International Cricket Council

The International Cricket Council (ICC) is the global governing body of cricket. It was founded as the Imperial Cricket Conference in 1909 by representatives from Australia, England and South Africa. It was renamed as the International Cricket Conference in 1965, and took up its current name in 1989.

The ICC has 105 members: 12 Full Members that play Test matches and 93 Associate Members.[2] The ICC is responsible for the organisation and governance of cricket's major international tournaments, most notably the Cricket World Cup. It also appoints the umpires and referees that officiate at all sanctioned Test matches, One Day International and Twenty20 Internationals. It promulgates the ICC Code of Conduct, which sets professional standards of discipline for international cricket,[3] and also co-ordinates action against corruption and match-fixing through its Anti-Corruption and Security Unit (ACSU).

The ICC does not control bilateral fixtures between member countries (which include all Test matches), it does not govern domestic cricket in member countries, and it does not make the laws of the game, which remain under the control of the Marylebone Cricket Club.[4]

The Chairman heads the board of directors and on 26 June 2014, N.Srinivasan, the former president of BCCI, was announced as the first chairman of the council.[5] The role of ICC president has become a largely honorary position since the establishment of the chairman role and other changes were made to the ICC constitution in 2014. It has been claimed that the 2014 changes have handed control to the so-called 'Big Three' nations of England, India and Australia.[6] The last ICC president was Zaheer Abbas,[7] who was appointed in June 2015 following the resignation of Mustafa Kamal in April 2015. The post of ICC president was abolished in April 2016 and Shashank Manohar who replaced Mr. Srinivasan in October 2015 became the first independent chairman of the ICC since then.[8] The current CEO is Manu Sawhney,the former CEO of Singapore Sports Hub and Managing Director of ESPN Star Sports (ESS) who succeeded David Richardson.[9]

International Cricket Council
International Cricket Council (logo)
Official logo of the ICC
AbbreviationICC
MottoCricket for good.
PredecessorImperial Cricket Conference (1909–1965) International Cricket Conference (1965–1989)
Formation15 June 1909
TypeFederation of national associations
HeadquartersDubai, United Arab Emirates
Membership
105 members
Official languages
English
Shashank Manohar
CEO
Dave Richardson - until July 2019 - then Manu Sawhney [1]
Websitewww.icc-cricket.com

History

1909–1963 – Imperial Cricket Conference

On 30 November 1907, Abe Bailey, the President of South African Cricket Association, wrote a letter to the Marylebone Cricket Club's (MCC, England) secretary, F.E. Lacey. Bailey suggested the formation of an 'Imperial Cricket Board'. In the letter, he suggested that the board would be responsible for formulation of rules and regulations which will govern the international matches between the three members: Australia, England and South Africa. Bailey, wanted to host a Triangular Test series between the participant countries in South Africa. Australia rejected the offer. However, Bailey did not lose hope. He saw an opportunity of getting the three members together during the Australia's tour of England in 1909. After continued lobbying and efforts, Bailey was successful. [10]

On 15 June 1909, representatives from England, Australia and South Africa met at Lord's and founded the Imperial Cricket Conference. A month later, a second meeting between the three members was held. The rules were agreed amongst the nations, and the first ever Tri-Test series was decided to be held in England in 1912.[10]

In 1926, West Indies, New Zealand and India were elected as Full Members, doubling the number of Test-playing nations to six. After the formation of Pakistan in 1947, it was given Test status in 1952, becoming the seventh Test-playing nation. In May 1961 South Africa left the Commonwealth and therefore lost membership.[10]

1964–1988 – International Cricket Conference

In 1964, the ICC agreed upon including the non-Test playing countries. The following year, the ICC changed its name to the International Cricket Conference. Under the new type of membership, the Associate. US, Ceylon and Fiji were admitted.[11]

In 1966, Denmark, Bermuda, Netherlands, and East Africa were admitted as Associate. South Africa had still not applied to rejoin the ICC.

In 1969, the basic rules of ICC were amended.

In 1971 meeting, the idea of organizing a World Cup was introduced. In 1973 meeting, it was decided that a World Cup will be played in 1975 in England. The six Test playing nations and East Africa and Sri Lanka were invited to take part.[11]

New members were added regularly during this period:

In 1974, Argentina, Israel and Singapore were admitted as Associate.

In 1976, West Africa was admitted as Associate.

In 1977, Bangladesh was admitted as Associate.

In 1978, Papua-New Guinea was admitted as Associate. South Africa applied to rejoin, however their application was rejected.

In 1981, Sri-Lanka was promoted to being a Full Member. They played their first Test in 1982.

In 1984, the third type of membership; Affiliate category of membership was added to the ICC. Italy was the first member, followed by Switzerland in 1985. In 1987, Bahamas and France were admitted, followed by Nepal in 1988.

1989–present

In the July meeting of 1989, the ICC renamed itself to the International Cricket Council and the trend of the MCC President automatically becoming the Chairman of ICC was terminated.[12]

In 1990, UAE joined as an associate.

In 1991, for the first time in ICC history the meeting was held away from England – in Melbourne. South Africa was re-elected as a Full Member of the ICC in July, after the end of apartheid.

In 1992, Zimbabwe was admitted as the ninth Test-playing nation (Full Member). Namibia joined as Associate member. Austria, Belgium, Brunei and Spain joined as Affiliates.

In 1993, the Chief Executive of ICC was created with David Richards of the Australian Cricket Board the first person appointed to the position. In July, Sir Clyde Walcott, from Barbados, was elected as the first non-British Chairman. The emergence of new technology saw the introduction of a third umpire who was equipped with video playback facilities.

By 1995, TV replays were made available for run outs and stumpings in Test matches with the third umpire required to signal out or not out with red and green lights respectively. The following year, the cameras were used to determine if the ball had crossed the boundary, and in 1997 decisions on the cleanness of catches could be referred to the third umpire. This year also saw the introduction of the Duckworth-Lewis method of adjusting targets in rain-affected ODI matches.

In 2000, Bangladesh received Test status (Full Member).

In 2005, ICC moved its new headquarters in Dubai.

In 2017, Afghanistan Cricket Board and Cricket Ireland were confirmed as Full Members of the International Cricket Council after a unanimous vote at the ICC Full Council meeting at The Oval.

Members

Current ICC members by membership status:      Full members;      Associate members;     Non-members

Full Members – The twelve governing bodies of teams that play official Test matches.

The 12 full members are:

Associate Members – The 93 governing bodies in countries where cricket is firmly established and organized, but have not been granted Full Membership yet.

Location

ICC Dubai 1
The ICC's offices in Dubai

From its formation, the ICC had Lord's Cricket Ground as its home, and from 1993 had its offices in the "Clock Tower" building at the nursery end of the ground. The independent ICC was funded initially by commercial exploitation of the rights to the World Cup of One Day International cricket. As not all Member countries had double-tax agreements with the United Kingdom, it was necessary to protect cricket's revenues by creating a company, ICC Development (International) Pty Ltd – known as IDI, outside the UK. This was established in January 1994 and was based in Monaco.

For the remainder of the nineties, the administration of IDI was a modest affair. But with the negotiation of a bundle of rights to all ICC events from 2001–2008, revenues available to International cricket and the ICC member countries rose substantially. This led to a growth in the number of commercial staff employed by IDI in Monaco. It also had the disadvantage that the Council's cricket administrators, who remained at Lord's, were separated from their commercial colleagues in Monaco. The Council decided to seek ways of bringing all of their staff together in one office while protecting their commercial income from tax.

The option of staying at Lord's was investigated and a request was made, through Sport England, to the British Government to allow the ICC to have all its personnel (including those working on commercial matters) in London – but be given special exemption from paying UK corporation tax on its commercial income. The British Government was unwilling to create a precedent and would not agree to this request. As a consequence, the ICC examined other locations and eventually settled on the emirate of Dubai in the United Arab Emirates. ICC is registered in British Virgin Islands. In August 2005, the ICC moved its offices to Dubai, and subsequently closed its offices at Lord's and Monaco. The move to Dubai was made after an 11–1 vote by the ICC's Executive Board in favour.[13]

While the principal driver of the ICC's move to Dubai was the wish to bring its main employees together in one tax efficient location, a secondary reason was the wish to move offices closer to the increasingly important new centres of cricketing power in South Asia. Lord's had been a logical venue when the ICC had been administered by the Marylebone Cricket Club (MCC) (a situation that lasted until 1993). But the growing power of India and Pakistan in world cricket had made the continued control of international cricket by a British private members club (the MCC) anachronistic and unsustainable. A direct consequence of the changes and reforms instituted in 1993 was eventually to be the move away from Lord's to a more neutral venue.[14]

Income generation

ICC logo 2010
Variant ICC Logo with old motto

The ICC generates income from the tournaments it organises, primarily the Cricket World Cup, and it distributes the majority of that income to its members. Sponsorship and television rights of the World Cup brought in over US$1.6 billion between 2007 and 2015, by far the ICC's main source of income.[15][16] In the nine-month accounting period to 31 December 2007 the ICC had operating income of $12.66 million, mainly from member subscriptions and sponsorship. In contrast, event income was US$285.87 million, including $239 million from the 2007 World Cup. There was also investment income of $6.695 million in the period.

The ICC has no income streams from the bilateral international cricket matches (Test matches, One Day International and Twenty20 Internationals), that account for the great majority of the international playing schedule, as they are owned and run by its members. It has sought to create other new events to augment its World Cup revenues. These include the ICC Champions Trophy and the ICC Super Series played in Australia in 2005. However these events have not been as successful as the ICC hoped. The Super Series was widely seen as a failure and is not expected to be repeated, and India called for the Champions Trophy to be scrapped in 2006.[17] The Champions Trophy 2004 event was referred to in Wisden 2005 by the editor as a "turkey of a tournament" and a "fiasco"; although the 2006 edition was seen as a greater success due to a new format.[18][19]

The ICC World Twenty20, first played in 2007, was a success. The ICC's current plan is to have an international tournament every year, with a Twenty20 World Cup played in even number years, the World Cup continuing to be held the year before the Olympic Games, and the ICC Champions Trophy in the remaining year of the cycle. This cycle will begin in 2010, one year after the 2009 edition.

Rules and regulation

The International Cricket Council oversees playing conditions, bowling reviews, and other ICC regulations. The ICC does not have copyright to the Laws of Cricket: only the MCC may change the Laws, though this is usually done in consultation with the game's global governing body. The ICC maintains a set of playing conditions for international cricket which make slight amendments to the Laws. They also have a "Code of Conduct" to which teams and players in international matches are required to adhere. Where breaches of this code occur the ICC can apply sanctions, usually fines. In 2008, the ICC imposed 19 penalties on players.

Umpires and referees

The ICC appoints international umpires and Match referees who officiate at all sanctioned Test matches, One-Day Internationals and Twenty20 Internationals. The ICC operates 3 panels of umpires: namely the Elite Panel, the International Panel, and the Associates and Affiliates Panel.

As of April 2012, the Elite Panel includes twelve umpires. In theory, two umpires from the Elite Panel officiate at every Test match, while one Elite Panel umpire stands in ODI matches together with an umpire from the International Panel. In practice, members of the International Panel stand in occasional Test matches, as this is viewed as a good opportunity to see whether they can cope at the Test level, and whether they should be elevated to the Elite Panel. The Elite Panel are full-time employees of the ICC, although do still, very occasionally umpire first-class cricket in their country of residence. The average, annual, officiating schedule for Elite Umpires is 8–10 Test matches and 10–15 ODIs, a potential on-field workload of 75 days plus travel and preparation time per year.[20]

The International Panel is made up of officials nominated from each of the ten Test-playing cricket boards. The Panel Members officiate in ODI matches in their home country, and assist the Elite Panel at peak times in the cricket calendar when they can be appointed to overseas ODI and Test matches. International Panel members also undertake overseas umpiring assignments such as the ICC Under 19 Cricket World Cup to improve their knowledge and understanding of overseas conditions, and help them prepare for possible promotion onto the Elite Panel. Some of these umpires also officiate in the Cricket World Cup. Each of the Test cricket boards nominates a "third umpire" who can be called upon to review certain on-field decisions through instant television replays. All third umpires are first-class umpires in their own county, and the role is seen as a step onto the International Panel, and then the Elite Panel.[21]

The inaugural ICC Associate and Affiliate International Umpires Panel was formed in June 2006. It superseded the ICC Associate and Affiliate International Umpires Panel, created in 2005, and serves as the pinnacle for umpires from non-Test playing Members, with selection achieved through each of the five ICC Development Program Regional Umpires Panels. Members of the Associate and Affiliate International Umpires Panel are eligible for appointments to ODIs involving ICC Associate Members, ICC Intercontinental Cup matches and other Associate and Affiliate tournaments. High-performing umpires may also be considered for other ICC events, including the ICC U/19 Cricket World Cup, and could also be invited to be involved in the ICC Champions Trophy and ICC Cricket World Cup.[22]

There is also an Elite Panel of ICC Referees who act as the independent representative of the ICC at all Test and ODI matches. As of January 2009, it has 6 members, all highly experienced former international cricketers. The Referees do not have the power to report players or officials (which has to be done by the umpires), but they are responsible for conducting hearings under the ICC Code of Conduct and imposing penalties as required at matches, ranging from an official reprimand to a lifetime ban from cricket. Decisions can be appealed, but the original decision is upheld in most cases.

The Council failed to achieve consensus among the cricket playing nations – as of June 2012 – on the universal application of Umpire's Decision Review System, due to opposition by BCCI. It will continue to be applied subject to mutual agreement of the playing countries.[23] In July 2012, ICC decided to send a delegation to show the ball tracking research done by Dr Ed Rosten, an expert on computer vision and technology, to BCCI to remove the scepticism about the use of DRS technology.[24][25]

Regional bodies

These regional bodies aim to organise, promote and develop the game of cricket:

Two further regional bodies were disestablished following the creation of the African Cricket Association:

Competitions and awards

Ranking

Tournaments

The ICC organizes various international first-class, one-day and Twenty20 cricket competitions:

Format Men Women Youth
Full-Members Associates Members
First-class ICC World Test Championship ICC Intercontinental Cup
One-day ICC Cricket World Cup ICC World Cricket League ICC Women's Cricket World Cup ICC Under-19 Cricket World Cup
ICC Champions Trophy ICC World Cup Qualifier ICC Women's Championship
Twenty20 ICC T20 World Cup ICC World Twenty20 Qualifier ICC Women's T20 World Cup

The ICC has instituted the ICC Awards to recognise and honour the best international cricket players of the previous 12 months. The inaugural ICC Awards ceremony was held on 7 September 2004, in London.

The ICC Player Rankings are a widely followed system of rankings for international cricketers based on their recent performances. The current sponsor is MRF Tyres who signed a 4-year deal with the ICC that will last until 2020.[26]

Prize breakdown for ICC Cricket World Cup [27]

Winner US$ 3,750,000
Runner-up US$ 1,750,000
Losing semi-finalists (two) US$ 600,000
Losing quarter-finalists (four) US$ 600,000
Winner of each group match US$ 45,000 X 42
Team eliminated after group stage US$ 35,000 X 6 Teams
TOTAL US$ 10,000,000

In the 2015 ICC Cricket World Cup; Australia, the title winner, won the prize money of 3,975,000 US dollars. While New Zealand as Runners-up won 1,750,000 US dollars as prize money .

Anti-corruption and security

The ICC has also had to deal with drugs and bribery scandals involving top cricketers. Following the corruption scandals by cricketers connected with the legal and illegal bookmaking markets, the ICC set up an Anti-Corruption and Security Unit (ACSU) in 2000 under the retired Commissioner of the London Metropolitan Police, Lord Condon. Among the corruption on which they have reported was that of former South African captain Hansie Cronje who had accepted substantial sums of money from an Indian bookmaker for under-performing or ensuring that certain matches had a pre-determined result. Similarly, the former Indian captain Mohammad Azharuddin and Ajay Jadeja were investigated, found guilty of match-fixing, and banned from playing cricket (for life and for five years, respectively). The ACSU continues to monitor and investigate any reports of corruption in cricket and protocols have been introduced, which for example prohibit the use of mobile telephones in dressing rooms.

Prior to the 2007 Cricket World Cup ICC chief executive Malcolm Speed warned against any corruption and said that the ICC would be vigilant and intolerant against it.[28]

Following a scandal that occurred during the 2010 Pakistan tour of England, 3 Pakistani players, Mohammad Amir, Mohammad Asif and Salman Butt were found to be guilty of spot-fixing, and were banned for 5 years, 7 years and 10 years respectively. On 3 November 2011, jail terms were handed down of 30 months for Butt, one year for Asif, six months for Amir and two years eight months for Majeed, the sports agent that facilitated the bribes.[29][30][31][32]

Global Cricket Academy

The ICC Global Cricket Academy (GCA) is located at Dubai Sports City in the United Arab Emirates. The GCA's facilities include two ovals, each with 10 turf pitches, outdoor turf and synthetic practice facilities, indoor practice facilities including hawk eye technology and a cricket specific gymnasium. Rod Marsh has been appointed as the Academy's Director of Coaching. The opening, originally planned for 2008, took place in 2010.

ICC Cricket World Program

The International Cricket Council telecasts a weekly program on television called ICC Cricket World. It is produced by Sportsbrand.

It is a weekly 30-minute program providing the latest cricket news, recent cricket action including all Test and One-Day International matches, as well as off-field features and interviews

Criticism

Journalist Peter Della Penna, of ESPNcricinfo, has criticised the ICC for what he has perceived as attempts to minimise reports of security issues relating to unruly fans at matches.[33]

In 2015, Sam Collins and Jarrod Kimber made the documentary Death of a Gentleman on the internal organisation of the ICC.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Manu Sawhney named new ICC CEO". 15 January 2019. Retrieved 16 January 2019.
  2. ^ "ICC Members". ICC. Retrieved 31 October 2017.
  3. ^ "International Cricket Council – ICC Events, ICC Cricket Rankings, Live Cricket Scores" (PDF). Icc-cricket.com. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 July 2007. Retrieved 8 May 2011.
  4. ^ "Laws". www.lords.org. Retrieved 2018-07-12.
  5. ^ "Srinivasan elected as the new Chairman of ICC from July 2014 onwards". Jagran Prakashan. February 10, 2014. Retrieved August 18, 2017.
  6. ^ "Mustafa Kamal quits as ICC president after World Cup snub". BBC Sport. 1 April 2015. Retrieved 1 April 2015.
  7. ^ "Zaheer Abbas Appointed ICC President". Gulf News. 25 June 2015. Retrieved 25 June 2015.
  8. ^ https://www.icc-cricket.com/about/the-icc/history-of-icc/icc-office-bearers
  9. ^ Manu Sawhney appointed Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of International Cricket Council (ICC)
  10. ^ a b c "International Cricket Council". www.icc-cricket.com. Retrieved 2018-07-10.
  11. ^ a b "International Cricket Council". www.icc-cricket.com. Retrieved 2018-07-12.
  12. ^ "International Cricket Council". www.icc-cricket.com. Retrieved 2018-07-23.
  13. ^ "Cricket chiefs move base to Dubai". BBC News. 7 March 2005.
  14. ^ "Cricket's home moves closer to the money". Asia Times Online. April 23, 2005. Retrieved August 18, 2017.
  15. ^ "ICC rights go to ESPN-Star". Cricinfo. ESPN. Retrieved 8 May 2011.
  16. ^ "ICC set to cash in on sponsorship rights". Cricinfo. ESPN. Retrieved 8 May 2011.
  17. ^ "Biggest player in the game flexes muscle". The Age. Melbourne. 7 January 2006.
  18. ^ Murgatroyd, Brian / ICC (November 6, 2006). "ICC President thanks India for "outstanding" ICC Champions Trophy". Cricinfo. ESPN. Retrieved August 18, 2017.
  19. ^ "When the cricket did all the talking". Cricinfo. ESPN. November 7, 2006. Retrieved August 18, 2017.
  20. ^ "Match officials". www.icc-cricket.com. Archived from the original on 3 October 2013. Retrieved 18 November 2013.
  21. ^ "Emirates International Panel of ICC Umpires". www.icc-cricket.com. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 18 November 2013.
  22. ^ "ICC Associate and Affiliate International Umpires Panel". www.icc-cricket.com. Archived from the original on 2 June 2016. Retrieved 18 November 2013.
  23. ^ "No decision yet on universal application of DRS". Times of India. 27 June 2012.
  24. ^ "Research on DRS to be shown to BCCI". Times of India. 10 July 2012.
  25. ^ "Ireland and Afghanistan ICC newest full members amid wide-ranging governance reform". icc-cricket.com. ICC. Retrieved 22 June 2017.
  26. ^ "ICC announces MRF Tyres as Global Partner". International Cricket Council. 20 January 2016. Archived from the original on 23 May 2016. Retrieved 27 January 2016.
  27. ^ NDTVSports.com. "World Cup 2015 Prize Money". NDTVSports.com. Retrieved 2018-07-15.
  28. ^ "Speed warns against corruption during World Cup". The Jamaica Star. 13 February 2007. Archived from the original on 1 February 2009.
  29. ^ "Pakistan cricketers and agent jailed for betting scam". BBC News. 3 November 2011. Retrieved 3 November 2011.
  30. ^ "Pakistan spot-fixing players and agent sentenced to lengthy jail terms". The Guardian. UK. 3 November 2011. Retrieved 3 November 2011.
  31. ^ "Pakistan spot-fixing scandal: convictions of Salman Butt, Mohammad Asif and Mohammad Amir just one step on a long road". The Daily Telegraph. UK. 3 November 2011. Retrieved 3 November 2011.
  32. ^ "Cricketers jailed for match-fixing". The Independent. UK. 3 November 2011. Retrieved 3 November 2011.
  33. ^ "Cricket World Cup: Another scare from unruly crowd". ESPN. Retrieved 8 March 2011.

External links

2017–20 ICC Women's Championship

The 2017–20 ICC Women's Championship is the second edition of the ICC Women's Championship, a Women's One Day International cricket (WODI) competition currently being contested by eight teams, to determine qualification for the 2021 Women's Cricket World Cup. The top four teams, along with hosts New Zealand, will qualify directly for the World Cup. The remaining three teams will progress to the 2020 Women's Cricket World Cup Qualifier tournament.In the previous tournament, the first three WODIs counted towards qualification. However, for this tournament, the International Cricket Council (ICC) requested that additional matches are played as Women's Twenty20 Internationals (WT20Is). Inline with the updated ICC rules, two balls were used for the first time in WODI matches.When originally announced in October 2017, the top three teams, along with hosts New Zealand, would qualify for the World Cup. In October 2018, the qualification structure was changed allowing the hosts plus the top four teams to qualify directly for 2021 World Cup.The first set of fixtures were announced by the Pakistan Cricket Board (PCB), with Pakistan playing New Zealand in the United Arab Emirates in October 2017. The first round of fixtures to be played were between the West Indies and Sri Lanka, which started on 11 October 2017. In the opening fixture of the championship, the West Indies beat Sri Lanka by 6 wickets.In March 2019, England beat Sri Lanka 3–0. The result meant that Sri Lanka Women could no longer qualify directly for the 2021 Women's Cricket World Cup, progressing to the 2020 Women's Cricket World Cup Qualifier tournament instead.

2018 Cricket World Cup Qualifier

The 2018 ICC Cricket World Cup Qualifier was a cricket tournament that took place during March 2018 in Zimbabwe. It decided the final qualification for the 2019 World Cup, to be played in England and Wales. The top two teams, Afghanistan and the West Indies, qualified for the World Cup, joining the hosts and the seven teams who had already qualified through their ranking in the ICC ODI Championship. Afghanistan won the tournament, beating the West Indies by 7 wickets in the final. Afghanistan's Mohammad Shahzad was named the player of the match and Zimbabwe's Sikandar Raza was named the player of the tournament.The tournament was initially scheduled to take place in Bangladesh, but in May 2017 it was reported that the event would instead be hosted elsewhere as Bangladesh were close to automatic qualification, and thus would not need to participate in this tournament. Three bids were under consideration: one from Zimbabwe, one from the United Arab Emirates and a joint-bid from Ireland and Scotland, who were the winners of the previous qualifier tournament.In October 2017, the International Cricket Council (ICC) announced that Zimbabwe would host the event. In January 2018, the ICC confirmed all the fixtures and venues for the tournament. At the end of the tournament, the Netherlands (who won the ICC World Cricket League Championship) and the top three Associate Member teams earned One Day International (ODI) status until 2022.

2018 ICC Women's World Twenty20

The 2018 ICC Women's World Twenty20 was hosted in the West Indies from 9 to 24 November 2018, during the 2018–19 international cricket season. It was the sixth edition of the ICC Women's T20 World Cup, and the second hosted by the West Indies (after the 2010 edition). The West Indies were the defending champions.The tournament was awarded to the West Indies Cricket Board (WICB) at the 2013 annual conference of the International Cricket Council (ICC). The tournament's dates were confirmed at an ICC board meeting in January 2015. In February 2017, the ICC confirmed that this would be the first T20 tournament that uses the Umpire Decision Review System, with one review per side.The qualifier tournament for the competition was held in July 2018 in the Netherlands. Both Bangladesh and Ireland won their respective semi final matches in the qualifier, to advance to the Women's World Twenty20 tournament.The first match scheduled to be played in Saint Lucia, between England and Sri Lanka, was abandoned due to rain. With further rain forecast in Saint Lucia, the ICC looked at a contingency plan of moving other group games to Antigua. The following day, the ICC confirmed that the Group A matches would remain in Saint Lucia. The ICC cited logistical issues and cost as the main factors for not moving the fixtures.Australia in Group B qualified for the semi-finals, with their win against New Zealand, to give them three wins from three matches. India, also in Group B, qualified for the semi-finals, after they beat Ireland by 52 runs, with three wins from three matches. In Group A, tournament hosts the West Indies, along with England, progressed to the semi-finals, after wins in their penultimate group-stage fixtures. In the first semi-final, the West Indies faced Australia, with England and India playing each other in the second semi-final. Australia beat the West Indies by 71 runs and England beat India by 8 wickets to progress to the final.Australia won their fourth title after beating England in the final by 8 wickets. Meg Lanning, captain of the Australian team said that the victory was "the most satisfying win I've been involved in" adding that "there will be some big celebrations". England's captain, Heather Knight, said that the team did not post a competitive total, but was "proud of the girls for reaching another world final". Australia's Alyssa Healy was named the player of the tournament.

Clyde Walcott

Sir Clyde Leopold Walcott, KA, GCM (17 January 1926 – 26 August 2006) was a West Indian cricketer. Walcott was a member of the "three W's", the other two being Everton Weekes and Frank Worrell: all were very successful batsmen from Barbados, born within a short distance of each other in Bridgetown, Barbados in a period of 18 months from August 1924 to January 1926; all made their Test cricket debut against England in 1948.

In the mid-1950s, Walcott was arguably the best batsman in the world. In later life, he had an active career as a cricket administrator, and was the first non-English and non-white chairman of the International Cricket Council.

Cricket World Cup

The ICC Cricket World Cup is the international championship of One Day International (ODI) cricket. The event is organised by the sport's governing body, the International Cricket Council (ICC), every four years, with preliminary qualification rounds leading up to a finals tournament. The tournament is one of the world's most viewed sporting events and is considered the "flagship event of the international cricket calendar" by the ICC.The first World Cup was organised in England in June 1975, with the first ODI cricket match having been played only four years earlier. However, a separate Women's Cricket World Cup had been held two years before the first men's tournament, and a tournament involving multiple international teams had been held as early as 1912, when a triangular tournament of Test matches was played between Australia, England and South Africa. The first three World Cups were held in England. From the 1987 tournament onwards, hosting has been shared between countries under an unofficial rotation system, with fourteen ICC members having hosted at least one match in the tournament.

The World Cup is open to all members of the International Cricket Council (ICC), although the highest-ranking teams receive automatic qualification. The remaining teams are determined via the World Cricket League and the ICC World Cup Qualifier. A total of twenty teams have competed in the eleven editions of the tournament, with fourteen competing in the latest edition in 2015; the next edition in 2019 will have only ten teams. Australia has won the tournament five times, with the West Indies, India (twice each), Pakistan and Sri Lanka (once each) also having won the tournament. The best performance by a non-full-member team came when Kenya made the semi-finals of the 2003 tournament.

Elite Panel of ICC Referees

The Emirates Elite Panel of ICC Referees is composed of former international cricket players who are appointed by the ICC to oversee all Test match, One Day International and Twenty20 International cricket matches in the capacity of Match referee. The referees are ultimately in charge of all international cricket matches, and act as the ICC's representative at the grounds. In addition they are responsible for imposing penalties for infringements of the ICC Code of Conduct, and so being ex-international cricketers they can ensure that the punishments dealt out are just. The referees also form part of the ICC's umpire performance review, submitting reports about the umpires after each match.

ICC Awards

The ICC Awards are a set of sports awards for cricket. The awards recognise and honor the best international cricket players of the previous 12 months. The awards have been institutionalised by International Cricket Council since 2004. Between 2011 and 2014 the awards were known, for sponsorship reasons, as the LG ICC Awards.

ICC Cricket Hall of Fame

The ICC Cricket Hall of Fame "recognises the achievements of the legends of the game from cricket's long and illustrious history". It was launched by the International Cricket Council (ICC) in Dubai on 2 January 2009, in association with the Federation of International Cricketers' Associations (FICA), as part of the ICC's centenary celebrations. The initial inductees were the 55 players included in the FICA Hall of Fame which ran from 1999 to 2003, but further members are added each year during the ICC Awards ceremony. The inaugural inductees ranged from W. G. Grace, who retired from Test cricket in 1899, to Graham Gooch, who played his last Test match in 1995. Living inductees receive a commemorative cap; Australian Rodney Marsh was the first member of the initial inductees to receive his. Members of the Hall of Fame assist in the selection of future inductees.There are more English players in the Hall of Fame than players from other countries. Only 15 of the 84 inductees played for nations outside England, Australia and the West Indies. South African Barry Richards played the fewest Test matches during his career with four, before South Africa were excluded from participating in international cricket in 1970. Australian Steve Waugh, inducted in October 2009, played the most Tests with 168 in an international career spanning 20 years.

There are seven women in the Hall of Fame. In 2010, Rachael Heyhoe Flint, former England women's cricket team captain who led the team to victory in the inaugural Women's World Cup in 1973, became the first woman in the Hall of Fame; the six other female members are Belinda Clark, inducted in 2011, Enid Bakewell, inducted in 2012, Debbie Hockley, inducted in 2013, Betty Wilson inducted in 2015, Karen Rolton inducted in 2016 and Claire Taylor inducted in 2018.

ICC Player Rankings

The International Cricket Council Player Rankings is a widely followed system of rankings for international cricketers based on their recent performances. The current sponsor is MRF Tyres who signed a 4-year deal with the ICC that will last until 2020.The ratings were developed at the suggestion of Ted Dexter in 1987. The intention was to produce a better indication of players' current standing in the sport than is provided by comparing their averages. Career averages are based on a player's entire career and do not make any allowance for match conditions or the strength of the opposition, whereas the ratings are weighted towards recent form and account for match conditions and the quality of the opponent using statistical algorithms.Initially the rankings were for Test cricket only, but separate One Day International rankings were introduced in 1998. Both sets of rankings have now been calculated back to the start of those forms of the game. The rankings include the top 10 Test, ODI and T20I batsmen, bowlers and all-rounders based on the rating of each player.

ICC T20 World Cup

The ICC T20 World Cup (earlier known as ICC World Twenty20) is the international championship of Twenty20 International cricket. Organised by cricket's governing body, the International Cricket Council (ICC), the tournament currently consists of 16 teams, comprising the top eight teams from the rankings at the given deadline and four other teams chosen through the T20 World Cup Qualifier. All matches are played as Twenty20 Internationals.

The event has generally been held every two years. However, the next edition of the tournament is scheduled to take place in 2020 in Australia, four years after the conclusion of the 2016 edition. In May 2016, the ICC put forward the idea of having a tournament in 2018, with South Africa being the possible host. But at the conclusion of the 2017 ICC Champions Trophy, the ICC announced that the next edition of the World T20 would take place in 2020 in Australia, as originally scheduled.Six tournaments have so far been played, and only the West Indies, who currently hold the title, has won the tournament on multiple occasions. The inaugural event, the 2007 World Twenty20, was staged in South Africa, and won by India, who defeated Pakistan in the final at the Wanderers Stadium in Johannesburg. The 2009 tournament took place in England, and was won by the previous runner-up, Pakistan, who defeated Sri Lanka in the final at Lord's. The third tournament was held in 2010, hosted by the countries making up the West Indies cricket team. England defeated Australia in the final in Barbados, which was played at Kensington Oval, winning its first and the only international tournament to date. The fourth tournament, the 2012 World Twenty20, was held in Asia for the first time, with all matches played in Sri Lanka. The West Indies won the tournament by defeating Sri Lanka in the final, winning its first international tournament since the 2004 Champions Trophy. The fifth tournament, the 2014 ICC World Twenty20, was hosted by Bangladesh, and was won by Sri Lanka defeating India, who became the first team to play in three finals. West Indies are the current World T20I holders, beating England in the 2016 final, winning their second title.

ICC Women's T20 World Cup

The ICC Women's T20 World Cup is the biennial international championship for women's Twenty20 International cricket. The event is organised by the sport's governing body, the International Cricket Council (ICC), with the first edition was held in England in 2009. For the first three tournaments, there were eight participants, but this number has been raised to ten from the 2014 edition onwards. At each tournament, a set number of teams qualify automatically, with the remaining teams determined by the World Twenty20 Qualifier. Australia are the most successful team, having won the tournament four times.

ICC World Cup Qualifier

The ICC World Cup Qualifier (previously called the ICC Trophy) is a One Day International (ODI) cricket tournament that serves as the culmination of the qualifying process for the Cricket World Cup. It is usually played in the year before the World Cup.

At every World Cup, a set number of teams qualify automatically, with other teams having to qualify through a process that has the World Cup Qualifier as its culmination. Until recently, automatic qualification was granted to all full members of the International Cricket Council (ICC). However, for the 2019 Cricket World Cup, only the top eight teams in the ICC ODI Championship were given automatic qualification, meaning ICC full members played in the Qualifier for the first time. The other places in the Qualifier are given to the best teams in the World Cricket League, which has been in operation since 2007. The number of World Cup berths determined by the Qualifier currently stands at two; in the past, it has ranged from one (1982–1990) to five (2005).

In September 2018, the ICC confirmed that all matches in the ICC World Cup Qualifier will have ODI status, regardless if a team does not have ODI status prior to the start of an individual tournament event.

International Panel of ICC Umpires

The International Panel of ICC Umpires was established by the ICC in 1994 following trial in 1992/3, to ensure that one neutral umpire would stand in every Test match. It is made up of officials nominated from each of the ten Test playing cricket boards. From 2002, its role in Tests was largely supplanted by the Elite Panel of ICC Umpires.

Umpires from the International Panel are employed to officiate home One Day international matches, but may also be called upon to aid the Elite Panel in Test matches and overseas ODIs during busy cricketing calendar years. Each full member nation nominates two onfield umpires and a 3rd umpire to join the panel.

International cricket

International cricket matches are played between teams representing their nations, normally organised by the International Cricket Council (ICC). The main forms are Test matches, One-Day matches and Twenty20 matches.

Most games are played as parts of "tours", when one nation travels to another for a number of weeks or months, and plays a number of matches of various sorts against the host nation. The ICC also organises competitions that are for several countries at once, including the Cricket World Cup & ICC T20 World Cup.

List A cricket

List A cricket is a classification of the limited-overs (one-day) form of the sport of cricket. List A cricket includes One Day International (ODI) matches and various domestic competitions in which the number of overs in an innings per team ranges from forty to sixty, as well as some international matches involving nations who have not achieved official ODI status. Together with first-class and Twenty20 cricket, List A is one of the three major forms of cricket recognised by the International Cricket Council (ICC).

List of International Cricket Council members

The International Cricket Council (ICC) was founded at Lord's on 15 June 1909 as the Imperial Cricket Conference, with Australia, England, and South Africa as its founding members. In the beginning, only countries within the Commonwealth could join. These members were then joined by India, New Zealand, and the West Indies in 1926 and later by Pakistan in 1953. In 1961, South Africa resigned due to their leaving the Commonwealth, but they continued to play Test cricket until their international exile in 1970.The Imperial Cricket Conference was renamed the International Cricket Conference in 1965, with new rules permitting countries from outside the Commonwealth to be elected into the governing body for the first time. Any new member elected to the governing body could only be an Associate Member with the possibility of being promoted to a Full Member. The first Associates were Fiji and the USA. Sri Lanka was admitted as a Full Member in 1981, returning the number of Test-playing nations to seven. In 1989, the ICC was again renamed, this time to International Cricket Council. South Africa was reelected as a Full Member to the ICC in 1991 and Zimbabwe was elected in 1992. Until 2017, the most recent new Full Member was Bangladesh, which was elected in 2000. On 22 June 2017, Ireland and Afghanistan were granted full member and Test status.Membership is a hierarchy and there are two categories of membership: Full Members and Associate Members. As of 22 June 2017, there are 105 members, with 12 Full Members and 93 Associate Members. The Membership Committee will consider all future requests for membership – full and associate – against an objective set of criteria. There was previously a third level, Affiliate Membership, which was removed in June 2017 with all previous Affiliate Members becoming Associate Members.

Women's Cricket World Cup

The Women's World Cup is currently organised by the International Cricket Council (ICC). Until 2005, when the two organisations merged, it was administered by a separate body, the International Women's Cricket Council (IWCC). The first World Cup was held in England in 1973, two years before the inaugural men's tournament. The event's early years were marked by funding difficulties, which meant several teams had to decline invitations to compete and caused gaps of up to six years between tournaments. However, since 2005 World Cups have been hosted at regular four-year intervals.

The eleven World Cups played to date have been held in five countries, with India and England having hosted the event three times. The number of teams has been fixed at eight since the 2000 event, with the preceding tournament in 1997 having been contested by a record eleven teams, the most to date. Australia are the most successful team, having won six titles and failed to make the final on only three occasions. England (four titles) and New Zealand (one title) are the only other teams to have won the event, while India (twice) and the West Indies (once) have each reached the final without going on to win.

World Cricket League

The ICC World Cricket League is a series of international one-day cricket tournaments for national teams without Test status (of Associate status), administered by the International Cricket Council. All Associate Members of the ICC are eligible to compete in the league system, which features a promotion and relegation structure between divisions. The league system has two main aims: to provide a qualification system for the World Cup that can be accessed by all Associate Members, and as an opportunity for these sides to play international one-day matches against teams of similar standards.

In the inaugural ICC World Cricket League 2007–09, teams were allocated into divisions based on their performance in the qualification tournaments for the 2007 World Cup; the six initial teams in Division One were the teams that had qualified for the 2007 World Cup. The initial series began with regional qualifiers and a First Division in 2007, and ended with the 2009 ICC World Cup Qualifier. At this stage, there were only five divisions.

The second cycle ran from 2009 to 2014, and the third one from 2012 to 2018. The fourth cycle is currently running from 2017 to 2019. Following the conclusion of the 2019 Division Two tournament, the World Cricket League will be replaced by the ICC Cricket World Cup League and the ICC Cricket World Cup Challenge League.

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