International Federation of the Phonographic Industry

The International Federation of the Phonographic Industry (IFPI) is the organisation that represents the interests of the recording industry worldwide. It is a non-profit members' organisation registered in Switzerland and founded in Italy in 1933. It operates a Secretariat based in London, with regional offices in Brussels, Hong Kong and Miami.

International Federation of the Phonographic Industry
AbbreviationIFPI
MottoRepresenting the recording industry worldwide
Formation1933
Headquarters7 Air Street Piccadilly, London, United Kingdom
Chief executive
Frances Moore
Main organ
Main board of directors
Websiteifpi.org

Function

Its stated mission is to promote the value of recorded music, safeguard the rights of record producers and expand the commercial uses of recorded music.[1] Its services to members include legal policy advice (lobbying), copyright enforcement, litigation and regulatory affairs, market research and communications support.

Structure

Frances Moore was appointed the chief executive of IFPI with a term effective from 1 July 2010.[2] She replaced John Kennedy OBE, who had headed the organisation since 2005 and was also one of the co-producers of Live Aid and Live8.[3]

The IFPI is currently based in Piccadilly in the City of Westminster in London, England.

Scope of influence

IFPI represents the recording industry worldwide with some 1,400 members in 66 countries and affiliated industry associations in 45 countries.[1] According to the IFPI, "any company, firm or person producing sound recordings or music videos which are made available to the public in reasonable quantities is eligible for membership of IFPI",[1] though the company does not specify what "reasonable quantities" actually means.

National groups and affiliate bodies include SNEP in France, Bundesverband Musikindustrie in Germany, RIAJ in Japan, BPI in the UK and RIAA in the US. Although recognised as an "affiliated group", the RIAA on its own website specifically notes that IFPI administers programs "for a number of countries, excluding the United States".[4] Record labels can be members of both their local industry body and IFPI.

History

Members of the international phonographic industry formed the IFPI at the industry's first international congress in Rome, Italy, held from 10–14 November 1933[5] and registered its head office in Zurich, Switzerland.[6] The IFPI described its mission as representing "the interests of the recording industry worldwide in all fora"[7] by promoting legislation and copyrights[8] and "to protect the largely British-based recording industry" by promoting a global performance right in gramophone sound recordings.[9]

Phonogram copyrights established

The IFPI lobbied at the Rome Convention for the Protection of Performers, Producers of Phonograms and Broadcasting Organisations of 1961, which established an international standard for the protection of sound recordings, live performances and broadcasts. This Convention was opposed by trade groups representing authors and composers, who were concerned that establishing such "neighbouring rights" would undermine their own control over how their works were used and would result in prohibitively expensive licensing.[10] Pressure from United States-based broadcasters who didn't want to license the records they broadcast, among other factors, kept the United States from signing the Convention; the United States would not recognise a separate sound recording copyright until 1971.[11]

Phonogram copy protection efforts

In an effort to combat copyright violation, in 1971, the IFPI advocated for the Convention for the Protection of Producers of Phonograms Against Unauthorized Duplication of Their Phonograms (the Geneva Phonograms Convention), which 72 countries signed.[12]

In 1986, the ISO established the International Standard Recording Code (ISRC) standard, ISO 3901. In 1989, the IFPI was designated the registration authority for ISRC codes. ISRC codes "enable the use of copyright protected recordings and works to be controlled; facilitate the distribution and collection of royalties (performances, private copying); and assist in the fight against piracy".[13]

To further combat infringement of recorded works, the IFPI and the compact disc manufacturing industry introduced Source Identification (SID) codes in 1994. The SID codes are markings on optical discs such as compact discs (CD) and digital versatile discs (DVD) that identify the manufacturer, equipment, and master discs used to create each disc. There are two codes: the SID mastering code and the SID mould code. The SID mastering code identifies the manufacturing facility used to produce a master from which moulds are produced. The SID mould code identifies the plant where the disc was moulded (replicated). Since not all optical disc manufacturing facilities have the ability to both produce master discs and replicate discs, the SID mastering code and SID mould code on a given optical disc may or may not represent the same manufacturing facility.[14]:3,4

SID codes follow a standard format consisting of the letters "IFPI" followed by four or five hexadecimal digits. A number prefaced with "L" is a "mastering code", a serial number taken from a pool assigned by Philips to the manufacturer. The mastering code identifies the Laser Beam Recorder (LBR) signal processor or mould that produced a particular stamper or a glass master disc from which moulds are produced. Non-"L" numbers are "mould codes", which identify the manufacturer that replicated the disc. Phillips assigns the first 2 or 3 digits of the mould code and the remaining digits are a serial number assigned by that plant to its moulds.[14]:4,7

The Pirate Bay incidents

In mid-October 2007, after the IFPI let the ifpi.com domain registration lapse, ownership of the ifpi.com domain was transferred to The Pirate Bay, a group which claimed it received the domain from an anonymous donor.[15] The group set up a Website under the domain titled "International Federation of Pirates Interests", a replacement backronym for IFPI. Ownership of the domain was returned to the IFPI in late November, when a WIPO arbitration panel concluded that "the Disputed Domain Name is identical or confusingly similar to a trademark in which the [IFPI] has rights" and that the Pirate Bay's representative "registered and [was] using the Disputed Domain Name in bad faith" and failed to adequately rebut the IFPI's contention that he "has no rights or a legitimate interest in the Disputed Domain Name".[16] The organisation's website www.ifpi.org was unaffected during the dispute.

In a separate incident, on 18 February 2009, the Swedish ifpi.se domain was hacked by The Pirate Bay supporter(s). This occurred on the third day of the trial of the Pirate Bay founders in Sweden. The site was replaced with a short message directed at the Prosecutor Håkan Roswall and plaintiffs ("Warner Brothers etc"). It was signed "The New Generation".[17] Peter Sunde of Pirate Bay made an appeal on Twitter requesting that the hackers stop this defacement.[18]

On 19 April 2009, after the announcement of an unfavorable Swedish court decision against The Pirate Bay, the ifpi.org and ifpi.se domains were reportedly subjected to a DDoS attack. The British technology news and opinion website The Register and the copyright, file sharing and digital rights focused news site TorrentFreak speculated that the attacks were perpetrated by Pirate Bay supporters.[19][20]

Record sales certification

The IFPI awards two album sales certifications, the IFPI Platinum Europe Awards and the IFPI Middle East Awards.

The IFPI Platinum Europe Awards were founded in 1996.[21] They are awarded for actual retail sales (as opposed to shipments) of one million albums, in one of the following countries: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and United Kingdom.[22] An archive of past winners is available online.[21]

The IFPI Middle East Awards were established in October 2009.[21] They are awarded for sales in either Lebanon or the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries, namely Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates. in the GCC, Gold certificate is awarded for sales of 3,000 units and Platinum for sales of 6,000 units. In Lebanon, Gold certificate is awarded for sales of 1,000 units and Platinum for sales of 2,000 units.[23] An archive of past winners through 2010 is also available online.[21]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c "IFPI's Mission". IFPI. Retrieved 18 May 2010.
  2. ^ "Frances Moore to be new CEO of IFPI" (Press release). IFPI. 24 June 2010. Retrieved 24 June 2010.
  3. ^ "John Kennedy to succeed Jay Berman as Chairman and CEO of IFPI" (Press release). IFPI. 13 September 2004. Retrieved 2 July 2008.
  4. ^ "RIAA: Gold & Platinum: History". riaa.org. Archived from the original on 10 July 2009. Retrieved 31 March 2009.
  5. ^ Thalheim, Dr. R. (1938). "Der Schutz der Schallplatte nach italienischen Verordnung vom 18. February 1937.". Archiv für Urheber-, Film- und Theaterrecht. 11. Berlin: Julius Springer. p. 39.
  6. ^ "Introduction of the RIT (IFPI Taiwan)". Retrieved 21 April 2009.
  7. ^ Drahos, Peter; Braithwaite, John (2002). Information Feudalism: Who Owns The Knowledge Economy?. Earthscan. pp. 181–182. ISBN 1-85383-917-5. The key actor in coordinating the industry's piracy strategy became its international trade association, the International Federation of the Phonographic Industry. Formed in 1933, its mission was to represent 'the interests of the recording industry worldwide in all fora'.
  8. ^ Davies, Gillian (May 1984). Oral History of Recorded Sound (Abstract). British Library National Sound Archiv e. Retrieved 10 April 2008. IFPI founded in 1933 to deal with [r]ecord industry at inter-governmental level; promoting legislation; copyrights for industry worldwide.
  9. ^ Frith, Simon (January 1988). "Copyright and the Music Business". 7 (1). Popular Music: 57. JSTOR 853076. IFPI was founded in 1933, in its own words, 'to protect the largely British-based recording industry', but, as Gavin McFarlane points out, its brief was more specifically 'to promote on a world-wide basis the performing right in gramophone records'...
  10. ^ Drahos & Braithwaite 2002, p. 181: "Authors and composers became increasingly worried by copyright's technological turn. They saw it as compromising the artistic purity of copyright. At a more practical level, authors were worried that the recognition of a 'neighbouring right' in the form of a sound recording would undermine their control over the use of works as well as add to users' costs. Users would now have to pay additional licence fees to producers of sound recordings. It was the resistance of key author associations that helps to explain why it took more than 30 years for an international standard for the protection of sound recordings to emerge in the form of the Rome Convention of 1961."
  11. ^ Drahos & Braithwaite 2002, p. 181: "The US did not join the Rome Convention. Aside from some constitutional issues, powerful broadcasting organisations in the US did not want to endanger a status quo in which they received records from the recording industry for free or at a discount. Domestically, the US did not recognise a separate copyright in sound recordings until 1971."
  12. ^ Drahos & Braithwaite 2002, p. 181: "After its major lobbying effort on the Rome Convention [of 1961], IFPI began a campaign against piracy. It pushed for and obtained in 1971 the Convention for the Protection of Producers of Phonograms against Unauthorised Duplication of their Phonograms."
  13. ^ ISRC Practical Guide, 3rd edition, 1998, International ISRC Agency, London.
  14. ^ a b "SID Code Implementation Guide" (PDF). IFPI. International Federation of the Phonographic Industry. Retrieved 10 January 2012.
  15. ^ Ernesto (12 October 2007). "Anti-Piracy Organization Domain IFPI.com Now Owned by The Pirate Bay". TorrentFreak. Retrieved 10 April 2008.
  16. ^ "WIPO Arbitration and Mediation Center Administrative Panel Decision: IFPI Secretariat, IFPI International Federation of the Phonographic Industry v. Peter Kopimi Sunde aka Brokep (Case No. D2007-1328)". 19 November 2007. Retrieved 10 April 2008.
  17. ^ "Screenshot of translated message, original in Swedish". Archived from the original on 27 March 2009.
  18. ^ "Technology = "Whoever is hacking, please stop doing that"". New Scientist. Reed Business Information. 201 (2697): 17.
  19. ^ Leyden, John (20 April 2009). "Music industry sites DDoSed after Pirate Bay verdict". Retrieved 20 April 2009.
  20. ^ "Ernesto Van Der Sar" (20 April 2009). "IFPI Site Under Attack by Pirate Bay Supporters". Retrieved 20 April 2009.
  21. ^ a b c d "IFPI Awards". ifpi.org. Archived from the original on 29 July 2010. Retrieved 16 May 2011. IFPI Middle East Awards
  22. ^ "Platinum Europe Awards – Terms and Conditions". ifpi.org. Retrieved 16 May 2011.
  23. ^ "IFPI MIDDLE EAST AWARD APPLICATION FORM" (PDF). ifpi.org. October 2009. Retrieved 16 May 2011.

External links

Album-equivalent unit

The album-equivalent unit is a measurement unit in music industry to define the consumption of music that equals the purchase of one album copy. This consumption includes streaming and song downloads in addition to traditional album sales. The album-equivalent unit was introduced in the mid-2010s as an answer to the drop of album sales in the 21st century. Album sales more than halved from 1999 to 2009, declining from a $14.6 to $6.3 billion industry. For instance, the only albums that went platinum in the United States in 2014 were the Frozen soundtrack and Taylor Swift's 1989, whereas several artists did in 2013.The usage of the album-equivalent units revolutionized the charts from the "best-selling albums" ranking into the "most popular albums" ranking. The International Federation of the Phonographic Industry (IFPI) have used album-equivalent unit to measure their Global Recording Artist of the Year since 2013.

Alphabeat discography

The discography of Alphabeat, a Danish pop group, consists of three studio albums, four extended plays and 15 singles.

Asociación Mexicana de Productores de Fonogramas y Videogramas

Asociación Mexicana de Productores de Fonogramas y Videogramas (AMPROFON) (English: Mexican Association of Producers of Phonograms and Videograms, A.C.) is a non-profit organization integrated by multinational and national record companies in Mexico. Established on April 3, 1963, it is a trade association of phonographic companies that represent more than 70 percent of the market in Mexico. AMPROFON is an associated member of the International Federation of the Phonographic Industry (IFPI).

Associação Fonográfica Portuguesa

The Associação Fonográfica Portuguesa (AFP) is the only recording industry association in Portugal. Created in 1989, it succeeded GPPFV (Portuguese group of producers of Phonograms and videograms) and UNEVA (Union of audio and video editors).

The AFP is the Portuguese group of the International Federation of the Phonographic Industry (IFPI). The AFP gathers the main record publishers that operate in the Portuguese market and its affiliates represent more than 95% of the market.

Since its foundation in 1989, the AFP has released market information for many students of different degrees of education. The Top + programme, broadcast by RTP1, was a weekly chart programme done in partnership between the AFP and RTP and was the oldest one in Portuguese television.

Aurel Awards

The Aurel Awards were Slovak music accolades presented by Slovenská národná skupina Medzinárodnej federácie fonografického priemyslu (SNS IFPI) to recognize outstanding achievements in the industry for the preceding year in the region.

Belgian Entertainment Association

The Belgian Entertainment Association (BEA) is the organization that represents the interests of the music, video and video game industries in Belgium. It was founded in February 2008, when three organizations merged, namely IFPI Belgium, the local chapter of the International Federation of the Phonographic Industry (IFPI), which represented the music industry, the Belgian Video Federation, which represented the video industry, and the Belgian Luxembourg Interactive Software Association, which represented the video game industry. BEA is listed as the local record industry association in Belgium by the IFPI.

Bundesverband Musikindustrie

The Bundesverband Musikindustrie (English: Federal Music Industry Association), or simply BVMI, represents the music industry in Germany. The association represents the interests of nearly 280 labels and music industry related enterprises, which comprise 90% of the music industry.Bundesverband Musikindustrie is a member of International Federation of the Phonographic Industry (IFPI), which is based in London, England. IFPI consists of music associations of 70 countries.BVMI works closely with GfK Entertainment (formerly "Media Control GfK International") (founded in 1976) which is in charge of publishing the music charts in Germany on weekly bases.Bundesverband Musikindustrie, which is responsible for certifying Gold and Platinum certification awards, is led by Dieter Gorny, who has been the chairman since 2009.

Don't Look Back (Celeste Buckingham album)

Don't Look Back is the debut album by Slovak-based recording artist Celeste Buckingham, released on April 3, 2012 through a distribution by EMI Records.

Fall from Grace (Infernal album)

Fall from Grace is the fifth studio album by the Danish dance duo Infernal. It was released in Denmark on 27 September 2010. It was preceded by the lead single "Love Is All..." on 10 May 2010. "Love Is All..." peaked at number six on the Danish Singles Chart. The second single, "Alone, Together", was released on 13 September 2010.

The album debuted at number nine on the Danish Albums Chart on 8 October 2010, selling 1,850 copies in its two first weeks on the chart. It has since been certified gold by the International Federation of the Phonographic Industry (IFPI) for shipments of 10,000 copies in Denmark.

Hitlisten

Hitlisten, also known as Tracklisten, is a Danish top 40 record chart that is updated every Thursday midnight on the website hitlisten.nu. The weekly Danish singles chart Track Top-40 combines the 40 best-selling tracks from legal music downloads and the sales of music singles on either CD or vinyl. The data are collected by Nielsen Music Control, who also compile the chart on behalf of IFPI (International Federation of the Phonographic Industry).

IFPI Danmark

IFPI Danmark, IFPI Denmark is the Danish branch of the International Federation of the Phonographic Industry (IFPI) and is the official charts provider and recording sales certification body for Denmark.

IFPI Greece

International Federation of the Phonographic Industry Greece, or simply IFPI Greece, is the Greek branch of the International Federation of the Phonographic Industry (IFPI) and is the official charts provider and recording sales certification body for Greece. The association publishes a Top-75 combined repertoire albums sales chart is compiled. The charts is published by IFPI Greece and sponsored by Cyta Hellas.

The domestic trade name of IFPI Greece is Ένωση Ελλήνων Παραγωγών Ηχογραφημάτων (ΕΕΠΗ) (English: Association of Greek Producers of Phonograms [AGPP]). However, it is generally referred to, and branded as, IFPI Greece.

List of best-selling singles

This article is a compendium of the best-selling music singles. The criterion for inclusion on the list is to have sold at least five million copies worldwide. The singles listed here were cited by reliable sources from various media, such as digital journalism, newspapers, magazines, and books.

It is notable that, according to Guinness World Records, "White Christmas" (1942) by Bing Crosby is the best-selling single worldwide, with estimated sales of over 50 million copies. The song recognized as "the best-selling single of all time" was released before the pop/rock singles-chart era and "was listed as the world's best-selling single in the first-ever Guinness Book of Records (published in 1955) and—remarkably—still retains the title more than 50 years later". Also, Guinness World Records states that double A-side charity single "Candle in the Wind 1997"/"Something About the Way You Look Tonight" (1997) by Elton John, a tribute to the late Diana, Princess of Wales, is "the biggest-selling single since UK and US singles charts began in the 1950s, having accumulated worldwide sales of 33 million copies", making it the second-best-selling single of all time.The list is split between physical (mainly CD and vinyl) singles and digitally downloaded tracks which first became available to purchase in the early 2000s.

List of music recording certifications

Music recording certifications are typically awarded by the worldwide music industry based on the total units sold, streamed, or shipped to retailers. These awards and their requirements are defined by the various certifying bodies representing the music industry in various countries and territories worldwide. The standard certification awards given consist of Gold, Platinum, and sometimes Diamond awards, in ascending order; the UK also has a Silver certification, ranking below Gold. In most cases, a "Multi-Platinum" or "Multi-Diamond" award is given for multiples of the Platinum or Diamond requirements.

Many music industries around the world are represented by the International Federation of the Phonographic Industry (IFPI). The IFPI operates in 66 countries and services affiliated industry associations in 45 countries. In some cases, the IFPI is merely affiliated with the already operational certification bodies of a country, but in many countries with lesser-developed industries, the IFPI acts as the sole certifying body servicing the country or region's music industry. Still other countries not represented by the IFPI have certifying bodies operating independently, such as individual record companies which service the country or region's music industry as a whole.

Though all certifying bodies give awards for album sales or shipments, many also certify singles, paid digital downloads, music videos, music DVDs, and master ringtones. Additionally, some certifying bodies have separate threshold scales for works of domestic or international origins, varying genres, lengths, and formats. From the 2010s digital streaming was included in some territories.

Nina Hagen discography

German singer Nina Hagen has released fifteen studio albums, fourteen compilation albums, one soundtrack album and two extended plays. Hagen first signed with CBS Records in 1976 with her group Nina Hagen Band. In 1982, she detached herself from the band and released three solo albums on the label. In 1986, her contract with CBS expired and was not renewed. In 1989, Hagen signed with Mercury Records, on which label she released three new albums.

Nový človek

Nový človek is the debut album by Slovak rapper Majk Spirit released on November 11, 2011 on BeatBan Records. During first six weeks upon its release, the set sold over 6,000 copies in both the Czech Republic and Slovakia.

Philippine Association of the Record Industry

The Philippine Association of the Record Industry (Filipino: Kapisanan ng Industriya ng Plaka ng Pilipinas, abbreviated as PARI) is a non-profit and private trade organization, that represents the recording industry distributors in the Philippines.

The PARI was formed on February 10, 1972 and today is composed of 14 corporate members and 13 associate members. Since then, the association had worked with the Congress on drafting music copyright laws and had helped conduct raids on music pirates with the National Bureau of Investigation, Philippine National Police, Criminal Investigation and Detection Group and Optical Media Board.

It is also responsible for awarding music recording certifications in the Philippines. Annually, PARI organizes different music events such as the Awit Awards.

Productores de Música de España

Productores de Música de España (Spanish Music Producers) (shortened as Promusicae, sometimes stylised PROMUSICAE) is the organisation responsible for the Spanish Albums Chart and other music charts. It is a trade association that represents more than 90 percent of the Spanish recorded music industry. It is the International Federation of the Phonographic Industry (IFPI) group for Spain.

Recording Industry Association (Singapore)

The Recording Industry Association (Singapore), or RIAS is an organization of the International Federation of the Phonographic Industry that represents the music industry in Singapore. The organization was founded in 1976 as the Singapore Phonogram Association (RPA).

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