International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature

The International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN) is an organization dedicated to "achieving stability and sense in the scientific naming of animals". Founded in 1895, it currently comprises 27 members from 19 countries,[1] mainly practicing zoological taxonomists.[2]

International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature
AbbreviationICZN
Formation18 September 1895
TypeInternational non-governmental organization
Location
Region served
Worldwide
Official language
English, French
WebsiteOfficial ICZN website

Organization

The ICZN is governed by the "Constitution of the ICZN", which is usually published together with the ICZN Code.[3]

Members are elected by the Section of Zoological Nomenclature,[4] established by the International Union of Biological Sciences (IUBS).

The regular term of service of a member of the Commission is 6 years. Members can be re-elected up to a total of three full six-year terms in a row. After 18 continuous years of elected service, a break of at least 3 years is prescribed before the member can stand again for election.[5]

Activities

Since 2014, the work of the Commission is supported by a small secretariat based at the National University of Singapore, in Singapore. Previously, the secretariat was based in London and funded by the International Trust for Zoological Nomenclature.[6] The Commission assists the zoological community "through generation and dissemination of information on the correct use of the scientific names of animals".[2]

The ICZN publishes the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (usually referred to as "the Code" or "the ICZN Code"), a widely accepted convention containing the rules for the formal scientific naming of all organisms that are treated as animals. New editions of the Code are elaborated by the Editorial Committee appointed by the Commission.[7] The 4th edition of the Code (1999) was edited by seven people.[8]

The Commission also provides rulings on individual problems brought to its attention, as arbitration may be necessary in contentious cases, where strict adherence to the Code would interfere with stability of usage (e.g., see conserved name). These rulings are published in the Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature.[2] Starting in 2017, volumes 65 (2008) onwards of the Bulletin will be available online to subscribers in the BioOne journal database.[9]

See also

References

  1. ^ "About the ICZN - International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature".
  2. ^ a b c "About the ICZN - International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature".
  3. ^ "International Code of Zoological Nomenclature".
  4. ^ ICZN Code Art. 77.3.1, ICZN Constitution Art. 3.1.1., 4.4.1, 4.5, 11.1.2, 16.1.3
  5. ^ ICZN Constitution Art. 3.1, 3.2
  6. ^ "International Trust for Zoological Nomenclature". ICZN. Retrieved 4 October 2018.
  7. ^ ICZN Constitution Art. 16.2
  8. ^ W. D. L. Ride, H. G. Cogger, C. Dupuis, O. Kraus, A. Minelli, F. C. Thompson, P. K. Tubbs, as given in the ICZN Code 4th edition (printed version) p. IV.
  9. ^ "Title additions & departures". BioOne. Retrieved 31 August 2016.

External links

Alström's warbler

Alström's warbler, or plain-tailed warbler (Phylloscopus soror) is a species of Old World warbler in the family Phylloscopidae. The species was first described in 1999. It breeds only in China, and winters in Thailand, Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam. Its natural habitat is temperate forests.Alström's warbler was previously placed in the genus Seicercus. A molecular phylogenetic study published in 2018 found that neither Phylloscopus nor Seicercus were monophyletic. In the subsequent reorganization the two genera were merged into Phylloscopus which has priority under the rules of the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature. The common name honours the Swedish ornithologist Per Alström.

California red-sided garter snake

The California red-sided garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis infernalis) is a subspecies of the common garter snake. This slender species of natricine snake is indigenous to North America and is one of three recognized subspecies of Thamnophis sirtalis found in California. While commonly confused with Thamnophis sirtalis the subspecies Thamnophis sirtalis infernalis is biologically part of the population of T. s. tetrataenia, as pointed out by Boundy and Rossman (1995), but was preserved as T. s. infernalis as a neotype under ICZN code Article 75 in a 2000 decision by the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN) in 2000 in order to preserve the existing subspecies taxonomy.

Most California red-sided garter snakes have a pattern of blue stripes on a black and red background. Their average total length is about 55 cm (22 in), with a maximum total length of about 100 cm (39 in).

Cliidae

The family Cliidae is a taxonomic group of small floating sea snails, pelagic marine opisthobranch gastropod mollusks.This family name has for a long time been known as Clioidae, or the subfamily Clioinae Jeffreys, 1869 belonging to the family Cavoliniidae, each time with the type genus Clio Linnaeus, 1767. Unfortunately this is often confused with another molluscan family Clionidae, which has the type genus Clione. The International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN) has therefore changed the name back to its original spelling Cliidae Jeffreys, 1869, type genus Clio Linnaeus, 1767

Cricotus

Cricotus is an extinct genus of Embolomeri. It was erected by Cope in 1875, on the basis of fragmentary, not clearly associated remains including caudal vertebrae, on which the name was established (in fact, based on a single intercentrum), as well as a few other postcranial bones. It was little-used in the subsequent literature, contrary to Archeria, which appears to be a junior synonym of Cricotus. However, given that the type species of Cricotus (C. heteroclitus) is a nomen dubium, the name Cricotus is unavailable. This is why Holmes suggested using the name Archeria for this taxon, though he provided no evidence that he made a formal appeal to the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature for this (and presumably did not do it).

Dotidae

Dotidae are a taxonomic family of small sea slugs, nudibranchs, shell-less marine gastropod molluscs formerly assigned to the order Opisthobranchia, but now considered to belong to the clade Dexiarchia. This family is unassigned to a superfamily.

This family has also been spelled in the past as "Dotonidae" and "Dotoidae". The International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN) decided in 1964 that neither spelling was correct and adopted Dotidae Gray, 1853 as the accepted name for this family.

František Vejdovský

František Vejdovský (born 24 October 1849 in Kouřim - died 4 December 1939 in Prague) was a Czech zoologist.

In 2007 the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature ruled that the family "Tubificidae" was a junior synonym of Naididae.

Green-crowned warbler

The green-crowned warbler (Phylloscopus burkii) is a species of leaf warbler (family Phylloscopidae). It was formerly included in the "Old World warbler" assemblage.

It is found in the Indian subcontinent, ranging across Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal, and Pakistan. Single sight was recorded from Sigiriya, Sri Lanka in 1993. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests and subtropical or tropical moist montane forests.

The green-crowned warbler was previously placed in the genus Seicercus. A molecular phylogenetic study published in 2018 found that neither Phylloscopus nor Seicercus were monophyletic. In the subsequent reorganization the two genera were merged into Phylloscopus which has priority under the rules of the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature.

Liocoris

Liocoris is a genus of plant bugs belonging to the family Miridae, subfamily Mirinae. It has only one species.

In 1955 it was briefly considered as the home of the "Lygus bugs" due to the morphological studies of Kelton, but the decision of the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN) in 1963 allowed them to stay in genus Lygus. The species that Kenton described in 1955 as Liocoris are now classified as Lygus.

Mark Harvey (arachnologist)

Mark Harvey is a museum scientist and biologist. Since 1989 he has been based at the Western Australian Museum.

His research interests include the systematics and evolution of arachnids and other terrestrial invertebrates.

As of August 2017, he is a member and Vice-President of the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature.

Maurice Kottelat

Maurice Kottelat (born 16 July 1957 in Delémont, Switzerland) is a Swiss ichthyologist specializing in Eurasian freshwater fishes.

Kottelat obtained a License in Sciences at the University of Neuchâtel in 1987 and in 1989 a doctoral degree from the University of Amsterdam. In 1980 he went to Thailand where he began his field research on Southeast Asian and Indonesian fresh water fishes. In 1997 he wrote an important revision on the genus Coregonus, which includes the fish species from Lake Geneva, Lake Constance and other lakes in Switzerland. Together with Dr. Tan Heok Hui he worked in Sumatra, where they discovered Paedocypris progenetica, which is considered the smallest fish in the world. In 2007 he published a Handbook of European Freshwater Fishes together with Jörg Freyhof. Kottelat has described more than 440 fish species new to science.In 2006 he was awarded a Doctor Honoris Causa degree at the University of Neuchâtel. Kottelat is the former (1997-2007) and present (2012-present) president of the European Ichthyological Society. He is a commissioner of the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature. For most of his career, he has held no academic position but worked as a "freelance taxonomist".

Metridinidae

Metridinidae is a family of copepods, comprising three genera – Gaussia, Metridia and Pleuromamma. It has also been referred to as "Metridiidae", but following a petition to the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature, that name has been restricted to the family Metridiidae Carlgren, 1893, based on the anthozoan genus Metridium. All species in the family can produce blue-green bioluminescence; the light is produced in glands, whose position varies between genera.

Opinion 2027

Opinion 2027 is a ruling of the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN) concerning the conservation of 17 species names of wild animals with domestic derivatives. Opinion 2027 is in response to Case 3010 and subsequent comments.The 17 names involved:

Bombyx mandarina

Bos gaurus

Bos mutus

Bos primigenius

Bubalus arnee

Camelus ferus

Canis lupus

Capra aegagrus

Carassius gibelio

Cavia aperea

Equus africanus

Equus ferus

Felis silvestris

Lama guanicoe

Mustela putorius

Ovis orientalis

Vicugna vicugnaThe opinion of the commission was that "the "name of a wild species...is not invalid by virtue of being predated by the name based on a domestic form." These 17 species of wild animals were named later than the relevant domestic animals, hence the use of the ICZN provision for conservation. The names of the 17 species were added to the Official Lists and Indexes of Names in Zoology of the ICZN, which means that they are valid taxons.

Phalaena

Phalaena is an obsolete genus of Lepidoptera used by Carl Linnaeus to house most moths.

Phalaena was one of three genera used by Linnaeus to cover all Lepidoptera. Papilio included all butterflies at that time, Sphinx included all hawk moths, and Phalaena included all the remaining moths. The type species was Phalaena typica (now Naenia typica in the family Noctuidae).Phalaena has been declared a nomen rejiciendum by the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature, for the purposes of the Law of Priority, but not the Law of Homonymy. Seven subgenera were raised to the rank of family as follows:

Alucita Linnaeus, 1767 – Alucitidae

Attacus Linnaeus, 1767 – Saturniidae

Bombyx Linnaeus, 1758 – Bombycidae

Geometra Linnaeus, 1758 – Geometridae

Noctua Linnaeus, 1758 – Noctuidae

Pyralis Linnaeus, 1758 – Pyralidae

Tinea Linnaeus, 1758 – Tineidae

Tortrix Linnaeus, 1758 – Tortricidae

Philippe Bouchet

Philippe Bouchet (born 1953) is a French biologist whose primary scientific fields of study are malacology (the study of molluscs) and taxonomy. He works at the Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle in Paris. He is also a Commissioner of the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature.

Bouchet published Taxonomy of the Gastropoda with the malacologist Jean-Pierre Rocroi in 2005, which laid out a new taxonomy of Gastropod molluscs.

He has named over 500 new taxa of mollusks, and numerous taxa have been named in his honor.

Sunda warbler

The Sunda warbler (Phylloscopus grammiceps) is a species of Old World warbler in the Phylloscopidae (or Sylviidae) family. It is found only in Indonesia.

The 'Sunda warbler was previously placed in the genus Seicercus. A molecular phylogenetic study published in 2018 found that neither Phylloscopus nor Seicercus were monophyletic. In the subsequent reorganization the two genera were merged into Phylloscopus which has priority under the rules of the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature.

Valid name (zoology)

In zoological nomenclature, the valid name of a taxon is the zoological name that is to be used for that taxon following the rules in the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN). In other words: a valid name is the correct zoological name of a taxon.In contrast, an invalid name is a name that violates the rules of the ICZN. An invalid name is not considered to be a correct scientific name for a taxon. Invalid names may be divided into:

Subjectively invalid names - Names that have been rendered invalid by individual scientific judgement or opinion. Taxonomists may differ in their opinion and names considered invalid by one researcher, can be accepted as valid by another; thus they are still potentially valid names. It includes:Junior subjective synonyms - synonyms described from different types previously described as separate taxa.

Junior secondary homonyms - species synonyms arising from merging two taxonomic groups previously considered separate. In this case, the taxa are separate species, but by chance, had the same specific name resulting in homonymy when their generic names are synonymized.

Conditionally suppressed names - are special cases where a name which would otherwise have been valid has been petitioned for suppression by the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature. This is usually because the junior synonym (the later name) has wider common usage than the senior synonym (the older name).Objectively invalid names - Names that have been rendered invalid for factual reasons. These names are universally accepted as invalid and not merely a matter of individual opinion as is the case with subjectively invalid names. It includes:Junior objective synonyms - names describing a taxon (the junior synonym) that have already been described by another name earlier (the senior synonym). ICZN follows the Principle of Priority, in which the oldest available name is applied in preference to newer names where possible.

Junior homonyms in the family and genus group - names of families and genera which have the same spelling but refer to different taxa.

Junior primary homonyms in a species group - species synonyms resulting from two different organisms being originally described with the same name spelled in the same way. Compare with the previously discussed junior secondary homonyms.

Completely suppressed names - are special cases where a name is completely suppressed by the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature. It is treated as if it had never been published and is never to be used, regardless of actual availability.

Partially suppressed names - are special cases where a name is partially suppressed by the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature. Unlike completely suppressed names, partially suppressed names are still acknowledged as having been published but is used only for the purpose of homonymy, not priority.

Whistler's warbler

Whistler's warbler (Phylloscopus whistleri) is a species of leaf warbler (family Phylloscopidae). It was formerly included in the "Old World warbler" assemblage.

It is found in the Indian subcontinent, from the Himalayas to Myanmar. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist montane forests and heavily degraded former forest.

Whistler's warbler was previously placed in the genus Seicercus. A molecular phylogenetic study published in 2018 found that neither Phylloscopus nor Seicercus were monophyletic. In the subsequent reorganization the two genera were merged into Phylloscopus which has priority under the rules of the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature. The common name commemorates the English ornithologist Hugh Whistler (1889–1943).

ZooBank

ZooBank is an open access website intended to be the official International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN) registry of zoological nomenclature. Any nomenclatural acts (e.g. publications that create or change a taxonomic name) need to be registered with ZooBank to be "officially" recognized by the ICZN Code of Nomenclature.

Life Science Identifiers (LSIDs) are used as the globally unique identifier for ZooBank registration entries.The ZooBank prototype was seeded with data from Index to Organism Names, which was compiled from the scientific literature in Zoological Record now owned by Thomson Reuters.

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