referee to warrant a disciplinary sanction (caution or dismissal). Misconduct may include acts which are, additionally, fouls. Unlike fouls, misconduct may occur at any time, including when the ball is out of play, during half-time and before and after the game, and both players and substitutes may be sanctioned for misconduct.

Misconduct will result in the player either receiving a caution (indicated by a yellow card) or being dismissed ("sent off") from the field (indicated by a red card). A dismissed player cannot be replaced; their team is required to play the remainder of the game with one fewer player. A second caution results in the player being dismissed. The referee has considerable discretion in applying the Laws; in particular, the offence of unsporting behavior may be used to deal with most events that violate the spirit of the game, even if they are not listed as specific offences.The system of cautioning and dismissal has existed in the Laws since 1881. Association football was the first major sport to introduce penalty cards to indicate the referee's decisions; a practice since adopted by many other sports. The first major use of the cards was in the 1970 FIFA World Cup, but they were not made mandatory at all levels until 1992.

Goal-line technology

In association football, goal-line technology (sometimes referred to as a Goal Decision System) is the use of electronic aid to determine if a goal has been scored or not. In detail, it is a method used to determine when the ball has completely crossed the goal line in between the goal-posts and underneath the crossbar with the assistance of electronic devices and at the same time assisting the referee in awarding a goal or not. The objective of goal-line technology (GLT) is not to replace the role of the officials, but rather to support them in their decision-making. The GLT must provide a clear indication as to whether the ball has fully crossed the line, and this information will serve to assist the referee in making his final decision.Compared to similar technology in other sports, goal-line technology is a relatively recent addition to association football, its integration having been opposed by the sport's authorities. In July 2012, the International Football Association Board (IFAB) officially approved the use of goal line technology, amending the Laws of the Game to permit (but not require) its use. Due to its expense, goal-line technology is only used at the highest levels of the game. Goal-line technology is currently used in the top European domestic leagues, and at major international competitions such as, since 2014, the Men's and Women's FIFA World Cups.

Goal kick

A goal kick, called a goalie kick in some regions, is a method of restarting play in a game of association football. Its procedure is dictated by Law 16 of the Laws of the Game.

Goalkeeper (association football)

The goalkeeper, often shortened to keeper or goalie, is one of the major positions of association football. It is the most specialised position in the sport. The goalkeeper's primary role is to prevent the opposing team from scoring (moving the ball over the defended goal-line within the frame of the goal). This is accomplished by the goalkeeper moving into the path of the ball and either catching it or directing it away from the vicinity of the goal line. Within the penalty area goalkeepers are able to use their hands, making them (outside throw-ins) the only players on the field permitted to handle the ball. The special status of goalkeepers is indicated by them wearing different coloured kits from their teammates.

The back-pass rule prevents goalkeepers handling direct passes back to them from teammates. Goalkeepers usually perform goal kicks, and also give commands to their defense during corner kicks, direct and indirect free kicks, and marking. Goalkeepers play an important role in directing on field strategy as they have an unrestricted view of the entire pitch, giving them a unique perspective on play development.

The goalkeeper is the only required position of a team. If they are injured or sent off, a substitute goalkeeper has to take their place, otherwise an outfield player must take the ejected keeper's place in goal. In order to replace a goalkeeper who is sent off, a team usually substitutes an outfield player for the backup keeper (thus effectively the red card and substitution takes out two of the starting eleven players). They then play the remainder of the match with nine outfield players. If a team does not have a substitute goalkeeper, or they have already used all of their permitted substitutions for the match, an outfield player has to take the dismissed goalkeeper's place and wear the goalkeeper shirt.

The squad number for a first choice goalkeeper is generally number 1, although they may wear any jersey number between 1 and 99.

Hugh Kerr (footballer)

Hugh Stewart Kerr (1882 – 10 April 1918) was a Scottish footballer. His regular position was as a forward. He played for Westerlea, Ayr, and Manchester United. Kerr joined Ayr from Westerlea in 1903, but only spent half a season there before joining Manchester United in January 1904. However, the Ayr officials were of the opinion that United had made an illegal, unofficial approach to sign Kerr, and an enquiry into the transfer was set up by the International Football Association Board (IFAB). Kerr made his Manchester United debut in a 2–1 defeat away to Blackpool on 9 March 1904, followed by another appearance in a 2–0 home win over Grimsby Town on 26 March. The IFAB found United innocent of any illicit contact with Kerr about a week later, but he was ultimately released at the end of the season.

International Football Conference

The International Football Confererence was a meeting of the four football associations of the Home Nations -- England's Football Association (The FA), the Scottish Football Association (SFA), the Football Association of Wales (FAW) and the Irish Football Association (IFA) -- held at the Queen's Hotel, Manchester, on 6 December 1882. A precursor to the International Football Association Board, the meeting's major purpose was to address inconsistencies between the laws of the various associations, particularly between England and Scotland. Among the changes resulting from the conference were:

the throw-in had to be taken from over the head with two hands (the FA had previously allowed the ball to be thrown in with one hand)

the use of a crossbar was made mandatory (the FA had previously permitted either a tape or a crossbar to be used)

the kickoff had to be kicked forwards (not previously required by the FA)

the award of an automatic goal for handball by an opponent that prevented a goal (adopted by the FA earlier that year) was eliminated

it was no longer possible to be offside from a corner-kick (previously allowed by the FA)

the boundary of the field of play should be marked by a touch line as well as by flagsThe new laws were used in the international matches of the 1882-83 season (with the exception of the first, England v. Wales, which still used the old rules). They took general effect in the Laws of the Game at the beginning of the 1883-84 season.

Laws of the Game (association football)

The Laws of the Game (LOTG) are the codified rules that help define association football. The laws mention the number of players a team should have, the game length, the size of the field and ball, the type and nature of fouls that referees may penalise, the frequently misinterpreted offside law, and many other laws that define the sport. During a match, it is the task of the referee to interpret and enforce the Laws of the Game.

There were various attempts to codify rules of football in England in the mid-19th century. The extant Laws date back to 1863 where a ruleset was formally adopted by the newly formed Football Association. Over time, the Laws have been amended, and since 1886 they have been maintained by the International Football Association Board.

They are the only rules of association football FIFA permits its members to use. The Laws allow some minor optional variations which can be implemented by national football associations, including some for play at the lowest levels, but otherwise almost all organised football worldwide is played under the same ruleset.

List of FIFA World Cup penalty shoot-outs

This is a list of all penalty shoot-outs that have occurred in the Finals tournament of the FIFA World Cup. Penalty shoot-outs were introduced as tie-breakers in the 1978 World Cup but did not occur before 1982. The first time a World Cup title was won by penalty shoot-out was in 1994. The only other time was in 2006. By the end of the 2018 edition, 30 shoot-outs have taken place in the World Cup. Of these, only two reached the sudden death stage after still being tied at the end of "best of five kicks".

The first editions of the World Cup used the rule of replaying a knockout game ending in a tie. Replacement of the rule of deciding a winner of a drawn game via drawing of lots was first proposed in 1970 to International Football Association Board, and it was adopted by FIFA for the World Cup for the first time at the 1978 tournament.

Offside (association football)

Offside is one of the laws of association football, codified in Law 11 of the Laws of the Game. The law states that a player is in an offside position if any of their body parts, except the hands and arms, are in the opponents' half of the pitch, and closer to the opponents' goal line than both the ball and the second-last opponent (the last opponent is usually, but not necessarily, the goalkeeper).Being in an offside position is not an offence in itself, but a player so positioned when the ball is played by a teammate can be judged guilty of an offside offence if they become "involved in active play", "interfere with an opponent", or "gain an advantage" by being in that position.

Scottish Football Association

The Scottish Football Association (also known as the SFA and the Scottish FA; Scottish Gaelic: Comann Ball-coise na h-Alba; Scots: Scots Fitbaw Association) is the governing body of football in Scotland and has the ultimate responsibility for the control and development of football in Scotland. Members of the SFA include clubs in Scotland, affiliated national associations as well as local associations. It was formed in 1873, making it the second oldest national football association in the world. It is not to be confused with the Scottish Football Union, which is the name that the SRU was known by until the 1920s.

The Scottish Football Association sits on the International Football Association Board which is responsible for the laws of the game. The SFA is also a member of FIFA and founder member of UEFA. It is based at Hampden Park in Glasgow. In addition, the Scottish Football Museum is located there.

The Scottish Football Association is responsible for the operation of the Scotland national football team, the annual Scottish Cup and several other duties important to the functioning of the game in Scotland.

The Football Association

The Football Association (FA) is the governing body of association football in England and the Crown dependencies of Jersey, Guernsey, and the Isle of Man. Formed in 1863, it is the oldest football association in the world and is responsible for overseeing all aspects of the amateur and professional game in its territory.

The FA sanctions all competitive football matches within its remit at national level, and indirectly at local level through the county football associations. It runs numerous competitions, the most famous of which is the FA Cup. It is also responsible for appointing the management of the men's, women's, and youth national football teams.

The FA is a member of both UEFA and FIFA and holds a permanent seat on the International Football Association Board (IFAB) which is responsible for the Laws of the Game. As the first football association, it does not use the national name "English" in its title. The FA is based at Wembley Stadium, London. The FA is a member of the British Olympic Association, meaning that the FA has control over the men's and women's Great Britain Olympic football team.All of England's professional football teams are members of the Football Association. Although it does not run the day-to-day operations of the Premier League, it has veto power over the appointment of the League Chairman and Chief Executive and over any changes to league rules. The English Football League, made up of the three fully professional divisions below the Premier League, is self-governing, subject to the FA's sanctions.

Video assistant referee

The video assistant referee (VAR) is a match official in association football who reviews decisions made by the head referee with the use of video footage and a headset for communication.

Following extensive trialling in a number of major competitions, VARs were first written into the Laws of the Game by the International Football Association Board (IFAB) in 2018. Operating under the philosophy of "minimal interference, maximum benefit", the VAR system seeks to provide a way for "clear and obvious errors" and "serious missed incidents" to be corrected.

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