International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants

The International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants (ICNCP), also known as the Cultivated Plant Code, is a guide to the rules and regulations for naming cultigens, plants whose origin or selection is primarily due to intentional human activity.[1] Cultigens under the purview of the ICNCP include cultivars, Groups (cultivar groups), and grexes. All organisms traditionally considered to be plants (including algae and fungi) are included.[2] Taxa that receive a name under the ICNCP will also be included within taxa named under the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants,[3] for example, a cultivar is a member of a species.

International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants
EditorsChristopher D. Brickell, Crinan Alexander, Janet J. Cubey, John C. David, Marco H.A. Hoffman, Alan C. Leslie, Valéry Malécot, Xiaobai Jin, et al.
CountryThe Netherlands
LanguageEnglish
Release number
9
SubjectCultivated plant taxonomy
PublishedInternational Society for Horticultural Science (June 2016)
Media typePrint
Pages190
ISBN978-94-6261-116-0 (9th ed.)
Preceded by8th edition (October 2009) 
Websitewww.ishs.org/scripta-horticulturae/international-code-nomenclature-cultivated-plants-ninth-edition

Brief history

The first edition of the ICNCP, which was agreed in 1952 in Wageningen and published in 1953, has been followed by seven subsequent editions – in 1958 (Utrecht), 1961 (update of 1958), 1969 (Edinburgh), 1980 (Seattle), 1995 (Edinburgh), 2004 (Toronto) and 2009 (Wageningen).[4] The ninth (most recent) edition was published in 2016.[5]

William Stearn has outlined the origins of ICNCP, tracing it back to the International Horticultural Congress of Brussels in 1864, when a letter from Alphonse de Candolle to Edouard Morren was tabled. This set out de Candolle's view that Latin names should be reserved for species and varieties found in the wild, with non-Latin or "fancy" names used for garden forms. Karl Koch supported this position at the 1865 International Botanical and Horticultural Congress and at the 1866 International Botanical Congress, where he suggested that future congresses should deal with nomenclatural matters. De Candolle, who had a legal background, drew up the Lois de la Nomenclature botanique (rules of botanical nomenclature). When adopted by the International Botanical Congress of Paris in 1867, this became the first version of today's International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN).[6][7]

Article 40 of the Lois de la Nomenclature botanique dealt with the names of plants of horticultural origin:

Among cultivated plants, seedlings, crosses [métis] of uncertain origin and sports, receive fancy names in common language, as distinct as possible from the Latin names of species or varieties. When they can be traced back to a botanical species, subspecies or variety, this is indicated by a sequence of names (Pelargonium zonale Mistress-Pollock).[a]

This Article survived redrafting of the International Rules of Botanical Nomenclature until 1935 and its core sentiments remain in the present-day ICNCP of 2009.

The first version (1953) was published by the Royal Horticultural Society as a 29 page booklet, edited by William Stearn.[9] Following the structure of the Botanical Code, the ICNCP is set out in the form of an initial set of Principles followed by Rules and Recommendations that are subdivided into Articles. Amendments to the ICNCP are prompted by international symposia for cultivated plant taxonomy which allow for rulings made by the International Commission on the Nomenclature of Cultivated Plants. Each new version includes a summary of the changes made to the previous version; the changes have also been summarised for the period 1953 to 1995.[10]

Name examples

The ICNCP operates within the framework of the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants which regulates the scientific names of plants. The following are some examples of names governed by the ICNCP:

  • Clematis alpina 'Ruby': a cultivar within a species; the cultivar epithet is in single quotes and capitalized.
  • Magnolia 'Elizabeth': a cultivar within a hybrid between two or more species.
  • Rhododendron boothii Mishmiense Group: a cultivar group name; both the name of the cultivar group and the word "Group" are capitalized and not enclosed in quotes.
  • Paphiopedilum Sorel grex: a grex name; the name of the grex is capitalized but the word "grex" (or abbreviation "gx") is not, and quotes are not used.
  • Apple 'Jonathan': permitted use of an unambiguous common name with a cultivar epithet.
  • +Crataegomespilus: a graft-chimera of Crataegus and Mespilus

Note that the ICNCP does not regulate trademarks for plants: trademarks are regulated by the law of the land involved. Nor does the ICNCP regulate the naming of plant varieties in the legal sense of that term.

Trade designations

Many plants have "selling names" or "marketing names" as well as a cultivar name; the ICNCP refers to these as "trade designations". Only the cultivar name is governed by the ICNCP. It is required to be unique; in accordance with the principle of priority, it will be the first name that is published or that is registered by the discoverer or breeder of the cultivar.[11] Trade designations are not regulated by the ICNCP;[12] they may be different in different countries. Thus the German rose breeder Reimer Kordes registered a white rose in 1958 as the cultivar 'KORbin'. This is sold in the United Kingdom under the selling name "Iceberg", in France as "Fée des Neiges" and in Germany as "Schneewittchen".[13]

Trade designations are not enclosed in single quotes. The ICNCP states that "trade designations must always be distinguished typographically from cultivar, Group and grex epithets."[14] It uses small capitals for this purpose, thus Syringa vulgaris Ludwig Spaeth (trade designation) is distinguished from S. vulgaris 'Andenken an Ludwig Späth' (cultivar name).[15] Other sources, including the Royal Horticultural Society, instead use a different font for selling names, e.g. Rosa Iceberg 'KORbin'.[13]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ "Dans les plantes cultivées, les semis, les métis d'origin obscure et les sports, reçoivent des noms de fantaisie, en langue vulgaire, aussi différents que possible des noms latins d'espèces ou de variétés. Quand on peut les rattacher à une espèce, à une sous espèce ou une variété botanique, on l'indique par la succession des noms (Pelargonium zonale Mistress-Pollock)."[8] In the modern style the species name would be italicized and the cultivar name (fancy name) put in quotes, e.g. Pelargonium zonale 'Mistress Pollock'.

References

  1. ^ Spencer & Cross (2007)
  2. ^ Brickell (2009, p. xi), Preface
  3. ^ Brickell (2009, p. 5), Article 1.2
  4. ^ Brickell (2009)
  5. ^ Brickell (2016)
  6. ^ Stearn (1952)
  7. ^ Stearn (1952a)
  8. ^ de Candolle (1867, p. 24)
  9. ^ Brickell (2009, p. xix), Previous editions
  10. ^ Trehane (2004, pp. 17–27)
  11. ^ Brickell (2009, p. 3), Principle 3
  12. ^ Brickell (2009, p. 4), Principle 6
  13. ^ a b Beales (2011, p. 41)
  14. ^ Brickell (2009, p. 21), Article 17.3
  15. ^ Brickell (2009, p. 17)

Bibliography

External links

Australian Cultivar Registration Authority

The Australian Cultivar Registration Authority (ACRA) is the International Cultivar Registration Authority (ICRA) for Australian plant genera, excluding those genera or groups for which other ICRAs have been appointed.It is a committee of representatives of each state's botanic gardens, the Society for Growing Australian Plants, and the Nursery Industry Association of Australia.Founded in 1963, it is responsible for the registration and publication of cultivar names of Australian native plants, in accordance with the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants.

It also advises on plant breeders rights, and registers plant varieties declared under the Plant Breeder's Rights Act 1994.

Botanical name

A botanical name is a formal scientific name conforming to the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN) and, if it concerns a plant cultigen, the additional cultivar or Group epithets must conform to the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants (ICNCP). The code of nomenclature covers "all organisms traditionally treated as algae, fungi, or plants, whether fossil or non-fossil, including blue-green algae (Cyanobacteria), chytrids, oomycetes, slime moulds and photosynthetic protists with their taxonomically related non-photosynthetic groups (but excluding Microsporidia)."The purpose of a formal name is to have a single name that is accepted and used worldwide for a particular plant or plant group. For example, the botanical name Bellis perennis denotes a plant species which is native to most of the countries of Europe and the Middle East, where it has accumulated various names in many languages. Later, the plant was introduced worldwide, bringing it into contact with more languages. English names for this plant species include: daisy, English daisy, and lawn daisy. The cultivar Bellis perennis 'Aucubifolia' is a golden-variegated horticultural selection of this species.

Botanical nomenclature

Botanical nomenclature is the formal, scientific naming of plants. It is related to, but distinct from taxonomy. Plant taxonomy is concerned with grouping and classifying plants; botanical nomenclature then provides names for the results of this process. The starting point for modern botanical nomenclature is Linnaeus' Species Plantarum of 1753. Botanical nomenclature is governed by the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN), which replaces the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN). Fossil plants are also covered by the code of nomenclature.

Within the limits set by that code there is another set of rules, the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants (ICNCP) which applies to plant cultivars that have been deliberately altered or selected by humans (see cultigen).

Canna 'Pringle Bay'

Canna 'Pringle Bay' is a miniature Italian and variegated group canna cultivar; variegated foliage, oval shaped, spreading habit; flowers are open, self-coloured pink, staminodes are large; fertile both ways, not true to type, not self-pollinating; rhizomes are thick, up to 3 cm in diameter, coloured pink and purple. Its main attraction is the bright variegated foliage, green, bronze and pink. Only about 40 cm in height.

Terence Bloch introduced it from South Africa and named it 'Pringle Bay', after where it originated from in that country. Somewhat mysteriously, the name 'Pink Sunburst' now seems to be the preferred name, but the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants stipulates that this is simply a synonym of the original name.

Cultivar

A cultivar (cultivated variety) is an assemblage of plants selected for desirable characteristics that are maintained during propagation. More generally, a cultivar is the most basic classification category of cultivated plants in the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants (ICNCP). Most cultivars arose in cultivation, but a few are special selections from the wild.

Popular ornamental garden plants like roses, camellias, daffodils, rhododendrons, and azaleas are cultivars produced by careful breeding and selection for floral colour and form. Similarly, the world's agricultural food crops are almost exclusively cultivars that have been selected for characters such as improved yield, flavour, and resistance to disease, and very few wild plants are now used as food sources. Trees used in forestry are also special selections grown for their enhanced quality and yield of timber.

Cultivars form a major part of Liberty Hyde Bailey's broader group, the cultigen, which is defined as a plant whose origin or selection is primarily due to intentional human activity. A cultivar is not the same as a botanical variety, which is a taxonomic rank below subspecies, and there are differences in the rules for creating and using the names of botanical varieties and cultivars. In recent times, the naming of cultivars has been complicated by the use of statutory patents for plants and recognition of plant breeders' rights.The International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants (UPOV – French: Union internationale pour la protection des obtentions végétales) offers legal protection of plant cultivars to persons or organisations that introduce new cultivars to commerce. UPOV requires that a cultivar be "distinct, uniform", and "stable". To be "distinct", it must have characters that easily distinguish it from any other known cultivar. To be "uniform" and "stable", the cultivar must retain these characters in repeated propagation.

The naming of cultivars is an important aspect of cultivated plant taxonomy, and the correct naming of a cultivar is prescribed by the Rules and Recommendations of the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants (ICNCP, commonly denominated the Cultivated Plant Code). A cultivar is given a cultivar name, which consists of the scientific Latin botanical name followed by a cultivar epithet. The cultivar epithet is usually in a vernacular language. For example, the full cultivar name of the King Edward potato is Solanum tuberosum 'King Edward'. 'King Edward' is the cultivar epithet, which, according to the Rules of the Cultivated Plant Code, is bounded by single quotation marks.

Cultivar group

A Group (previously cultivar-group) is a formal category in the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants (ICNCP) used for cultivated plants (cultivars) that share a defined characteristic. It is represented in a botanical name by the symbol Group or Gp. "Group" or "Gp" is always written with a capital G in a botanical name, or epithet. The Group is not italicized in a plant's name. The ICNCP introduced the term and symbol "Group" in 2004, as a replacement for the lengthy and hyphenated "cultivar-group", which had previously been the category's name since 1969. For the old name "cultivar-group", the non-standard abbreviation cv. group or cv. Group is also sometimes encountered. There is a slight difference in meaning, since a cultivar-group was defined to comprise cultivars, whereas a Group may include individual plants.The ICNCP distinguishes between the terms "group" and "Group", a "group" being "an informal taxon not recognized in the ICBN", while a "Group" is the formal taxon defined by the ICNCP (see above).This categorization does not apply to plant taxonomy generally, only to horticultural and agricultural contexts. Any given Group may have a different taxonomic classification, such as a subspecific name (typically a form or variety name, given in italics) after the genus and species.

A Group is usually united by a distinct common trait, and often includes members of more than one species within a genus. For example, early flowering cultivars in the genus Iris form the Iris Dutch Group. A plant species that loses its taxonomic status in botany, but still has agricultural or horticultural value, meets the criteria for a cultivar group, and its former botanical name can be reused as the name of its cultivar group. For example, Hosta fortunei is usually no longer recognized as a species, and the ICNCP states that the epithet fortunei can be used to form Hosta Fortunei Group.

Grex (horticulture)

The term grex (pl. greges or grexes; abbreviation gx), derived from the Latin noun grex, gregis meaning 'flock', has been coined to expand botanical nomenclature to describe hybrids of orchids, based solely on their parentage. Grex names are one of the three categories of plant names governed by the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants; within a grex the cultivar group category can be used to refer to plants by their shared characteristics (rather than by their parentage), and individual orchid plants can be selected (and propagated) and named as cultivars.

International Code of Nomenclature

International Code of Nomenclature may refer to:

International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN), formerly the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN)

International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria (ICNB)

International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants (ICNCP)

Karat banana

Karat bananas are local cultivars of Fe'i banana found in Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia. The name originates from their bright orange flesh, unusually rich in β-carotene.

They are often treated as a single cultivar, i.e. a distinct cultivated variety, with a name written as Musa 'Karat' in accordance with the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants. However, in Pohnpei there are at least three types, 'Karat Kole', 'Karat Pwehu' and 'Karat Pako'. The last has a larger fruit, up to 400–500 g in weight.Traditionally, the Karat banana was used in Micronesia to wean infants onto solid food. It is much less often eaten there now that imported foods have grown in popularity. However, it is believed that because beta-carotenes are important metabolic precursors of vitamin A, essential for the proper functioning of the retina, giving Karat bananas to young children could help ward off certain kinds of blindness. A campaign to increase the consumption of Karat bananas (and of Fe'i bananas in general) has therefore taken place in Pohnpei.

List of Canna cultivars

This list of Canna cultivars is a gallery of named cultivars of plants in the genus Canna that are representative of the various Canna cultivar groups (i.e., groups of very similar cultivars).

Names of cultivars conform to the rules of the International Society for Horticultural Science (ISHS) Commission for Nomenclature and Cultivar Registration, as laid down in the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants. They are registered with an International Cultivar Registration Authority (ICRA), which for the genus Canna is the Royal General Bulbgrowers' Association of the Netherlands (KAVB).

Nepenthes 'Alba'

Nepenthes 'Alba' is a cultivar of a complex manmade hybrid involving N. maxima, N. mirabilis, N. northiana, N. rafflesiana, N. veitchii, and a plant identified as N. thorelii. It was bred by Bruce Lee Bednar and Orgel Clyde Bramblett in 1990. This cultivar name is not established as it was published without a description, violating Article 24.1 of the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants, and has a Latin epithet, violating Article 19.13. It is a synonym of N. × hareliana and was originally published in the March 1994 issue of the Carnivorous Plant Newsletter as "x hareliana var. alba".Other cultivars of the same cross include N. 'Boca Rose', N. 'Red Skeleton', N. 'Rouge', and N. 'Vittata'.

Nepenthes 'Alta May'

Nepenthes 'Alta May' is a cultivar of a manmade hybrid between N. distillatoria and N. ventricosa. It was bred by Bruce Lee Bednar and Orgel Clyde Bramblett in 1989. This cultivar name is not established as it was published without a description, violating Article 24.1 of the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants. It is a synonym of N. × butcheri and was originally published in the March 1994 issue of the Carnivorous Plant Newsletter as "x butcherii var. “Alta May”". Bednar and Bramblett listed its parentage as "distillatoria rubra x ventricosa (pink)".

Nepenthes 'Boca Rose'

Nepenthes 'Boca Rose' is a cultivar of a complex manmade hybrid involving N. maxima, N. mirabilis, N. northiana, N. rafflesiana, N. veitchii, and a plant identified as N. thorelii. It was bred by Bruce Lee Bednar and Orgel Clyde Bramblett in 1990. This cultivar name is not established as it was published without a description, violating Article 24.1 of the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants, and Jan Schlauer considers the epithet "doubtfully acceptable" as it may conflict with Article 19.24. Nepenthes 'Boca Rose' is a synonym of N. × hareliana and was originally published in the March 1994 issue of the Carnivorous Plant Newsletter as "x hareliana var. “Boca Rose”".Other cultivars of the same cross include N. 'Alba', N. 'Red Skeleton', N. 'Rouge', and N. 'Vittata'.

Nepenthes 'LeeAnn Marie'

Nepenthes 'LeeAnn Marie' is a cultivar of a manmade hybrid involving N. alata and N. ventricosa. It was bred by Bruce Lee Bednar in 1982. This cultivar name is not established as it was published without a description, violating Article 24.1 of the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants. It is a later synonym of N. × ventrata and first appeared in print in the March 1994 issue of the Carnivorous Plant Newsletter as "x “LeeAnn Marie”". Bednar and Bramblett listed its parentage as "ventricosa (green form) x ventrata G".

Nepenthes 'Michael Lee'

Nepenthes 'Michael Lee' is a cultivar of a complex manmade hybrid involving N. alata, N. ampullaria, N. gracilis, N. khasiana, N. rafflesiana, and N. ventricosa. It was bred by Bruce Lee Bednar and Orgel Clyde Bramblett in 1986. This cultivar name is not established as it was published without a description, violating Article 24.1 of the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants. It first appeared in print in the March 1994 issue of the Carnivorous Plant Newsletter as "x “Michael Lee”".

Nepenthes 'Rouge'

Nepenthes 'Rouge' is a cultivar of a complex manmade hybrid involving N. maxima, N. mirabilis, N. northiana, N. rafflesiana, N. veitchii, and a plant identified as N. thorelii. It was bred by Bruce Lee Bednar and Orgel Clyde Bramblett in 1990. This cultivar name is not established as it was published without a description, violating Article 24.1 of the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants, and the epithet is illegitimate as it conflicts with Recommendation 19D.1. Nepenthes 'Rouge' is a synonym of N. × hareliana and was originally published in the March 1994 issue of the Carnivorous Plant Newsletter as "x hareliana var. rouge".Other cultivars of the same cross include N. 'Alba', N. 'Boca Rose', N. 'Red Skeleton', and N. 'Vittata'.

Plant variety

Plant variety may refer to

Variety (botany), a taxonomic nomenclature rank in botany, below subspecies, but above subvariety and form

Plant variety (law), a non-taxonomic, exclusively legal term

An informal and ambiguous substitute for form (botany) (a taxonomic nomenclature rank in botany, below variety (botany))

An older substitute for cultivar or hybrid (biology), now discouraged by the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants. It is still used especially with regard to grapes and rice.

Plant variety (law)

Plant variety is a legal term, following the International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants (UPOV) Convention. Recognition of a cultivated plant (a cultivar) as a "variety" in this particular sense provides its breeder with some legal protection, so-called plant breeders' rights, depending to some extent on the internal legislation of the UPOV signatory countries, such as the Plant Variety Protection Act in the US.

This "variety" (which will differ in status according to national law) should not be confused with the international

taxonomic rank of "variety" (regulated by the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants), nor with the term "cultivar" (regulated by the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants). Some horticulturists use "variety" imprecisely; for example, viticulturists almost always refer to grape cultivars as "grape varieties".

Variety (botany)

In botanical nomenclature, variety (abbreviated var.; in Latin: varietas) is a taxonomic rank below that of species and subspecies, but above that of form. As such, it gets a three-part infraspecific name. It is sometimes recommended that the subspecies rank should be used to recognize geographic distinctiveness, whereas the variety rank is appropriate if the taxon is seen throughout the geographic range of the species.

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