Intermezzo

In music, an intermezzo (/ˌɪntərˈmɛtsoʊ/, Italian pronunciation: [ˌinterˈmɛddzo], plural form: intermezzi), in the most general sense, is a composition which fits between other musical or dramatic entities, such as acts of a play or movements of a larger musical work. In music history, the term has had several different usages, which fit into two general categories: the opera intermezzo and the instrumental intermezzo.

Renaissance intermezzo

The Renaissance intermezzo was also called the intermedio. It was a masque-like dramatic piece with music, which was performed between the acts of a play at Italian court festivities on special occasions, especially weddings. By the late 16th century, the intermezzo had become the most spectacular form of dramatic performance, and an important precursor to opera. The most famous examples were created for Medici weddings in 1539, 1565, and 1589. In Baroque Spain the equivalent entremés or paso was a one-act comic scene, often ending in music and dance, between jornadas (acts) of a play.[1]

Opera intermezzo

The intermezzo, in the 18th century, was a comic operatic interlude inserted between acts or scenes of an opera seria. These intermezzi could be substantial and complete works themselves, though they were shorter than the opera seria which enclosed them; typically they provided comic relief and dramatic contrast to the tone of the bigger opera around them, and often they used one or more of the stock characters from the opera or from the commedia dell'arte. In this they were the reverse of the Renaissance intermezzo, which usually had a mythological or pastoral subject as a contrast to a main comic play. Often they were of a burlesque nature, and characterized by slapstick comedy, disguises, dialect, and ribaldry. The most famous of all intermezzi from the period is Pergolesi's La serva padrona, which was an opera buffa that after the death of Pergolesi kicked off the Querelle des Bouffons.

In some cases the intermezzo repertory spread more quickly than did the opera seria itself; the singers were often renowned, the comic effects were popular, and intermezzi were relatively easy to produce and stage. In the 1730s the style spread around Europe, and some cities—for example Moscow—recorded visits and performances by troupes performing intermezzi years before any actual opera seria were done.

The intermède (the French equivalent of the intermezzo) was the single most important outside operatic influence in Paris in the mid-18th century, and helped create an entire new repertory of opera in France (see opéra comique).

The word was used (with a hint of irony) as the title of Richard Strauss's two-act opera, Intermezzo (1924), the scale of which far exceeds the intermezzo of tradition.

Many of the most celebrated intermezzi are from operas of the verismo period: Mascagni's Cavalleria rusticana and L'amico Fritz, Leoncavallo's Pagliacci, Puccini's Manon Lescaut and Suor Angelica, Giordano's Fedora, Cilea's Adriana Lecouvreur, and especially that from Massenet's Thais, which became known as the Méditation.

Instrumental intermezzo

In the 19th century, the intermezzo acquired another meaning: an instrumental piece which was either a movement between two others in a larger work, or a character piece which could stand on its own. These intermezzi show a wide variation in the style and function: in Mendelssohn's incidental music to A Midsummer Night's Dream the intermezzo serves as musical connecting material for action in Shakespeare's play; in chamber music by Mendelssohn and Brahms, the intermezzi are names for interior movements which would otherwise be called scherzi; and the piano intermezzi by Brahms, some of his last compositions, are sets of independent character pieces not intended to connect anything else together. Stylistically, intermezzi of the 19th century are usually lyrical and melodic, especially compared to the movements on either side, when they occur in larger works. The Brahms piano intermezzi in particular have an extremely wide emotional range, and are often considered some of the finest character pieces written in the 19th century.

Opera composers sometimes wrote instrumental intermezzi as connecting pieces between acts of operas. In this sense, an intermezzo is similar to the entr'acte. The most famous of this type of intermezzo is probably the intermezzo from Mascagni's Cavalleria rusticana. Puccini also wrote intermezzi for Manon Lescaut and Madama Butterfly, and examples exist by Wolf-Ferrari, Delius and others.

Also, incidental music for plays usually contained several intermezzi. Schubert's Rosamunde music as well as Grieg's Peer Gynt contained several intermezzi for the respective plays.

In the 20th century, the term was used occasionally. Shostakovich named one movement of his dark String Quartet No. 15 "intermezzo"; Bartók used the term for the fourth movement (of five) of his Concerto for Orchestra.

See also

Sources

  • The New Harvard Dictionary of Music, ed. Don Randel. Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University Press, 1986. ISBN 0-674-61525-5
  • Articles "Intermezzo," "Intermedio" in The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, ed. Stanley Sadie. 20 vol. London, Macmillan Publishers Ltd., 1980. ISBN 1-56159-174-2
  1. ^ Lewis W. Heniford 1/2/3/4 for the Show: A Guide to Small-cast One-act Plays 0810836009 1995 "A paso is a seventeenth-century Spanish one-act comic scene, which became synonymous with entremes (a short comic interlude often ending in music and dance that played between jornadas, the acts of a long play)"
.hack//Sign

.hack//Sign (trademarked as .hack//SIGN) is an anime television series directed by Kōichi Mashimo and produced by studio Bee Train and Bandai Visual, that makes up one of the four original storylines of the .hack franchise. Twenty-six original episodes aired in 2002 on TV and three additional bonus episodes (Intermezzo, Unison, and Gift) were released on DVD as original video animations (OVAs). The series features character design by Yoshiyuki Sadamoto, known for his work on Evangelion, and screenplay by Kazunori Itō, who penned the screenplay for the first Ghost in the Shell movie. The score was composed by Yuki Kajiura, marking her second collaboration with Kōichi Mashimo..hack//Sign is influenced by psychological and sociological subjects such as anxiety, escapism, and interpersonal relationships. The series focuses on a Wavemaster (magic user) named Tsukasa, a player character of a virtual-reality massively multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG) called The World. Tsukasa wakes up to find himself in a dungeon in The World, but he suffers from short-term memory loss as he wonders where he is and how he got there. The situation gets worse when he discovers he is unable to log out and is trapped in the game. From then on, along with other players Tsukasa embarks on a quest to figure out the truth behind his abnormal situation.

The show premiered in Japan on TV Tokyo between April 4, 2002 and September 25, 2002. It was broadcast across East Asia, Southeast Asia, South Asia, and Latin America by the anime television network, Animax; and across the United States, Nigeria, Canada, and United Kingdom by Cartoon Network, YTV, and AnimeCentral (English and Japanese) respectively. It was distributed across North America by Bandai Entertainment.

The storyline moves at a leisurely pace, and has multiple layers — the viewer is often fed false information and red herrings, potentially leading to confusion until the true nature of events is unveiled towards the end of the series. It relies on character development and has few action scenes; most of the time character interaction is presented in the form of dialogue. English language reception to .hack//Sign has been generally positive, but some of these sources have negatively criticised the series as a result of its slow pacing and character-driven storyline.

Four Pieces for Piano, Op. 119 (Brahms)

The Four Pieces for Piano (German: Klavierstücke) Op. 119, are four character pieces for piano composed by Johannes Brahms in 1893. The collection is the last composition for solo piano by Brahms. Together with the six pieces from Op. 118, Op. 119 was premiered in London in January 1894.

Ingrid Bergman

Ingrid Bergman (29 August 1915 – 29 August 1982) was a Swedish actress who starred in a variety of European and American films. She won many accolades, including three Academy Awards, two Primetime Emmy Awards, four Golden Globe Awards, a BAFTA Award, and a Tony Award. She is best remembered for her roles as Ilsa Lund in Casablanca (1942) and Alicia Huberman in Notorious (1946).

Bergman was born in Stockholm to a Swedish father and a German mother and started her career as an actress in Swedish and German films in the 1930s. Her introduction to American audiences came with her starring role in the English-language remake of Intermezzo (1939). At her insistence, producer David O. Selznick agreed not to sign her to a contract—for four films, rather than the then-standard seven-year period, also at her insistence—until after Intermezzo had been released. Selznick's financial problems meant that Bergman was often loaned to other studios. Apart from Casablanca, her performances from this period include Victor Fleming's remake of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde (1941), For Whom the Bell Tolls (1943), Gaslight (1944) and The Bells of St. Mary's (1945). Her last films for Selznick were Alfred Hitchcock's Spellbound (1945) and Notorious (1946). Her final film for Hitchcock was Under Capricorn (1949).

After a decade in American films, she starred in Roberto Rossellini's Stromboli (1950), following the revelation that she was having an extramarital affair with the director. The affair and then marriage to Rossellini created a scandal in the U.S. that forced her to remain in Europe for several years, after which she made a successful return to working for a Hollywood studio in Anastasia (1956), for which she won her second Academy Award. Although she made many films for Hollywood studios in subsequent years, they were all made in Europe, and she did not film in Hollywood again until 1969.

According to the St. James Encyclopedia of Popular Culture, Bergman quickly became "the ideal of American womanhood" and a contender for Hollywood's greatest leading actress. In the United States, she is considered to have brought a "Nordic freshness and vitality" to the screen, along with exceptional beauty and intelligence; David O. Selznick once called her "the most completely conscientious actress" he had ever worked with. In 1999, the American Film Institute ranked Bergman as the fourth-greatest female screen legend of Classic Hollywood Cinema.

Intermezzo (1939 film)

Intermezzo (also called Intermezzo: A Love Story) (1939) is a romantic film made in the US by Selznick International Pictures and nominated for two Academy Awards. It was directed by Gregory Ratoff and produced by David O. Selznick. It is a remake of the Swedish film Intermezzo (1936) and features multiple orchestrations of the Heinz Provost's piece of the same name, which won a contest associated with the original film's production. The screenplay by George O'Neil was based on the screenplay of the original film by Gösta Stevens and Gustaf Molander. The scoring by Lou Forbes was nominated for an Academy Award, and music credit was given to Robert Russell Bennett, Max Steiner, Heinz Provost, and Christian Sinding. The cinematography by Gregg Toland who replaced Harry Stradling was also nominated for an Academy Award.It stars Leslie Howard as a (married) virtuoso violinist who falls in love with his accompanist, played by Ingrid Bergman in her Hollywood debut.

Intermezzo (horse)

Intermezzo (1966 – after 2 February 1995), was a British Thoroughbred racehorse and sire. He won two of his three races as a two-year-old in 1968 and went on to record his most important win in the Classic St. Leger Stakes at Doncaster in September 1969. He raced without winning in 1970 and was exported to stand as stallion in Japan, where he had some success as a sire of winners.

Intermezzo (opera)

Intermezzo, Op. 72, is an opera in two acts by Richard Strauss to his own German libretto, described as a Bürgerliche Komödie mit sinfonischen Zwischenspielen (bourgeois comedy with symphonic interludes). It premiered at the Dresden Semperoper on 4 November 1924, with sets that reproduced Strauss' home in Garmisch. The first Vienna performance was in January 1927.The story depicts fictionally the personalities of Strauss himself (as "Robert Storch") and his wife Pauline (as "Christine") and was based on real incidents in their lives. Pauline Strauss was not aware of the opera's subject before the first performance. After Lotte Lehmann had congratulated Pauline on this "marvelous present to you from your husband", Pauline's reply was reported as "I don't give a damn". The most celebrated music from the opera is the orchestral interludes between scenes.

His usual librettist up to that time, Hugo von Hofmannsthal, refused to work on the opera and suggested that Strauss himself write the libretto, which he eventually did after having been refused by other writers. This is why the libretto is not in verse but in prose and even mimics the dialect used by the servants in the play, against the more polished German of the principals.

The opera's title is intended to refer to the intermezzi that used to be staged during the intermissions of serious operas during the 18th century, sort of mini-comic-operas, easy to follow with themes usually about marital confusions and other light comedies.

Intermezzo No. 1

"Intermezzo No. 1" is an instrumental track from Swedish pop group ABBA's self-titled third album, released in April 1975. It was the first of only two tracks by the group not to contain lyrics; the other was the title track of their 1976 release, Arrival. It is the only purely instrumental ABBA song however, as Arrival includes "a static layer of rich harmony vocals". On the cover, the song was credited as "Intermezzo No.1 featuring Benny Andersson".

Intermezzo in D minor (Bruckner)

The Intermezzo in D minor (WAB 113) is an 1879 composition by the Austrian composer Anton Bruckner. Although it was intended to replace a movement of the String Quintet, that piece was instead performed in its original form; the Intermezzo was not publicly premiered until after the composer's death.

Iranian Intermezzo

The term Iranian Intermezzo represents a period in history which saw the rise of various native Iranian Muslim dynasties in the Iranian plateau. This term is noteworthy since it was an interlude between the decline of Abbāsid Arab rule and power and the eventual emergence of the Seljuq Turks in the 11th century. The Iranian revival consisted of Iranian support based on Iranian territory and most significantly a revived Iranian national spirit and culture in an Islamic form.

KMF SAS

Klub malog fudbala Kopernikus SAS (Serbian Cyrillic: Клуб малог фудбала Коперникус САС), is a Serbian futsal club based in Zrenjanin.

From 2003 until 2008, the club made its greatest achievements when it won four consecutive national championships. A the time, it was named KMF Marbo and was sponsored by food company Marbo Product. Also, from 2011 to 2013 it was three times runner-up in the competition.

Key West Intermezzo (I Saw You First)

"Key West Intermezzo (I Saw You First)" is a 1996 song by American rock musician John Mellencamp. It was released as the first single from his 14th studio album, Mr. Happy Go Lucky, and peaked at number 14 on the Billboard Hot 100, making it his final top 40 hit on that chart. It also peaked at number four on Billboard Adult Top 40, his first and only top 10 hit on that chart, and number 10 on Mainstream Rock Tracks. In Australia and New Zealand, the song became Mellencamp's final hit in both countries, reaching number 21 in Australia and number 35 in New Zealand. In Canada, the song became Mellencamp's fourth number-one single, staying at number one for four weeks, and his success would continue in that country for a few more years. A music video was made for the song, featuring American actor Matthew McConaughey.

La serva padrona

La serva padrona (The Servant Turned Mistress) is an opera buffa by Giovanni Battista Pergolesi (1710–1736) to a libretto by Gennaro Federico, after the play by Jacopo Angello Nelli. The opera is only 45 minutes long and was originally performed as an intermezzo between the acts of a larger serious opera. (The same libretto was set by Giovanni Paisiello in 1781.)

Mass No. 1 (Bruckner)

The Mass No. 1 in D minor, WAB 26 by Anton Bruckner, is a setting of the Mass ordinary for soloists, mixed choir and orchestra, and organ.

Mezzo TV

Mezzo is a French television channel devoted to classical music (including opera and ballet), jazz and world music. It was formed in 1992 and was called France Supervision until 1998. In 2010 it added a sister channel, Mezzo Live HD.

In January 2008 it introduced a new filler feature, Divertimezzo, renamed Intermezzo in 2011, consisting of video clips fashioned from its programmes, with the usual wide range of music.

In the Scandinavian region the channel is distributed by Scandinavian television broadcaster NonStop Television, part of Turner Broadcasting. In Portugal it is available in basic cable, RF output in FTTH services and as a digital channel across platforms.

Six Pieces for Piano, Op. 118 (Brahms)

The Six Pieces for Piano, Op. 118, are some of the most beloved compositions that Johannes Brahms wrote for solo piano. Completed in 1893 and dedicated to Clara Schumann, the collection was the penultimate composition published during Brahms' lifetime. It was also his penultimate work composed for piano solo. Consistent with Brahms's other late keyboard works, Op. 118 is more introspective than his earlier piano pieces, which tended to be more virtuosic in character. The six pieces are:

Intermezzo in A minor. Allegro non assai, ma molto appassionato

Intermezzo in A major. Andante teneramente

Ballade in G minor. Allegro energico

Intermezzo in F minor. Allegretto un poco agitato

Romanze in F major. Andante

Intermezzo in E♭ minor. Andante, largo e mesto

The Enchanted (play)

The Enchanted is a 1950 English adaptation by Maurice Valency of the play Intermezzo written in 1933 by French dramatist Jean Giraudoux.

Three Intermezzi for piano, Op. 117 (Brahms)

The Three Intermezzi for piano, Op. 117, are compositions that Johannes Brahms created for solo piano. Brahms' Intermezzi were described by the critic Eduard Hanslick as "monologues"... pieces of a "thoroughly personal and subjective character" striking a "pensive, graceful, dreamy, resigned, and elegiac note."

The Intermezzi of Opus 117 were composed in 1892, and they are three in number:

The first intermezzo, in E-flat Major, is prefaced in the score by two lines from an old Scottish ballad, Lady Anne Bothwell's Lament, The lines are:

"Balow, my babe, lie still and sleep!

It grieves me sore to see thee weep."

The middle section of the second Intermezzo (B-flat Minor) seems to Brahms’ biographer Walter Niemann to portray a "man as he stands with the bleak, gusty autumn wind eddying round him."

The third Intermezzo (C-sharp Minor) has an autumnal quality also, suggesting the cold wind sighing through the trees as leaves are falling.

Zolpidem

Zolpidem, sold under the brand name Ambien among others, is a medication primarily used for the short term treatment of sleeping problems. Guidelines recommend that it be used only after counseling and behavioral changes have been tried. It decreases the time to sleep onset by about 15 minutes and at larger doses helps people stay asleep longer. It is taken by mouth and is available in conventional tablets or sublingual tablets and oral spray.Common side effects include daytime sleepiness, headache, nausea, and diarrhea. Other side effects include memory problems, hallucinations, and abuse. The recommended dose was decreased in 2013 due to next-morning impairment. Additionally, driving the next morning is not recommended with either higher doses or the long-acting formulation. While flumazenil can reverse zolpidem's effects, usually supportive care is all that is recommended in overdose.Zolpidem is a nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic of the imidazopyridine class. Zolpidem is a type A GABA receptor agonist. It works by increasing GABA effects in the central nervous system by binding to GABAA receptors at the same location as benzodiazepines. It generally has a half-life of two to three hours. This, however, is increased in those with liver problems.Zolpidem was approved for medical use in the United States in 1992. It became available as a generic medication in 2007. In the United States it has a monthly cost of about US$8 for immediate release and US$66 for controlled release medication, as of 2017. Zolpidem is a Schedule IV controlled substance under the Controlled Substances Act of 1970 (CSA). More than 10 million prescriptions are filled a year in the United States, making it one of the most commonly used treatments for sleeping problems.

Zwischenzug

The zwischenzug (German: pronounced [ˈtsvɪʃənˌtsuːk] "intermediate move") is a chess tactic in which a player, instead of playing the expected move (commonly a recapture), first interposes another move posing an immediate threat that the opponent must answer, and only then plays the expected move (Hooper & Whyld 1992:460) (Golombek 1977:354). It is a move that has a high degree of "initiative". Ideally, the zwischenzug changes the situation to the player's advantage, such as by gaining material or avoiding what would otherwise be a strong continuation for the opponent.

Such a move is also called an intermezzo (Cox 2007:216), intermediate move (Kasparov 2008:208), or in-between move (Burgess 1997:494) (Horowitz & Reinfeld 1954:180–97). When the intermediate move is a check, it is sometimes called an "in-between check" (Horowitz & Reinfeld 1954:183–85), "zwischenschach" (van Perlo 2006:479), or "zwischen-check" (Mednis 1997:270).

As with any fairly common chess tactic, it is impossible to pinpoint when the first zwischenzug was played. Three early examples are Lichtenhein–Morphy, New York 1857; Rosenthal–De Vere, Paris 1867; and Tartakower–José Raúl Capablanca, New York 1924. The first known use of the term zwischenzug, however, did not occur until 1933, when the prolific American chess authors Fred Reinfeld and Irving Chernev used it in their book Chess Strategy and Tactics.

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