Interception

In ball-playing competitive team sports, an interception or pick is a move by a player involving a pass of the ball—whether by foot or hand, depending on the rules of the sport—in which the ball is intended for a player of the same team but caught by a player of the opposing team, who thereby usually gains possession of the ball for their team. It is commonly seen in football, including American and Canadian football, as well as association football, rugby league, rugby union, Australian rules football and Gaelic football, as well as any sport by which a loose object is passed between players toward a goal. In basketball, a pick is called a steal.

Brent Grimes-Hamburg Sea Devils
Brent Grimes of the Hamburg Sea Devils intercepting a pass

American/Canadian football

In American or Canadian football, an interception occurs when a forward pass is caught by a player of the opposing defensive team.[1] This leads to an immediate change of possession during the play: the defender who caught the ball immediately attempts to move the ball as far towards the opposing end zone as possible. Following the stoppage of play, if the interceptor retained possession of the ball, his team takes over possession at the spot where he was downed. Because possession is a critical component in these sports, a successful interception can be a dramatic reversal of the teams' fortunes.

Interceptions are predominantly made by the secondary or (on some occasions) the linebackers, who are usually closest to the quarterback's intended targets, the wide receivers, running backs, and tight ends. Less frequently, a defensive lineman may get an interception from a tipped ball, a near sack, a shovel pass, or a screen pass, but are more likely to force a fumble than get an interception. As soon as a pass is intercepted, everyone on the defense immediately acts as blockers, helping the person with the interception get as much yardage as possible and perhaps a touchdown (commonly called a "pick six", since a touchdown is worth 6 points); at the same time, everyone on the offense becomes the defense and may attempt to tackle the ball-carrier. If the interception occurs on an extra point attempt, rather than an ordinary play from scrimmage, a potential return of the interception to the other end zone is sometimes called a "pick two" as it would be a defensive two point conversion rather than a touchdown. For example, on December 4, 2016, the Kansas City Chiefs strong safety Eric Berry scored the game winning points via a pick two in a 29–28 victory over the Atlanta Falcons. Berry also achieved an ordinary pick six earlier in the same game.[2]

If the intercepting team can run out the clock, the intercepting player may down the ball immediately and not attempt to gain any yardage. This eliminates the chance of a fumble that could be recovered by the other team. There are also player safety implications: when the ball is turned over, the play is now suddenly and unexpectedly moving in the opposite direction. All of the players on offense are instantly susceptible to unexpected blocks, even if not attempting to stop the ball carrier; a hard and unseen block can result in severe injuries. Additionally, offensive players, particularly the quarterback, are often inexperienced tacklers and are at risk of injuring themselves while tackling the ball carrier.

Only the interception of a forward pass is recorded statistically as an interception, for both the passer and the intercepting player. If a receiver fails to catch the ball and bobbles or tips it before it is intercepted, even if his action was entirely responsible for the interception, it is always recorded as an interception thrown by the passer. The interception of a lateral pass is recorded as a fumble by the passer.

Notable players

Canadian Football League

James Johnson was named the Outstanding Player of the 95th Grey Cup on November 25, 2007, after intercepting a record three passes, including one for a 30-yard touchdown. His defensive efforts helped lead the Saskatchewan Roughriders to a 23–19 victory over their CFL Prairie rival Winnipeg Blue Bombers. This was the first time since 1994 that a defensive player was awarded the Grey Cup's top individual title. His most notable interception of the game was when he intercepted Ryan Dinwiddie's final pass and secured Saskatchewan's victory.

National Football League

Lester Hayes of the Oakland Raiders was one of the National Football League's (NFL) leaders at interceptions in the late 1970s and early 1980s. He was known for covering his chest, shoulders and forearms with a copious amount of the adhesive Stickum to help him hold on to the ball. After the NFL outlawed the use of such foreign substances in 1981, Hayes' success rate at interceptions dropped below average though that could be due to his reputation as a "shutdown cornerback", which discouraged opposing teams from throwing to his side of the field. He continued to use the substance, which he called "pick juice", by having it applied in smaller amounts to his wrists.

Paul Krause holds the record for most career interceptions, with 81, and is tied for third place for most interceptions by an NFL rookie in his first season, with 12. He played his first three years in the NFL from 1964 to 1967 with the Washington Redskins but was traded to the Minnesota Vikings, where he spent most of his career. Krause played until 1979 and appeared in four Super Bowls with the Vikings. He was inducted into the Pro Football Hall of Fame in 1998.

Rod Woodson played 16 seasons with Pittsburgh, San Francisco, Baltimore, and Oakland, and holds the NFL record for most interception returns for touchdown in an NFL career with 12. Also, he holds the NFL record for most total defensive TD returns in a career with 13. Woodson, who is third on the NFL all-time career interception list with 71, was inducted into the Hall of Fame in 2009.

Former New Orleans Saints safety Darren Sharper, most notable for playing 8 seasons with the Green Bay Packers and the Minnesota Vikings from 2005 to 2008, has a career total of 63 interceptions, and has returned 11 of those for touchdowns. Sharper holds the NFL record for interception return yardage in a single season with 376 yards in 2009. He is also tied with Rod Woodson for most total defensive TD returns career with 13.

Charles Woodson, formerly with the Green Bay Packers and Oakland Raiders has 65 career interceptions and tied Rod Woodson for most defensive touchdowns with 13. Woodson and Sharper are tied for second all time in interceptions returned for touchdowns with 11.

Ty Law, formerly of the New England Patriots, New York Jets, and Kansas City Chiefs, has 52 career interceptions. Champ Bailey, who played for the Washington Redskins and Denver Broncos, had 10 interceptions in 2006 and has a career total of 52. Strong safety Sammy Knight had 42 interceptions in his career.

Ed Reed holds the record for the longest interception return, 108 yards against the Philadelphia Eagles on November 23, 2008. Reed also holds the record for the second longest interception return, 106 yards against the Cleveland Browns on November 7, 2004. During both games he played for the Baltimore Ravens. Reed also has a total of 64 interceptions and holds the record for the most interception return yardage in NFL history (1,541).

Brett Favre holds the record for most career interceptions thrown: 336. Favre's first pass in an NFL regular season game resulted in an interception returned for a touchdown. Favre's last pass as a Green Bay Packer was an INT as well thrown to Corey Webster of the New York Giants in the 2007 NFC Championship Game to lose the game.[3]

Rodney Harrison of the New England Patriots and San Diego Chargers was the first player in NFL history to have 30 interceptions and 30 sacks over the course of his career. He set that historic benchmark on October 21, 2007. The Baltimore Ravens' Ray Lewis was the second to accomplish this feat. He recorded his 30th interception November 21, 2010, intercepting the Carolina Panthers' Brian St. Pierre and returning the ball for a touchdown. Lewis is also the only member of the 40/30 club (at least 40 sacks and at least 30 interceptions).

On November 21, 2010 Ronde Barber became the only player in NFL history with at least 25 sacks (26 total) and 40 interceptions. His jersey and gloves from the game were subsequently retired to the Pro Football Hall of Fame in Canton.

Asante Samuel of the Atlanta Falcons, with 4 postseason INT returns for a TD, is the NFL's all-time leader.

James Harrison of the Pittsburgh Steelers set the record for the longest interception return for a touchdown in a Super Bowl in Super Bowl XLIII. The NFL's Defensive Player of the Year Harrison picked off Kurt Warner's pass and returned it a Super Bowl-record 100 yards for a touchdown on the final play of the first half to give the Pittsburgh Steelers a 17–7 lead over the Arizona Cardinals.

Tom Brady of the New England Patriots holds the record for most consecutive pass attempts without an interception (358). Brady's regular-season streak of pass attempts without an interception ended on September 12, 2011, against the Miami Dolphins. On December 26, 2010, Brady overtook the previous record of 308 consecutive completed passes without an interception, held by Bernie Kosar of the Cleveland Browns since 1991. Kosar's regular-season streak of pass attempts without an interception ended on November 10, 1991, against the Philadelphia Eagles.

On October 6, 2013 Matt Schaub became the first quarterback to throw a "pick-six" (an interception returned for a touchdown) in four consecutive games, while playing against the San Francisco 49ers.

BAFA National Leagues

Robert Hardwick of the Nottingham Caesars of the BAFA National Leagues scored a game-winning touchdown against the Birmingham Bulls on May 15, 2016. The Bulls were three points up at the four-yard line with 14 seconds left on the clock, and elected to throw a pass which was intercepted and run 100 yards to the opposite end zone.

Rugby

Because of the relatively strict offside law in both codes of rugby, and the requirement that all passes be backward, interceptions are difficult to achieve. However, when they occur, the side who loses possession is suddenly out of formation to defend, and the interceptor may be able to sprint down the field for a spectacular try.[4]

References

  1. ^ "2018 NFL Rulebook | NFL Football Operations". operations.nfl.com. Retrieved August 22, 2018.
  2. ^ Chairusmi, Jim (December 4, 2016). "Chiefs' Eric Berry Collects Pick-Six and Pick-Two". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved December 4, 2016.
  3. ^ "Brett Favre Career Stats". profootballreference.com. Retrieved February 8, 2007.
  4. ^ Editor, Scott Hornell, Managing (February 28, 2017). "The Art of the Intercept Try - Last Word on Rugby". Last Word on Rugby. Retrieved August 22, 2018.

External links

2012 Turkish F-4 Phantom shootdown

On 22 June 2012, a Turkish F-4 Phantom reconnaissance jet was intercepted and shot down by the Syrian Army in international airspace, after having violated Syrian airspace. The jet's pilots were killed; both Turkish and Syrian forces searched for them before recovering their bodies in early July. The incident was part of a series of incidents between Turkey and Syria since the beginning of the Syrian Civil War and greatly escalated the tensions between the two countries.

A Timely Interception

A Timely Interception is a 1913 American short drama film directed by D. W. Griffith.

Aaron Rodgers

Aaron Charles Rodgers (born December 2, 1983) is an American football quarterback for the Green Bay Packers of the National Football League (NFL). Rodgers played college football for the California Golden Bears, where he set several career passing records, including lowest single-season and career interception rates. He was selected in the first round of the 2005 NFL Draft by the Packers.After backing up Brett Favre for the first three years of his NFL career, Rodgers became the Packers' starting quarterback in 2008. In 2010 he led them to a victory in Super Bowl XLV over the Pittsburgh Steelers, earning the Super Bowl MVP. He was named Associated Press Athlete of the Year in 2011, and was voted league MVP by the Associated Press for the 2011 and 2014 NFL seasons.

Rodgers has led the NFL three times in touchdown-to-interception ratio (2011, 2012, 2014); twice in passer rating (2011, 2012), touchdown passing percentage (2011, 2012), and lowest passing interception percentage (2009, 2014); and once in touchdown passes (2016) and yards per attempt (2011).

Rodgers is the NFL's all-time regular season career passer rating leader and is one of two quarterbacks to have a regular season career passer rating of over 100, the other being Russell Wilson. Rodgers is fifth all-time in postseason career passer rating, has the best touchdown-to-interception ratio in NFL history at 4.23, holds the league's lowest career interception percentage at 1.5 percent and the highest single-season passer rating record of 122.5. Due to the fact that Rodgers is the NFL's all-time regular season career passer rating leader, and his overall high level of play, Rodgers is considered by some sportscasters and players to be one of the greatest quarterbacks of all time.

Charles Woodson

Charles Cameron Woodson (born October 7, 1976) is a former American football player. He played college football for Michigan, where he led the Wolverines to a share of the national championship in 1997. Woodson, a "two-way player" who played both offense and defense, won the Heisman Trophy in the same year. To date, he is the only primarily defensive player to win the Heisman, and he is the most recent player to win the Heisman who was not either a running back or quarterback. Woodson went on to accomplish a storied career professionally with one of the most decorated professional football resumes of all time, considered by many of his peers to be one of the greatest defensive players to have ever played.

Woodson was drafted by the Oakland Raiders fourth overall in the 1998 NFL Draft. In his first season with Oakland, Woodson was selected as the NFL Defensive Rookie of the Year by the Associated Press. He was named to the Pro Bowl and earned All-Pro recognition three consecutive times (1999–2001). In a 2002 AFC playoff match against the New England Patriots, Woodson seemed to have clinched the game by forcing a fumble by sacking quarterback (and former Michigan teammate) Tom Brady, but the ruling was overturned. Woodson later battled several nagging injuries in consecutive seasons in Oakland, leading to his departure after the 2005 NFL season via free agency.On April 26, 2006, Woodson signed a seven-year, $52 million contract with the Green Bay Packers. He would later win Super Bowl XLV with the team over the Pittsburgh Steelers. In his first season in Green Bay, Woodson was the team's punt returner and led the National Football Conference with eight interceptions, surpassing his previous career high of five, in his rookie year. In his second season in Green Bay, the injury problems returned and Woodson was forced to sit out two games. He was the AP NFL Defensive Player of the Year for the 2009 NFL season. He returned to the Raiders in 2013, playing three more seasons and once more being voted to the Pro Bowl. Woodson is one of the few players in NFL history to play in a Pro Bowl in three different decades (1990s, 2000s, 2010s). He is currently tied for fifth on the all time interceptions list with 65, and is tied with Rod Woodson and Darren Sharper for most career defensive touchdowns with 13. He also is second all time in interceptions returned for touchdowns, with 11.

After he retired in 2015, he signed with ESPN in 2016.

Dominique Rodgers-Cromartie

Dominique Reshard Rodgers-Cromartie (born April 7, 1986), nicknamed "DRC", is an American football cornerback for the Washington Redskins of the National Football League (NFL). He played college football for Tennessee State University, and was drafted by the Arizona Cardinals in the first round of the 2008 NFL Draft. Rodgers-Cromartie has also played for the Philadelphia Eagles, Denver Broncos, New York Giants, and the Oakland Raiders. He has made two appearances in the Pro Bowl in his career.

ECHELON

ECHELON, originally a secret government code name, is a surveillance program (signals intelligence/SIGINT collection and analysis network) operated by the US with the aid of four other signatory nations to the UKUSA Security Agreement: Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the United Kingdom, also known as the Five Eyes.The ECHELON program was created in the late 1960s to monitor the military and diplomatic communications of the Soviet Union and its Eastern Bloc allies during the Cold War, and it was formally established in 1971.By the end of the 20th century, the system referred to as "ECHELON" had evolved beyond its military and diplomatic origins to also become "…a global system for the interception of private and commercial communications" (mass surveillance and industrial espionage).

Ed Reed

Edward Earl Reed Jr. (born September 11, 1978) is a former American football safety who spent the majority of his career with the Baltimore Ravens of the National Football League (NFL). He played college football for the University of Miami, where he was a two-time consensus All-American. He was drafted by the Ravens in the first round of the 2002 NFL Draft and played eleven seasons for Baltimore before playing with the Houston Texans and New York Jets in 2013.

During his playing career, Reed was selected to nine total Pro Bowls, was the 2004 NFL Defensive Player of the Year Award winner, and has an NFL record for the two longest interception returns (106 yards in 2004 and 107 yards in 2008). He also holds the all-time NFL record for interception return yards, with 1,590, and postseason interceptions (9, tied with three other players). His 64 regular season interceptions ranked him 6th on the NFL's all-time leader list at the time of his retirement. Reed is considered to be one of the greatest safeties in NFL history, and was often referred to as a "ball hawk" during his prime. Reed was known for studying film to memorize opposing teams' tendencies, as well as his ability to lure quarterbacks into throwing interceptions. In 2019, Reed was inducted into the Pro Football Hall of Fame, his first year of eligibility.

Ground-controlled interception

Ground-controlled interception (GCI) is an air defence tactic whereby one or more radar stations or other observational stations are linked to a command communications centre which guides interceptor aircraft to an airborne target. This tactic was pioneered during World War I by the London Air Defence Area organization, which became the Royal Air Force's Dowding system in World War II, the first national-scale system. The Luftwaffe introduced similar systems during the war, but most other combatants did not suffer the same threat of air attack and did not develop complex systems like these until the Cold War era.

Today the term GCI refers to the style of battle direction, but during WWII it also referred to the radars themselves. Specifically, the term was used to describe a new generation of radars that spun on their vertical axis in order to provide a complete 360 degree view of the sky around the station. Previous systems, notably Chain Home (CH), could only be directed along angles in front of the antennas, and were unable to direct traffic once it passed behind their shore-side locations. GCI radars began to replace CH starting in 1941/42, allowing a single station to control the entire battle from early detection to directing the fighters to intercept.

GCI systems grew in size and sophistication during the post-war era, in response to the overwhelming threat of nuclear attack. The US' SAGE system was perhaps the most complex attempted, using building-filling computers linked to dozens of radars and other sensors to automate the entire task of identifying an enemy aircraft's track and directing interceptor aircraft or surface-to-air missiles against it. In some cases, SAGE sent commands directly to the aircraft's autopilots, bringing the aircraft within attack range entirely under computer control. The RAF counterpart, ROTOR remained a mostly manual system.

Today, GCI is still important for most nations, although Airborne Early Warning and Control, with or without support from GCI, generally offers much greater range due to the much more distant radar horizon.

Interception of Communications Act 1985

The Interception of Communications Act 1985 (1985 c. 56) was an Act of Parliament in the United Kingdom. It came into operation as of 10 April 1986.

The Act created the offence of unlawfully intercepting communications sent by post or by a "public telecommunications system"; those guilty were liable, on conviction, to a fine or up to two years imprisonment. It provided for a system of warrants to permit legal interception, and laid down cases where interception could be done lawfully, stating that having reasonable grounds to believe that the other party consented to interception was a defence.

The Act also established a complaints tribunal (which in 2000 was subsumed into the Investigatory Powers Tribunal), and created the post of Interception of Communications Commissioner to review the workings of the Act. It amended parts of the Telecommunications Act 1984.

This Act has since been repealed by schedule 1 of the Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act 2000.

Jay Cutler

Jay Christopher Cutler (born April 29, 1983) is a former American football quarterback who played in the National Football League for 12 seasons, primarily with the Chicago Bears. He played college football at Vanderbilt and was drafted by the Denver Broncos in the first round of the 2006 NFL Draft, for whom he played for three seasons. In 2009, he was traded to the Bears, where he played for eight seasons. After being released by Chicago in 2017, Cutler initially retired to become a sportscaster for NFL on Fox's television broadcasts, but returned for one more season with the Miami Dolphins when quarterback Ryan Tannehill suffered a season-ending injury. He retired a second time following the 2017 season.

List of National Football League annual interceptions leaders

An interception, also known as a pick, is a gridiron football concept involving a pass being caught by an opposition player, who usually gains possession for his team. Record-keeping for interception counts in the National Football League (NFL) began in 1940. The record for most interceptions in a single season is held by Night Train Lane, who logged 14 interceptions as a rookie in 1952, while playing for the Los Angeles Rams. Previously Dan Sandifer of Washington and Spec Sanders jointly held the record, earning 13 interceptions, in 1948 and 1950, respectively. The record for most league-leading seasons in interceptions is 3. This was first achieved by Everson Walls, who led the league in interceptions in 1981, 1982, and again in 1985. Ed Reed was later able to match Walls, by leading the league in 2004, 2008, and 2010. Bill Bradley became the first player to led the league in interceptions in consecutive seasons (1971 and 1972). The aforementioned Walls matched Bradley with his 1981 and 1982 efforts. The most recent players to lead the league in interceptions are Kyle Fuller , Xavien Howard, and Damontae Kazee with 7 in 2018. Additionally, New York Giants players have led the league in interceptions in more seasons (7), than any other team.

List of National Football League career interceptions leaders

This is the list of National Football League (NFL) players, who have recorded at least 50 interceptions.

Nick Collins

Nicholas Malte Collins (born August 16, 1983) is a former American football safety who played seven seasons for the Green Bay Packers of the National Football League (NFL). He played college football at Bethune-Cookman, and was drafted by the Packers in the second round of the 2005 NFL Draft. Collins led the league in interceptions returned for touchdown and interception return yards in the 2008 season. In Super Bowl XLV, he intercepted Ben Roethlisberger for a touchdown as the Packers beat the Pittsburgh Steelers, 31-25.

In 2011, Collins suffered a career-ending neck injury during a game against the Carolina Panthers. He was officially released by the Packers in 2012, and formally announced his retirement in 2014. Collins was inducted into the Green Bay Packers Hall of Fame in 2016.

Nick Foles

Nicholas Edward Foles (born January 20, 1989) is an American football quarterback for the Jacksonville Jaguars of the National Football League (NFL). He played college football at Arizona and was drafted by the Philadelphia Eagles in the third round of the 2012 NFL Draft. He has also played for the St. Louis Rams and Kansas City Chiefs.

Foles played his first game with the Eagles in Week 10 of the 2012 season after Michael Vick left with an injury. Foles then made his first start the following week. In Week 9 of the 2013 season, he became the second quarterback to post a perfect passer rating (158.3) while passing for more than 400 yards, and also the first quarterback in NFL history to post a perfect passer rating and throw seven touchdowns in a single game. It was the 60th time in NFL history that a perfect passer rating was achieved overall.

After stints with the Rams and the Chiefs, Foles returned to the Eagles in 2017. After Carson Wentz was injured late in the regular season, Foles led the Eagles to the franchise's third Super Bowl appearance. The Eagles defeated the New England Patriots in Super Bowl LII for their first Super Bowl title, and Foles was named the game's MVP.

Nokia Networks

Nokia Networks (formerly Nokia Solutions and Networks (NSN) and Nokia Siemens Networks (NSN)) is a multinational data networking and telecommunications equipment company headquartered in Espoo, Finland, and wholly owned subsidiary of Nokia Corporation. It started as a joint venture between Nokia of Finland and Siemens of Germany known as Nokia Siemens Networks. Nokia Networks has operations in around 120 countries. In 2013, Nokia acquired 100% of Nokia Networks, buying all of Siemens' shares. In April 2014, NSN name was phased out as part of rebranding process.

Omarr Smith

Omarr Ali Hasan Smith (born April 7, 1977) is a former American football defensive back and current head coach of the Baltimore Brigade. He played for the San Jose SaberCats of the Arena Football League (AFL). He played college football at San Jose State.In his career, Smith has played for the San Jose SaberCats twice, from 2000–2002 and 2004–2008. He also played one year (2003) for the Tampa Bay Storm. He has also coached defensive backs at Whittier College. Prior to re-joining the SaberCats, Smith served as defensive coordinator with the rival Arizona Rattlers for three years (winning two championships). Smith has won seven total Arenabowl championships as a player (4) and assistant coach (3); this ties the legendary Tim Marcum, who won seven as a head coach, for the most in AFL history. Smith was the head coach of the Los Angeles KISS of the AFL in 2016 and currently coaches the Baltimore Brigade.

Signals intelligence

Signals intelligence (SIGINT) is intelligence-gathering by interception of signals, whether communications between people (communications intelligence—abbreviated to COMINT) or from electronic signals not directly used in communication (electronic intelligence—abbreviated to ELINT). Signals intelligence is a subset of intelligence collection management.

As sensitive information is often encrypted, signals intelligence in turn involves the use of cryptanalysis to decipher the messages. Traffic analysis—the study of who is signaling whom and in what quantity—is also used to derive information.

Troy Polamalu

Troy Aumua Polamalu (; born Troy Aumua; April 19, 1981) is a former American football strong safety of Samoan descent who played his entire twelve-year career for the Pittsburgh Steelers of the National Football League (NFL). He played college football for the University of Southern California (USC) and earned consensus All-American honors. He was chosen by the Steelers in the first round of the 2003 NFL Draft. He was a member of two of the Steelers' Super Bowl championship teams and was the NFL Defensive Player of the Year in 2010. Polamalu is an eight time Pro-Bowler and a six time All-Pro selection. He is also the Head of Player Relations of the Alliance of American Football.

Tyrann Mathieu

Tyrann Devine Mathieu (; born May 13, 1992) is an American football safety for the Kansas City Chiefs of the National Football League (NFL). He played college football for Louisiana State University (LSU). In college he developed a reputation for causing turnovers, setting a Southeastern Conference (SEC) record with 11 career forced fumbles and earning the nickname "Honey Badger". In his sophomore season, he was recognized as a consensus All-American, won the Chuck Bednarik Award as the best defensive player in college football, and was a finalist for the Heisman Trophy. Mathieu was dismissed from the LSU football program after that season due to a violation of team rules.

After spending a year out of football in 2012, he was drafted by the Arizona Cardinals in the third round of the 2013 NFL Draft, reuniting him in the defensive backfield with former college teammate Patrick Peterson. As a rookie he was named to the PFWA All-Rookie Team. In 2015, he was invited to the Pro Bowl and earned first-team All-Pro honors. He has also played for the Houston Texans.

Codes
Levels of play
Field
Scoring
Turnovers
Downs
Play clock
Statistics
Practice
Officiating
Miscellaneous

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.