Interdisciplinarity

Interdisciplinarity or interdisciplinary studies involves the combining of two or more academic disciplines into one activity (e.g., a research project).[1] It draws knowledge from several other fields like sociology, anthropology, psychology, economics etc. It is about creating something by thinking across boundaries. It is related to an interdiscipline or an interdisciplinary field, which is an organizational unit that crosses traditional boundaries between academic disciplines or schools of thought, as new needs and professions emerge. Large engineering teams are usually interdisciplinary, as a power station or mobile phone or other project requires the melding of several specialties. However, the term "interdisciplinary" is sometimes confined to academic settings.

The term interdisciplinary is applied within education and training pedagogies to describe studies that use methods and insights of several established disciplines or traditional fields of study. Interdisciplinarity involves researchers, students, and teachers in the goals of connecting and integrating several academic schools of thought, professions, or technologies—along with their specific perspectives—in the pursuit of a common task. The epidemiology of HIV/AIDS or global warming requires understanding of diverse disciplines to solve complex problems. Interdisciplinary may be applied where the subject is felt to have been neglected or even misrepresented in the traditional disciplinary structure of research institutions, for example, women's studies or ethnic area studies. Interdisciplinarity can likewise be applied to complex subjects that can only be understood by combining the perspectives of two or more fields.

The adjective interdisciplinary is most often used in educational circles when researchers from two or more disciplines pool their approaches and modify them so that they are better suited to the problem at hand, including the case of the team-taught course where students are required to understand a given subject in terms of multiple traditional disciplines. For example, the subject of land use may appear differently when examined by different disciplines, for instance, biology, chemistry, economics, geography, and politics.

Development

Although “interdisciplinary” and “interdisciplinarity” are frequently viewed as twentieth century terms, the concept has historical antecedents, most notably Greek philosophy.[2] Julie Thompson Klein attests that "the roots of the concepts lie in a number of ideas that resonate through modern discourse—the ideas of a unified science, general knowledge, synthesis and the integration of knowledge",[3] while Giles Gunn says that Greek historians and dramatists took elements from other realms of knowledge (such as medicine or philosophy) to further understand their own material.[4] The building of Roman roads required men who understood surveying, material science, logistics and several other disciplines. Any broadminded humanist project involves interdisciplinarity, and history shows a crowd of cases, as seventeenth-century Leibniz's task to create a system of universal justice, which required linguistics, economics, management, ethics, law philosophy, politics, and even sinology.[5]

Interdisciplinary programs sometimes arise from a shared conviction that the traditional disciplines are unable or unwilling to address an important problem. For example, social science disciplines such as anthropology and sociology paid little attention to the social analysis of technology throughout most of the twentieth century. As a result, many social scientists with interests in technology have joined science, technology and society programs, which are typically staffed by scholars drawn from numerous disciplines. They may also arise from new research developments, such as nanotechnology, which cannot be addressed without combining the approaches of two or more disciplines. Examples include quantum information processing, an amalgamation of quantum physics and computer science, and bioinformatics, combining molecular biology with computer science. Sustainable development as a research area deals with problems requiring analysis and synthesis across economic, social and environmental spheres; often an integration of multiple social and natural science disciplines. Interdisciplinary research is also key to the study of health sciences, for example in studying optimal solutions to diseases.[6] Some institutions of higher education offer accredited degree programs in Interdisciplinary Studies.

At another level, interdisciplinarity is seen as a remedy to the harmful effects of excessive specialization and isolation in information silos. On some views, however, interdisciplinarity is entirely indebted to those who specialize in one field of study—that is, without specialists, interdisciplinarians would have no information and no leading experts to consult. Others place the focus of interdisciplinarity on the need to transcend disciplines, viewing excessive specialization as problematic both epistemologically and politically. When interdisciplinary collaboration or research results in new solutions to problems, much information is given back to the various disciplines involved. Therefore, both disciplinarians and interdisciplinarians may be seen in complementary relation to one another.

Barriers

Because most participants in interdisciplinary ventures were trained in traditional disciplines, they must learn to appreciate differing of perspectives and methods. For example, a discipline that places more emphasis on quantitative rigor may produce practitioners who are more scientific in their traininf than others; in turn, colleagues in "softer" disciplines may associate quantitative approaches with difficulty grasp the broader dimensions of a problem and lower rigor in theoretical and qualitative argumentation. An interdisciplinary program may not succeed if its members remain stuck in their disciplines (and in disciplinary attitudes). On the other hand, and from the disciplinary perspective, much interdisciplinary work may be seen as "soft", lacking in rigor, or ideologically motivated; these beliefs place barriers in the career paths of those who choose interdisciplinary work. For example, interdisciplinary grant applications are often refereed by peer reviewers drawn from established disciplines; not surprisingly, interdisciplinary researchers may experience difficulty getting funding for their research. In addition, untenured researchers know that, when they seek promotion and tenure, it is likely that some of the evaluators will lack commitment to interdisciplinarity. They may fear that making a commitment to interdisciplinary research will increase the risk of being denied tenure.

Interdisciplinary programs may fail if they are not given sufficient autonomy. For example, interdisciplinary faculty are usually recruited to a joint appointment, with responsibilities in both an interdisciplinary program (such as women's studies) and a traditional discipline (such as history). If the traditional discipline makes the tenure decisions, new interdisciplinary faculty will be hesitant to commit themselves fully to interdisciplinary work. Other barriers include the generally disciplinary orientation of most scholarly journals, leading to the perception, if not the fact, that interdisciplinary research is hard to publish. In addition, since traditional budgetary practices at most universities channel resources through the disciplines, it becomes difficult to account for a given scholar or teacher's salary and time. During periods of budgetary contraction, the natural tendency to serve the primary constituency (i.e., students majoring in the traditional discipline) makes resources scarce for teaching and research comparatively far from the center of the discipline as traditionally understood. For these same reasons, the introduction of new interdisciplinary programs is often resisted because it is perceived as a competition for diminishing funds.

Due to these and other barriers, interdisciplinary research areas are strongly motivated to become disciplines themselves. If they succeed, they can establish their own research funding programs and make their own tenure and promotion decisions. In so doing, they lower the risk of entry. Examples of former interdisciplinary research areas that have become disciplines, many of them named for their parent disciplines, include neuroscience, cybernetics, biochemistry and biomedical engineering. These new fields are occasionally referred to as "interdisciplines". On the other hand, even though interdisciplinary activities are now a focus of attention for institutions promoting learning and teaching, as well as organizational and social entities concerned with education, they are practically facing complex barriers, serious challenges and criticism. The most important obstacles and challenges faced by interdisciplinary activities in the past two decades can be divided into "professional", "organizational", and "cultural" obstacles.[7]

Interdisciplinary studies and studies of interdisciplinarity

An initial distinction should be made between interdisciplinary studies, which can be found spread across the academy today, and the study of interdisciplinarity, which involves a much smaller group of researchers. The former is instantiated in thousands of research centers across the US and the world. The latter has one US organization, the Association for Interdisciplinary Studies[8] (founded in 1979), two international organizations, the International Network of Inter- and Transdisciplinarity[9] (founded in 2010) and the Philosophy of/as Interdisciplinarity Network[10] (founded in 2009), and one research institute devoted to the theory and practice of interdisciplinarity, the Center for the Study of Interdisciplinarity at the University of North Texas (founded in 2008). As of September 1, 2014, the Center for the Study of Interdisciplinarity has ceased to exist. This is the result of administrative decisions at the University of North Texas.[11]

An interdisciplinary study is an academic program or process seeking to synthesize broad perspectives, knowledge, skills, interconnections, and epistemology in an educational setting. Interdisciplinary programs may be founded in order to facilitate the study of subjects which have some coherence, but which cannot be adequately understood from a single disciplinary perspective (for example, women's studies or medieval studies). More rarely, and at a more advanced level, interdisciplinarity may itself become the focus of study, in a critique of institutionalized disciplines' ways of segmenting knowledge.

In contrast, studies of interdisciplinarity raise to self-consciousness questions about how interdisciplinarity works, the nature and history of disciplinarity, and the future of knowledge in post-industrial society. Researchers at the Center for the Study of Interdisciplinarity have made the distinction between philosophy 'of' and 'as' interdisciplinarity, the former identifying a new, discrete area within philosophy that raises epistemological and metaphysical questions about the status of interdisciplinary thinking, with the latter pointing toward a philosophical practice that is sometimes called 'field philosophy'.[12][13]

Perhaps the most common complaint regarding interdisciplinary programs, by supporters and detractors alike, is the lack of synthesis—that is, students are provided with multiple disciplinary perspectives, but are not given effective guidance in resolving the conflicts and achieving a coherent view of the subject. Others have argued that the very idea of synthesis or integration of disciplines presupposes questionable politico-epistemic commitments.[14] Critics of interdisciplinary programs feel that the ambition is simply unrealistic, given the knowledge and intellectual maturity of all but the exceptional undergraduate; some defenders concede the difficulty, but insist that cultivating interdisciplinarity as a habit of mind, even at that level, is both possible and essential to the education of informed and engaged citizens and leaders capable of analyzing, evaluating, and synthesizing information from multiple sources in order to render reasoned decisions.

While much has been written on the philosophy and promise of interdisciplinarity in academic programs and professional practice, social scientists are increasingly interrogating academic discourses on interdisciplinarity, as well as how interdisciplinarity actually works—and does not—in practice.[15][16][17] Some have shown, for example, that some interdisciplinary enterprises that aim to serve society can produce deleterious outcomes for which no one can be held to account.[18]

Politics of interdisciplinary studies

Since 1998, there has been an ascendancy in the value of interdisciplinary research and teaching and a growth in the number of bachelor's degrees awarded at U.S. universities classified as multi- or interdisciplinary studies. The number of interdisciplinary bachelor's degrees awarded annually rose from 7,000 in 1973 to 30,000 a year by 2005 according to data from the National Center of Educational Statistics (NECS). In addition, educational leaders from the Boyer Commission to Carnegie's President Vartan Gregorian to Alan I. Leshner, CEO of the American Association for the Advancement of Science have advocated for interdisciplinary rather than disciplinary approaches to problem solving in the 21st century. This has been echoed by federal funding agencies, particularly the National Institutes of Health under the direction of Elias Zerhouni, who has advocated that grant proposals be framed more as interdisciplinary collaborative projects than single researcher, single discipline ones.

At the same time, many thriving longstanding bachelor's in interdisciplinary studies programs in existence for 30 or more years, have been closed down, in spite of healthy enrollment. Examples include Arizona International (formerly part of the University of Arizona), the School of Interdisciplinary Studies at Miami University, and the Department of Interdisciplinary Studies at Wayne State University; others such as the Department of Interdisciplinary Studies at Appalachian State University, and George Mason University's New Century College, have been cut back. Stuart Henry has seen this trend as part of the hegemony of the disciplines in their attempt to recolonize the experimental knowledge production of otherwise marginalized fields of inquiry. This is due to threat perceptions seemingly based on the ascendancy of interdisciplinary studies against traditional academia.

Historical examples

There are many examples of when a particular idea, almost on the same period, arises in different disciplines. One case is the shift from the approach of focusing on "specialized segments of attention" (adopting one particular perspective), to the idea of "instant sensory awareness of the whole", an attention to the "total field", a "sense of the whole pattern, of form and function as a unity", an "integral idea of structure and configuration". This has happened in painting (with cubism), physics, poetry, communication and educational theory. According to Marshall McLuhan, this paradigm shift was due to the passage from an era shaped by mechanization, which brought sequentiality, to the era shaped by the instant speed of electricity, which brought simultaneity.[19]

Efforts to simplify and defend the concept

An article in the Social Science Journal[20] attempts to provide a simple, common-sense, definition of interdisciplinarity, bypassing the difficulties of defining that concept and obviating the need for such related concepts as transdisciplinarity, pluridisciplinarity, and multidisciplinarity:

"To begin with, a discipline can be conveniently defined as any comparatively self-contained and isolated domain of human experience which possesses its own community of experts. Interdisciplinarity is best seen as bringing together distinctive components of two or more disciplines. In academic discourse, interdisciplinarity typically applies to four realms: knowledge, research, education, and theory. Interdisciplinary knowledge involves familiarity with components of two or more disciplines. Interdisciplinary research combines components of two or more disciplines in the search or creation of new knowledge, operations, or artistic expressions. Interdisciplinary education merges components of two or more disciplines in a single program of instruction. Interdisciplinary theory takes interdisciplinary knowledge, research, or education as its main objects of study."

In turn, interdisciplinary richness of any two instances of knowledge, research, or education can be ranked by weighing four variables: number of disciplines involved, the "distance" between them, the novelty of any particular combination, and their extent of integration.[21]

Interdisciplinary knowledge and research are important because:

  1. "Creativity often requires interdisciplinary knowledge.
  2. Immigrants often make important contributions to their new field.
  3. Disciplinarians often commit errors which can be best detected by people familiar with two or more disciplines.
  4. Some worthwhile topics of research fall in the interstices among the traditional disciplines.
  5. Many intellectual, social, and practical problems require interdisciplinary approaches.
  6. Interdisciplinary knowledge and research serve to remind us of the unity-of-knowledge ideal.
  7. Interdisciplinarians enjoy greater flexibility in their research.
  8. More so than narrow disciplinarians, interdisciplinarians often treat themselves to the intellectual equivalent of traveling in new lands.
  9. Interdisciplinarians may help breach communication gaps in the modern academy, thereby helping to mobilize its enormous intellectual resources in the cause of greater social rationality and justice.
  10. By bridging fragmented disciplines, interdisciplinarians might play a role in the defense of academic freedom."[20]

Quotations

"The modern mind divides, specializes, thinks in categories: the Greek instinct was the opposite, to take the widest view, to see things as an organic whole .... It was arete that the Olympic games were designed to test the arete of the whole man, not a merely specialized skill .... The great event was the pentathlon, if you won this, you were a man. Needless to say, the Marathon race was never heard of until modern times: the Greeks would have regarded it as a monstrosity."[22]

"Previously, men could be divided simply into the learned and the ignorant, those more or less the one, and those more or less the other. But your specialist cannot be brought in under either of these two categories. He is not learned, for he is formally ignorant of all that does not enter into his specialty; but neither is he ignorant, because he is 'a scientist,' and 'knows' very well his own tiny portion of the universe. We shall have to say that he is a learned ignoramus, which is a very serious matter, as it implies that he is a person who is ignorant, not in the fashion of the ignorant man, but with all the petulance of one who is learned in his own special line."[23]

"It is the custom among those who are called "practical" men to condemn any man capable of a wide survey as a visionary: no man is thought worthy of a voice in politics unless he ignores or does not know nine tenths of the most important relevant facts."[24]

See also

References

  1. ^ Nissani, M (1995). "Fruits, Salads, and Smoothies: A Working definition of Interdisciplinarity". The Journal of Educational Thought (JET)/revue de la Pensée Éducative. 29 (2): 121–128. JSTOR 23767672.
  2. ^ Ausburg, Tanya (2006). Becoming Interdisciplinary: An Introduction to Interdisciplinary Studies (2nd ed.). New York: Kendall/Hunt Publishing.
  3. ^ Klein, Julie Thompson (1990). Interdisciplinarity: History, Theory, and Practice. Detroit: Wayne State University.
  4. ^ Gunn, Giles (1992). "Interdisciplinary Studies". In Gibaldi, J. (ed.). Introduction to Scholarship in Modern Language and Literatures. New York: Modern Language Association. pp. 239–240. ISBN 978-0873523851.
  5. ^ José Andrés-Gallego (2015). "Are Humanism and Mixed Methods Related? Leibniz's Universal (Chinese) Dream". Journal of Mixed Methods Research. 29 (2): 118–132. doi:10.1177/1558689813515332.
  6. ^ J.S. Edge; S.J. Hoffman; C.L. Ramirez; S.J. Goldie (2013). "Research and Development Priorities to Achieve the "Grand Convergence": An Initial Scan of Priority Research Areas for Public Health, Implementation Science and Innovative Financing for Neglected Diseases: Working Paper for the Lancet Commission on Investing in Health" (PDF). London, UK: The Lancet.
  7. ^ Khorsandi Taskoh, Ali (18 July 2011). Interdisciplinary Higher Education; Criticism, Challenges and Obstacles.
  8. ^ "Association for Interdisciplinary Studies Homepage - Association for Interdisciplinary Studies - Oakland University". www.units.muohio.edu.
  9. ^ "INIT-Home". www.inidtd.org.
  10. ^ "PIN / HOME". pin-net.gatech.edu.
  11. ^ University of Texas. "Center for the Study of Interdisciplinarity". University of Texas. University of Texas. Retrieved 26 November 2017.
  12. ^ Frodeman, Robert (23 November 2010). "Experiments of Field Psychology". Opinionator. Retrieved 30 July 2016.
  13. ^ Frodeman, Robert; Briggle, Adam; Holbrook, J. Britt (2012). "Philosophy in the Age of Neoliberalism". Social Epistemology. 26 (3–4): 311–330. doi:10.1080/02691728.2012.722701.
  14. ^ Holbrook, J. Britt (2013). "What is interdisciplinary communication? Reflections on the very idea of disciplinary integration". Synthese. 190 (11): 1865–1879. doi:10.1007/s11229-012-0179-7.
  15. ^ Barry, A.; G. Born & G. Weszkalnys (2008). "Logics of interdisciplinarity" (PDF). Economy and Society. 37 (1): 20–49. doi:10.1080/03085140701760841.
  16. ^ Jacobs, J.A. & S. Frickel (2009). "Interdisciplinarity: a critical assessment" (PDF). Annual Review of Sociology. 35: 43–65. doi:10.1146/annurev-soc-070308-115954.
  17. ^ Strathern, M. (2004). Commons and borderlands: working papers on interdisciplinarity, accountability and the flow of knowledge. Wantage: Sean Kingston Publishing.
  18. ^ Hall, E.F. & T. Sanders (2015). "Accountability and the academy: producing knowledge about the human dimensions of climate change". Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute. 21 (2): 438–61. doi:10.1111/1467-9655.12162. hdl:1807/68882. open access
  19. ^ Marshall McLuhan (1964) Understanding Media, p.13 "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 11 October 2007. Retrieved 4 September 2007.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  20. ^ a b Nissani, M. (1997). "Ten cheers for interdisciplinarity: The Case for Interdisciplinary Knowledge and Research". Social Science Journal. 34 (2): 201–216. doi:10.1016/S0362-3319(97)90051-3.
  21. ^ Nissani, M. (1995). "Fruits, Salads, and Smoothies: A Working Definition of Interdisciplinarity". Journal of Educational Thought. 29 (2): 119–126.
  22. ^ Kitto, H.D.F. (1957). The Greeks. Middlesex: Penguin. pp. 173–4. ISBN 978-0140135213.
  23. ^ Ortega y Gasset, José (1932). The Revolt of the Masses. New York: New American Library.
  24. ^ Bertrand Russell, cited in: Nissani, M. (1992). Lives in the Balance: the Cold War and American Politics, 1945-1991. Hollowbrook. ISBN 978-0893416591.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)

Further reading

External links

Annales de Gergonne

The Annales de Mathématiques Pures et Appliquées, commonly known as the Annales de Gergonne, was a mathematical journal published in Nimes, France from 1810 to 1831 by Joseph-Diaz Gergonne. The annals were largely devoted to geometry, with additional articles on history, philosophy, and mathematics education showing interdisciplinarity."In the Annales, Gergonne established in form and content a set of exceptionally high standards for mathematical journalism. New symbols and new terms to enrich mathematical literature are found here for the first time. The journal, which met with instant approval, became a model for many another editor. Cauchy, Poncelet, Brianchon, Steiner, Plucker, Crelle, Poisson, Ampere, Chasles, and Liouville sent articles for publication."Operational calculus was developed in the journal in 1814 by Francois-Joseph Servois.

Center for Research and Interdisciplinarity

The Center for Research and Interdisciplinarity, French: Centre de recherches interdisciplinaires, is a French educational institution. It is part of the Paris Descartes University but is funded by the Fondation Bettencourt Schueller. It was founded in 2005 by François Taddei and Ariel Lindner, both researchers at the Institut national de la santé et de la recherche médicale.The school offers interdisciplinary research-based study, and awards a bachelor's degree, Frontières du vivant ("frontiers of life sciences"); a master's degree in interdisciplinary approaches to life sciences; and a Frontières du vivant doctorate.:215

Conference on Information and Knowledge Management

The ACM Conference on Information and Knowledge Management (CIKM, pronounced /ˈsikəm/) is an annual computer science research conference dedicated to information management (IM) and knowledge management (KM). Since the first event in 1992, the conference has evolved into one of the major forums for research on database management, information retrieval, and knowledge management. The conference is noted for its interdisciplinarity, as it brings together communities that otherwise often publish at separate venues. Recent editions have attracted well beyond 500 participants. In addition to the main research program, the conference also features a number of workshops, tutorials, and industry presentations.For many years, the conference was held in the USA. Since 2005, venues in other countries have been selected as well. Locations include:

1992: Baltimore, Maryland, USA

1993: Washington, D.C., USA

1994: Gaithersburg, Maryland, USA

1995: Baltimore, Maryland, USA

1996: Rockville, Maryland, USA

1997: Las Vegas, Nevada, USA

1998: Bethesda, Maryland, USA

1999: Kansas City, Missouri, USA

2000: Washington, D.C., USA

2001: Atlanta, Georgia, USA

2002: McLean, Virginia, USA

2003: New Orleans, Louisiana, USA

2004: Washington, D.C., USA

2005: Bremen, Germany

2006: Arlington, Virginia, USA

2007: Lisbon, Portugal

2008: Napa Valley, California, USA

2009: Hong Kong, China

2010: Toronto, Ontario, Canada

2011: Glasgow, Scotland, UK

2016: Indianapolis, USA

2017: Singapore, Singapore

2018: Turin, Italy

Discipline (academia)

An academic discipline or academic field, also known as a field of study, field of inquiry, research field and branch of knowledge, is a subdivision of knowledge that is taught and researched at the college or university level. Disciplines are defined (in part), and recognized by the academic journals in which research is published, and the learned societies and academic departments or faculties to which their practitioners belong.

It includes scientific disciplines.

It incorporates expertise, people, projects, communities, challenges, studies, inquiry, and research areas that are strongly associated with a given scholastic subject area or college department. For example, the branches of science are commonly referred to as the scientific disciplines, e.g. physics, chemistry, and biology.

Individuals associated with academic disciplines are commonly referred to as experts or specialists. Others, who may have studied liberal arts or systems theory rather than concentrating in a specific academic discipline, are classified as generalists.

While academic disciplines in and of themselves are more or less focused practices, scholarly approaches such as multidisciplinarity/interdisciplinarity, transdisciplinarity, and cross-disciplinarity integrate aspects from multiple academic disciplines, therefore addressing any problems that may arise from narrow concentration within specialized fields of study. For example, professionals may encounter trouble communicating across academic disciplines because of differences in language or specified concepts.

Some researchers believe that academic disciplines may, in the future, be replaced by what is known as Mode 2 or "post-academic science", which involves the acquisition of cross-disciplinary knowledge through collaboration of specialists from various academic disciplines.

Interdisciplinary arts

Interdisciplinary Arts is an academic department in the School of Media Arts at Columbia College Chicago. As one of the earliest interdisciplinary arts programs in the United States, it has been an incubator for new approaches towards art making that has shaped the development of arts professionals for over thirty-three years. Guided by the principle that interdisciplinarity "is a defining characteristic of contemporary art practice" and "a necessary prerequisite for those artists who will shape the future of creative practice", the artists who work in the Interdisciplinary Arts department investigate new terrain.

Examining concepts, forms and techniques from across the fine, performing and media arts, students work with a diverse array of unique and experimental approaches that interrogate artist books, installations, gesture and movement, sound art, durational performance, interactive media, video, performance media, papermaking, letterpress, etching and offset printing, electronically controlled artworks, online artwork, performance in artificial spaces, democratic multiples, written, spoken and performed text, dramatic forms, DIY/DIT collaborative strategies and relational art forms.

Interdisciplinary peer review

Interdisciplinary Peer Review (IPR) is a peer review process with an additional focus outside of the area of the author's subject of expertise. Disciplines such as Telecommunications, Political Science, Engineering, and Medicine require specific subject matter expertise, however, they still cross multiple disciplines and may require review from many alternate functional areas to achieve maximum perspective to prevent duplication or improper publication. Reviews of this nature may also cross cultures, race, and other demographics to gain perspective.

Interdiscipline

The term interdiscipline or inter-discipline means an organizational unit that involves two or more academic disciplines, but which have the formal criteria of disciplines such as dedicated research journals, conferences and university departments. It is related to interdisciplinarity, but it is a noun used for a certain kind of unit (academic discipline). As shown in the example of demography below a field may be both a discipline and an interdiscipline at the same time. The example of Information science demonstrates that a field may be regarded as a discipline in some countries but an interdiscipline in other countries.

Julie Thompson Klein

Julie Thompson Klein is a professor and scholar in the field of Interdisciplinary Studies at Wayne State University. Klein is widely known as a pioneer in interdisciplinary education, and has consulted widely in academic and other settings in the field. In 2016, she was a speaker at the Centennial Symposium of the Association of American Colleges and Universities. During her 36 years at Wayne state, her publications have been heavily cited.

Lucy Hartley

Lucy Hartley is a British professor of English attached to the Department of English Language and Literature of the University of Michigan. Her special interests include nineteenth-century studies, intellectual and cultural history, art and politics, history and philosophy of science and interdisciplinarity theory and practice.

Metadesign

Metadesign (or meta-design) is an emerging conceptual framework aimed at defining and creating social, economic and technical infrastructures in which new forms of collaborative design can take place. It consists of a series of practical design-related tools for achieving this.

As a methodology, its aim is to nurture emergence of the previously unthinkable as possibilities or prospects through the collaboration of designers within interdisciplinarity 'metadesign' teams. Inspired by the way living systems work, this new field aims to help improve the way we feed, clothe, shelter, assemble, communicate and live together.

Organizational space

Organizational space describes the influence of the spatial environment on the health, the mind, and the behavior of humans in and around organizations. It is an area of scientific research in which interdisciplinarity is a central perspective. It draws from management, organization and architecture (Dale and Burrell, 2008) added with knowledge from, for instance, environmental psychology (Evans and Mitchell, 1998), social medicine (Macintyre et al., 2002), or spatial science (Festinger et al., 1950). In essence, it may be regarded as a special field of expertise of organization studies and change management applied to architecture. The knowledge area is related to evidence-based design in which the influence of the spatial environment on patient's health, healing, and customer satisfaction are being researched in health care. It is also related to practice-based areas of management such as facility management which is primarily devoted to the maintenance and care of commercial or institutional buildings and to property management in which the operation of real estate is central. Sometimes it is also referred to as organizational architecture. The scientific field of organizational space must be distinguished from social architecture in which the development of information and communication technologies is central and also different from space science which is concerned with the study of the universe.

Posthuman

Posthuman or post-human is a concept originating in the fields of science fiction, futurology, contemporary art, and philosophy that literally means a person or entity that exists in a state beyond being human. The concept addresses questions of ethics and justice, language and trans-species communication, social systems, and the intellectual aspirations of interdisciplinarity.

Posthumanism is not to be confused with transhumanism (the nanobiotechnological enhancement of human beings) and narrow definitions of the posthuman as the hoped-for transcendence of materiality. The notion of the posthuman comes up both in posthumanism as well as transhumanism, but it has a special meaning in each tradition. In 2017, Penn State University Press in cooperation with Stefan Lorenz Sorgner and James Hughes (sociologist) established the "Journal of Posthuman Studies" in which all aspects of the concept "posthuman" can be analysed.

Richard Parncutt

Richard Parncutt (born 24 October 1957 in Melbourne) is an Australian-born academic who specialises in the psychology of music. He has been Professor of Systematic Musicology at Karl-Franzens-Universität Graz in Austria since 1998. He became known for a controversial text published in 2012 which called for the death penalty for the Pope and climate deniers. The University of Graz called the text "inhuman" and initiated disciplinary proceedings against him, and Parncutt subsequently apologized for his text.

Robert Frodeman

Robert Frodeman Professor and former Chair, Dept of Philosophy and Religion Studies, University of North Texas, previously at the University of Colorado, is Director of UNT's Center for the Study of Interdisciplinarity. A student of Alphonso Lingis and Stanley Rosen, Frodeman works in the areas of environmental ethics and environmental philosophy, the philosophy of geology, and the philosophy of science policy, and has written an extensive body of peer-reviewed academic work in these areas. Throughout his work he emphasizes the role that philosophy can play in addressing ongoing societal controversies such as acid mine drainage, global climate change, and Hurricane Katrina. His most recent work focuses on the theory and practice of interdisciplinary approaches to knowledge. Frodeman also is part of UNT's emphasis on 'field philosophy' where philosophers emphasize working with scientists, engineers, and policy makers rather than an extensive focus on writing and working with other philosophers.

As of the fall of 2008 Frodeman is the founding director of UNT's Center for the Study of Interdisciplinarity (CSID). CSID focuses on identifying best practices for interdisciplinary research and education, and views the last 100 years of disciplinarity across the academy as breaking down under the pressure of complex problems and the overproduction of knowledge. Frodeman is also the editor of the Oxford Handbook of Interdisciplinarity (2010), second edition forthcoming 2015.

Rupkatha Journal on Interdisciplinary Studies in Humanities

Rupkatha Journal on Interdisciplinary Studies in Humanities is an online open access academic e-journal. It features double-blind peer-reviewed articles and book reviews on interdisciplinary areas in humanities. The journal has been in publication since 2009 and its periodicity is quarterly. It has two special issues in January and June. Its ISSN is 0975-2935. The journal has no print version.

The journal's thrust areas are: English Literature, Literature Written in Other Languages, New Literature in English, Indian Writings in English, Colonial and Postcolonial Literature, Cultural Studies, Critical Theories, Aesthetic Studies, Literature and Environment, Visual Arts, Digital Art, Photography, History of Art.

The Journal derives its name from 'rup' (form) and 'katha' (words), which, when combined, mean 'myth' in Bengali. The journal gets its inspiration from the etymology and goes by the principle that anything which has a form, visual or mental, can come under focus.

Terminology

Terminology is the study of terms and their use. Terms are words and compound words or multi-word expressions that in specific contexts are given specific meanings—these may deviate from the meanings the same words have in other contexts and in everyday language. Terminology is a discipline that studies, among other things, the development of such terms and their interrelationships within a specialized domain. Terminology differs from lexicography, as it involves the study of concepts, conceptual systems and their labels (terms), whereas lexicography studies words and their meanings.

Terminology is a discipline that systematically studies the "labelling or designating of concepts" particular to one or more subject fields or domains of human activity. It does this through the research and analysis of terms in context for the purpose of documenting and promoting consistent usage. Terminology can be limited to one or more languages (for example, "multilingual terminology" and "bilingual terminology"), or may have an interdisciplinarity focus on the use of terms in different fields.

Transdisciplinarity

Transdisciplinarity connotes a research strategy that crosses many disciplinary boundaries to create a holistic approach. It applies to research efforts focused on problems that cross the boundaries of two or more disciplines, such as research on effective information systems for biomedical research (see bioinformatics), and can refer to concepts or methods that were originally developed by one discipline, but are now used by several others, such as ethnography, a field research method originally developed in anthropology but now widely used by other disciplines.

The Belmont Forum elaborated that a transdisciplinary approach is enabling inputs and scoping across scientific and non-scientific stakeholder communities and facilitating a systemic way of addressing a challenge. This includes initiatives that support the capacity building required for the successful transdisciplinary formulation and implementation of research actions.

University of Bayreuth

The University of Bayreuth is a public research university situated in Bayreuth, Germany. It was founded in 1975 as a campus university focusing on international collaboration and interdisciplinarity. It is broadly organized into six undergraduate and graduate faculties, with each faculty defining its own admission standards and academic programs in near autonomy.

The university offers several interdisciplinary courses such as Philosophy & Economics, Global Change Ecology, Theatre and Media studies, and Health Economics.

In 2017 the university was ranked 29 in the Times Higher Education world university ranking for universities founded less than 50 years ago.

It is a member of the Elite Network of Bavaria (Elitenetzwerk Bayern), a coalition of research universities jointly offering graduate programs and international doctorate programs.

University of California Humanities Research Institute

The University of California Humanities Research Institute (UCHRI), is a humanities research institute at the University of California headquartered at the UC Irvine campus. It promotes collaboration and interdisciplinarity through supporting work by teams of researchers from varying fields both within and outside of the UC system. David Theo Goldberg, was appointed Director in 2000.

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