An international driving permit (IDP), often (incorrectly) referred to as an international driving licence (IDL), is any valid, legal identity document that allows the holder to drive a private motor vehicle in any country or jurisdiction that recognises the document. To be valid, the IDP must be accompanied by a valid driving licence issued in the applicant's country of residence.
International driving permits issued by any party who does not have the authority to do so are considered invalid. An international driving permit is invalid if its format largely differs from that of the Vienna Conventions.
The IDP, whose A6 size (148 × 105 mm) is slightly larger than a passport, is a multi-language translation of the driver's licence from the issuing nation, complete with photograph and vital statistics.
An IDP is not required if the driver's domestic licence meets the requirements of the 1968 convention; the domestic licence can be used directly in a foreign jurisdiction that is a party to that convention.
The main regulations about driving licences are in Annex 6 (domestic driving permit) and Annex 7 (International Driving Permit). The currently active version of those is in force in each contracting party since no later than 29 March 2011 (Article 43).
Article 41 of the convention describes requirements for driving licences. Key of those are:
|Motorcycles||Motorcycles with a cubic capacity not exceeding 125 cm³ and a power not exceeding 11 kW (light motorcycles)|
|Motor vehicles, other than those in category A, having a permissible maximum mass not exceeding 3,500 kg and not more than eight seats in addition to the driver's seat; or motor vehicles of category В coupled to a trailer the permissible maximum mass of which does not exceed 750 kg; or motor vehicles of category В coupled to a trailer the permissible maximum mass of which exceeds 750 kg but does not exceed the unladen mass of the motor vehicle, where the combined permissible maximum mass of the vehicles so coupled does not exceed 3,500 kg||Motor tricycles and quadricycles|
|Motor vehicles, other than those in category D, having a permissible maximum mass exceeding 3,500 kg; or motor vehicles of category С coupled to a trailer the permissible maximum mass of which does not exceed 750 kg||Motor vehicles, with the exception of those in category D, the permissible maximum mass of which exceeds 3,500 kg but does not exceed 7,500 kg; or motor vehicles of subcategory C1 coupled to a trailer, the permissible maximum mass of which does not exceed 750 kg|
|Motor vehicles used for the carriage of passengers and having more than eight seats in addition to the driver's seat; or motor vehicles of category D coupled to a trailer the permissible maximum mass of which does not exceed 750 kg||Motor vehicles used for the carriage of passengers and having more than 8 seats in addition to the driver's seat but not more than 16 seats in addition to the driver's seat; or motor vehicles of subcategory D1 coupled to a trailer, the permissible maximum mass of which does not exceed 750 kg|
|Motor vehicles of category В coupled to a trailer the permissible maximum mass of which exceeds 750 kg and exceeds the unladen mass of the motor vehicle; or motor vehicles of category В coupled to a trailer the permissible maximum mass of which exceeds 750 kg, where the combined permissible maximum mass of the vehicles so coupled exceeds 3,500 kg|
|Motor vehicles of category С coupled to a trailer whose permissible maximum mass exceeds 750 kg||Motor vehicles of subcategory C1 coupled to a trailer the permissible maximum mass of which exceeds 750 kg but does not exceed the unladen mass of the motor vehicle, where the combined permissible maximum mass of the vehicles so coupled does not exceed 12,000 kg|
|Motor vehicles of category D coupled to a trailer whose permissible maximum mass exceeds 750 kg||Motor vehicles of subcategory D1 coupled to a trailer, not used for the carriage of persons, the permissible maximum mass of which exceeds 750 kg but does not exceed the unladen mass of the motor vehicle, where the combined permissible maximum mass of the vehicles so coupled does not exceed 12,000 kg|
The Convention on Road Traffic has been ratified by 72 countries/jurisdiction. Examples of countries/jurisdictions that have not ratified the Convention include Chile, Taiwan (Republic of China), Costa Rica, Ecuador, the Holy See, Indonesia, Ireland, Iraq, Israel, Japan, Mexico, South Korea, Spain, Thailand, and Venezuela.
The Convention had amendments on 3 September 1993 and 28 March 2006. There is a European Agreement supplementing the Convention on Road Traffic (1968), which was concluded in Geneva, on 1 May 1971.
Note that before 29 March 2011 the convention demanded contracting parties to recognise as valid for driving in their territories:
Prior to 29 March 2011, annex 6 and annex 7 defined forms of driver's licences that are different from those defined after that date. Driving licences issued before 29 March 2011 that match older edition of the annexes are valid until their expiration dates (article 43).
|Motor vehicles, other than those in category A, having a permissible maximum weight not exceeding 3,500 kg and not more than eight seats in addition to the driver's seat.|
|Motor vehicles used for the carriage of goods and whose permissible maximum weight exceeds 3,500 kg.|
|Motor vehicles used for the carriage of passengers and having more than eight seats in addition to the driver's seat.|
|Combinations of vehicles of which the drawing vehicles is in a category or categories for which the driver is licensed (B and/or C and/or D), but that are themselves in that category or categories.|
The 1949 Geneva Convention on Road Traffic has been ratified by 96 states. The 1949 Convention's description of a driving permit and international driving permit are located in Annexes 9 and 10. Switzerland signed but did not ratify the Convention.
There is a European Agreement supplementing the 1949 Convention on Road Traffic, in addition to the 1949 Protocol on Road Signs and Signals, concluded in Geneva on 16 September 1950.
|Motor cycles, with or without a side-car, invalid carriages and three-wheeled motor vehicles with an unladen weight not exceeding 400 kg (900 lbs).|
|Motor vehicles used for the transport of passengers and comprising, in addition to the driver's seat, at most eight seats, or those used for the transport of goods and having a permissible maximum weight not exceeding 3,500 kg (7,700 lbs). Vehicles in this category may be coupled with a light trailer.|
|Motor vehicles used for the transport of goods and of which the permissible maximum weight exceeds 3,500 kg (7,700 lbs). Vehicles in this category may be coupled with a light trailer.|
|Motor vehicles used for the transport of passengers and comprising, in addition to the driver's seat, more than eight seats. Vehicles in this category may be coupled with a light trailer.|
|Motor vehicles of category B, C, or D, as authorized above, with other than light trailer.|
The 1926 Convention on Motor Traffic is the older IDP Convention. It is only required in Iraq, Somalia and Brazil. International Driving Permits according to the 1926 Convention on Motor Traffic are also valid in Liechtenstein and Mexico which also didn't ratify any of the above-mentioned later conventions. Mexico also recognizes the Inter-American Driving Permit according to the Convention on the Regulation of Inter-American Automotive Traffic 1943. This convention also contains regulations about driving licences and an international driving licence in its Articles VI and XIII and its Annex B and thus gives an alternative opportunity for a valid driving permit based on a convention between several sovereign states. Article XIII paragraph 2 says "the international driving licence issued in accordance with the international Convention of 1926 shall be deemed to meet the requirements of this Article" (which defines the requirements of the international driving licence according to the Convention on the Regulation of Inter-American Automotive Traffic 1943).
For states that have ratified the 1926 Convention on Motor Traffic but did not ratify the Convention on Road Traffic (1949 Geneva Convention on Road Traffic) (e.g. Germany) or the Convention on Road Traffic (1968 Vienna Convention on Road Traffic) (Argentina, Chile, Egypt, Spain, India, Ireland, Iceland, Lebanese Republic, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Sri Lanka, Syria, Thailand and the Vatican City State [eventually via the Holy See as contract party]) the number of states in which the International Driving Permit according to the 1926 Convention on Motor Traffic is valid, is higher.
|Motor vehicles of which the laden weight does not exceed 3,500 kg.|
|Motor vehicles of which the laden weight exceeds 3,500 kg.|
|Motor-cycles, with or without side-car.|
According to the 1968 Vienna Convention, an IDP must have an expiration date of no more than three years from its issue date or until the expiration date of national driving permit, whichever is earlier, and it is valid for a period of one year upon the arrival in the foreign country. The previous convention (1949 Geneva Convention) stated that an IDP remains valid for one year from the date of issue, with a grace period of six months.
The IDP is not valid for driving in the country or jurisdiction where it was issued, it can only be used in foreign countries, and it must be shown with the carrier's original driver's license.
The current parties to the 1949 Geneva Convention are listed below. These jurisdictions issue International Driving Permits.
Asia, Oceania (19) Australia, Bangladesh, Cambodia, China (Republic of), Fiji, Hong Kong, India, Japan, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Malaysia, New Zealand, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam
Americas (15) Argentina, Barbados, Canada, Chile, Cuba, Ecuador, Guatemala, Haiti, Jamaica, Paraguay, Peru, Republic of Dominica, Trinidad and Tobago, United States of America, Venezuela
Europe (36) Albania, Andorra, Austria, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Georgia, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Monaco, Montenegro, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of San Marino, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Serbia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, United Kingdom, Vatican City (Holy See)
Lithuania accessed in 2019.
Middle East, Africa (32) Algeria, Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Central African Republic, Côte d'Ivoire, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Egypt, Ghana, Israel, Jordan, Kingdom of Lesotho, Lebanon, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Morocco, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Republic of Congo, Republic of South Africa, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Syria, Togo, Tunisia, Uganda, United Arab Emirates, Zimbabwe
The current parties to the 1968 Vienna Convention are listed below. These jurisdictions issue and recognize International Driving Permits.
|Participant||Signature||Accession(a), Succession(d), Ratification|
|Albania||29 Jun 2000 a|
|Armenia||8 Feb 2005 a|
|Austria||8 Nov 1968||11 Aug 1981|
|Azerbaijan||3 Jul 2002 a|
|Bahamas||14 May 1991 a|
|Bahrain||4 May 1973 a|
|Belarus||8 Nov 1968||18 Jun 1974|
|Belgium||8 Nov 1968||16 Nov 1988|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||1 Sep 1993 d|
|Brazil||8 Nov 1968||29 Oct 1980|
|Bulgaria||8 Nov 1968||28 Dec 1978|
|Cabo Verde||12 Jun 2018 a|
|Central African Republic||3 Feb 1988 a|
|Chile||8 Nov 1968|
|Costa Rica||8 Nov 1968|
|Côte d'Ivoire||24 Jul 1985 a|
|Croatia||23 Nov 1992 d|
|Cuba||30 Sep 1977 a|
|Czech Republic||2 Jun 1993 d|
|Democratic Republic of the Congo||25 Jul 1977 a|
|Denmark||8 Nov 1968||3 Nov 1986|
|Ecuador||8 Nov 1968|
|Estonia||24 Aug 1992 a|
|Finland||16 Dec 1969||1 Apr 1985|
|France||8 Nov 1968||9 Dec 1971|
|Georgia||23 Jul 1993 a|
|Germany||8 Nov 1968||3 Aug 1978|
|Ghana||22 Aug 1969|
|Greece||18 Dec 1986 a|
|Guyana||31 Jan 1973 a|
|Holy See||8 Nov 1968|
|Hungary||8 Nov 1968||16 Mar 1976|
|Indonesia||8 Nov 1968|
|Iran (Islamic Republic of)||8 Nov 1968||21 May 1976|
|Iraq||1 Feb 2017 a|
|Israel||8 Nov 1968||11 May 1971|
|Italy||8 Nov 1968||2 Oct 1996|
|Kazakhstan||4 Apr 1994 a|
|Kenya||9 Sep 2009 a|
|Kuwait||14 Mar 1980 a|
|Kyrgyzstan||30 Aug 2006 a|
|Latvia||19 Oct 1992 a|
|Liberia||16 Sep 2005 a|
|Lithuania||20 Nov 1991 a|
|Luxembourg||8 Nov 1968||25 Nov 1975|
|Mexico||8 Nov 1968|
|Monaco||6 Jun 1978 a|
|Mongolia||19 Dec 1997 a|
|Montenegro||23 Oct 2006 d|
|Morocco||29 Dec 1982 a|
|Netherlands||8 Nov 2007 a|
|Niger||11 Jul 1975 a|
|Nigeria||18 Oct 2018 a|
|North Macedonia||18 Aug 1993 d|
|Norway||23 Dec 1969||1 Apr 1985|
|Pakistan||19 Mar 1986 a|
|Peru||6 Oct 2006 a|
|Philippines||8 Nov 1968||27 Dec 1973|
|Poland||8 Nov 1968||23 Aug 1984|
|Portugal||8 Nov 1968||30 Sep 2010|
|Qatar||6 Mar 2013 a|
|Republic of Korea||29 Dec 1969|
|Republic of Moldova||26 May 1993 a|
|Romania||8 Nov 1968||9 Dec 1980|
|Russian Federation||8 Nov 1968||7 Jun 1974|
|San Marino||8 Nov 1968||20 Jul 1970|
|Saudi Arabia||12 May 2016 a|
|Senegal||16 Aug 1972 a|
|Serbia||12 Mar 2001 d|
|Seychelles||11 Apr 1977 a|
|Slovakia||1 Feb 1993 d|
|Slovenia||6 Jul 1992 d|
|South Africa||1 Nov 1977 a|
|Spain||8 Nov 1968|
|Sweden||8 Nov 1968||25 Jul 1985|
|Switzerland||8 Nov 1968||11 Dec 1991|
|Tajikistan||Example||9 Mar 1994 a|
|Thailand||8 Nov 1968|
|Tunisia||5 Jan 2004 a|
|Turkey||22 Jan 2013 a|
|Turkmenistan||14 Jun 1993 a|
|Ukraine||8 Nov 1968||12 Jul 1974|
|United Arab Emirates||10 Jan 2007 a|
|United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland||8 Nov 1968||28 Mar 2018|
|Uruguay||8 Apr 1981 a|
|Uzbekistan||17 Jan 1995 a|
|Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of)||8 Nov 1968|
|Viet Nam||20 Aug 2014 a|
|Zimbabwe||31 Jul 1981 a|
* Requires presentation to local police and payment of special registration upon arrival
** IDP must be exchanged for a local driving licence.
Alabama HB 56 (AL Act 2011-535), titled the Beason-Hammon Alabama Taxpayer and Citizen Protection Act is an anti-illegal immigration bill, signed into law in the U.S. state of Alabama in June 2011.The law, written in large part by Kansas Secretary of State Kris Kobach, and cosponsored by Alabama Representative Micky Hammon and Alabama State Senator Scott Beason, was passed by the Alabama House of Representatives and Alabama Senate with widespread legislative support. It was then signed into law on June 9, 2011, by Governor Robert J. Bentley.Car rental
A car rental, hire car, or car hire agency is a company that rents automobiles for short periods of time, generally ranging from a few hours to a few weeks. It is often organised with numerous local branches (which allow a user to return a vehicle to a different location), and primarily located near airports or busy city areas and often complemented by a website allowing online reservations.
Car rental agencies primarily serve people who require a temporary vehicle, for example, those who do not own their own car, travelers who are out of town, or owners of damaged or destroyed vehicles who are awaiting repair or insurance compensation. Car rental agencies may also serve the self-moving industry needs, by renting vans or trucks, and in certain markets, other types of vehicles such as motorcycles or scooters may also be offered.
Alongside the basic rental of a vehicle, car rental agencies typically also offer extra products such as insurance, global positioning system (GPS) navigation systems, entertainment systems, mobile phones, portable WiFi and child safety seats.Category D
Category D can refer to:
Category D pregnancy - Positive evidence of risk
Category D Prison
Category D, for an International Driving Permit
Category D village
Category D stations (DfT)Driver's license
A driver's license is an official document, often plastic and the size of a credit card, permitting a specific individual to operate one or more types of motorized vehicles, such as a motorcycle, car, truck, or bus on a public road.
In most international agreements the wording driving permit is used, for instance in the Vienna Convention on Road Traffic.
The term driver's license is American English; the Canadian English equivalent is driver's licence, the Australian and New Zealand English equivalent is driver licence and in many Commonwealth countries and Ireland it is driving licence. In this article, the American terminology and spelling is used generally but in country specific sections, the local spelling variant is used.
The laws relating to the licensing of drivers vary between jurisdictions. In some jurisdictions, a permit is issued after the recipient has passed a driving test, while in others, a person acquires their permit before beginning to drive. Different categories of permit often exist for different types of motor vehicles, particularly large trucks and passenger vehicles. The difficulty of the driving test varies considerably between jurisdictions, as do factors such as age and the required level of competence and practice.Driving licence in Pakistan
In Pakistan, the driving licence is the official document which authorises its holder to operate various types of motor vehicle on roads to which the public have access. Driving licences can be obtained by applying to any traffic police office/licensing authority in applicant's district.uDriving licence in Thailand
Like many other countries, a driver's licence is required before someone can drive on any road in Thailand. A Thai driver's licence is issued by the Department of Land Transport, Ministry of Transport and can be used throughout the Kingdom of Thailand and other ASEAN states without an International Driving Permit. The minimum age to drive a motor vehicle is 18, and to drive a motorcycle is 15.Driving license in Indonesia
Indonesian Driving License or Surat Izin Mengemudi (SIM) is a legal document required in Indonesia before they are allowed to drive a motor vehicle. The Indonesian driving license is issued by the Indonesian National Police (Polri). The general requirements for a license in Indonesia are to be at least 17 years old (for A-class; different age requirement exist for each class), pass the theory test, and pass the practical test.Driving license in Taiwan
In Taiwan, Driving licenses (汽車駕駛執照) are issued by the Ministry of Transportation and Communications to a qualified motor vehicle driver. The number of the driving license in Taiwan is the same as the ID number of the license holder's household registration in Taiwan. In Taiwan, the driving license sometimes accepted as a valid identity document, since the information on a driving license replicates most of those on a National Identification Card.Gross vehicle weight rating
The gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR), or gross vehicle mass (GVM) is the maximum operating weight/mass of a vehicle as specified by the manufacturer including the vehicle's chassis, body, engine, engine fluids, fuel, accessories, driver, passengers and cargo but excluding that of any trailers. The term is used for motor vehicles and trains.
The weight of a vehicle is influenced by passengers, cargo, even fuel level, so a number of terms are used to express the weight of a vehicle in a designated state. Gross combined weight rating (GCWR) refers to the total mass of a vehicle, including all trailers. GVWR and GCWR both describe a vehicle that is in operation and are used to specify weight limitations and restrictions. Curb weight describes a vehicle which is "parked at the curb" and excludes the weight of any occupants or cargo. Dry weight further excludes the weight of all consumables, such as fuel and oils. Gross trailer weight rating specifies the maximum weight of a trailer and the gross axle weight rating specifies the maximum weight on any particular axle.Inter-American Driving Permit
The Inter-American Driving Permit (IADP) is an identity document that licenses the holder to drive a private motor vehicle in another nation when accompanied by a valid license from their home country. The IADP is similar to the International Driving Permit (IDP), but is specific to drivers in North, Central, and South America. To be eligible for an IADP, one must first have a valid driver's license.Permit
Permit may refer to:
Permit (fish), a game fish of the western Atlantic Ocean belonging to the family Carangidae, Trachinotus falcatus
Various legal licenses:
Work permit, legal authorization which allows a person to take employment
Learner's permit, restricted license that is given to a person who is learning to drive
International Driving Permit, allows an individual to drive a private motor vehicle in another nation
Disabled parking permit, displayed upon a vehicle carrying a person whose mobility is significantly impaired
Protest permit, permission granted by a governmental agency for a demonstration
Construction permit, required in most jurisdictions for new construction, or adding onto pre-existing structures
Filming permit, required in most jurisdictions for filming motion pictures and television
Home Return Permit, Mainland (China) Travel Permit for Hong Kong and Macao Residents
One-way Permit, document issued by the PRC allowing residents of mainland China to leave the mainland for Hong Kong
Thresher/Permit class submarine, a class of nuclear-powered fast attack submarines in service with the United States Navy
USS Permit (SS-178), a Porpoise-class submarine of the United States Navy
USS Permit (SSN-594), the lead ship of her class of submarine of the United States Navy
Permit (film), a 1979 Pakistani Punjabi filmTouring and Automobile Club of Turkey
The Touring and Automobile Club of Turkey (Turkish: Türkiye Turing ve Otomobil Kurumu) (TTOK), also known as Turkish Automobile Association, is an amateur and international organization dedicated to tourism and the automobile sector. It was founded in 1923 at the behest of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk by a group of intellectuals led by Reşit Saffet Atabinen, a diplomat at the time and a historian. The club is a member of Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA) and Alliance Internationale de Tourisme (AIT).Traffic stop
A traffic stop, commonly called being pulled over, is a temporary detention of a driver of a vehicle by police to investigate a possible crime or minor violation of law.Traffic violations reciprocity
Under traffic violations reciprocity agreements, non-resident drivers are treated like residents when they are stopped for a traffic offense that occurs in another jurisdiction. They also ensure that punishments such as penalty points on one's license and the ensuing increase in insurance premiums follow the driver home. The general principle of such interstate, interprovincial, and/or international compacts is to guarantee the rule "one license, one record."Transport in Jersey
This article details the variety of means of transport in Jersey, Channel Islands.Transportation in Florida
Transportation in Florida includes a variety of options, including Interstate Highways, United States and Florida State Roads, Amtrak and commuter rail services, airports, public transportation, and ports, in a number of the state's counties and regions.Truck classification
Truck classifications are typically based upon the maximum loaded weight of the truck, typically using the gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) and sometimes also the gross trailer weight rating (GTWR), and can vary among jurisdictions.Vienna Convention on Road Traffic
The Convention on Road Traffic, commonly known as the Vienna Convention on Road Traffic, is an international treaty designed to facilitate international road traffic and to increase road safety by establishing standard traffic rules among the contracting parties. The convention was agreed upon at the United Nations Economic and Social Council's Conference on Road Traffic (7 October – 8 November 1968) and concluded in Vienna on 8 November 1968. It came into force on 21 May 1977. The convention has been ratified by 78 countries, but those who have not ratified the convention may still be parties to the 1949 Convention on Road Traffic. This conference also produced the Convention on Road Signs and Signals.
|Rules of the road|
|Road user guides|
|Traffic violations reciprocity|