Interactive film

An interactive movie, also known as a movie game, is a video game that presents its gameplay in a cinematic, scripted manner, often through the use of full-motion video of either animated or live-action footage. In modern times, the term also refers to games that have a larger emphasis on story/presentation than on gameplay.

Design

This genre came about with the invention of laserdiscs and laserdisc players, the first nonlinear or random access video play devices. The fact that a laserdisc player could jump to and play any chapter instantaneously (rather than proceed in a linear path from start to finish like videotape) meant that games with branching plotlines could be constructed from out-of-order video chapters in much the same way as Choose Your Own Adventure books could be constructed from out-of-order pages, or the way an interactive film is constructed by choosing from a web of linked narratives.

Thus, interactive movies were animated or filmed with real actors like movies (or in some later cases, rendered with 3D models), and followed a main storyline. Alternative scenes were filmed to be triggered after wrong (or alternate allowable) actions of the player (such as 'Game Over' scenes).

A popular example of a commercial interactive movie was the 1983 arcade game Dragon's Lair, featuring a full motion video (FMV) cartoon by ex-Disney animator Don Bluth, where the player controlled some of the moves of the main character. When in danger, the player was to decide which move or action, or combination to choose. If they chose the wrong move, they would see a 'lose a life' scene, until they found the correct one which would allow them to see the rest of the story. There was only one possible successful storyline in Dragon's Lair; the only activity the user had was to choose or guess the move the designers intended them to make. Despite the lack of interactivity, Dragon's Lair was very popular.

The hardware for these games consisted of a laserdisc player linked to a processor configured with interface software that assigned a jump-to-chapter function to each of the controller buttons at each decision point. Much as a Choose Your Own Adventure book might say "If you turn left, go to page 7. If you turn right, go to page 8", the controller for Dragon's Lair or Cliff Hanger would be programmed to go to the next chapter in the successful story if a player pressed the right button, or to go to the death chapter if he pressed the wrong one. Because laserdisc players of the day were not robust enough to handle the constant wear placed on them by constant arcade use, they required frequent replacement. The laserdiscs that contained the footage were ordinary laserdiscs with nothing special about them save for the order of their chapters, and if removed from the arcade console would readily display their video on standard, non-interactive laserdisc players.

Later advances in technology allowed interactive movies to overlay multiple fields of FMV, called "vites", in much the same way as polygonal models and sprites are overlaid on top of backgrounds in traditional video game graphics.[1]

History

The first example of interactive cinema was Kinoautomat (1967), which was written and directed by Radúz Činčera. This movie was first screened at Expo '67 in Montreal. This film was produced before the invention of the laserdisc or similar technology, so a live moderator appeared on stage at certain points to ask the audience to choose between two scenes. The chosen scene would play following an audience vote.

The first interactive movie game was Nintendo's Wild Gunman, a 1974 electro-mechanical arcade game that used film reel projection to display live-action full-motion video (FMV) footage of Wild West gunslingers.[2] In the 1970s, Kasco (Kansei Seiki Seisakusho) released a hit electro-mechanical arcade game with live-action FMV, projecting car footage filmed by Toei.[3]

An early attempt to combine random access video with computer games was Rollercoaster, written in BASIC for the Apple II by David Lubar for David H. Ahl, editor of Creative Computing. This was a text adventure that could trigger a laserdisc player to play portions of the feature film Rollercoaster (1977). The program was conceived and written in 1981, and published in the January 1982 issue of Creative Computing, along with an article by Lubar detailing its creation, an article by Ahl claiming that Rollercoaster is the first video/computer game hybrid and proposing a theory of video/computer interactivity, and other articles reviewing hardware necessary to run the game and do further experiments.

The first arcade laserdisc video game was Sega's Astron Belt, an early third-person space combat rail shooter featuring live-action full-motion video footage (largely borrowed from a Japanese science fiction film) over which the player/enemy ships and laser fire are superimposed.[4][5] Developed in 1982,[6] it was unveiled at the 1982 AMOA show in Chicago and released the following year. However, the game that popularized the genre in the United States was Dragon's Lair, animated by Don Bluth and released by Cinematronics shortly after.[5] Around the same time, the laserdisc games Bega's Battle and Cliff Hanger were also released.

Several laserdisc games added their own innovations to the genre. Bega's Battle, released by Data East in 1983, introduced "branching paths", in which there were multiple "correct moves" at certain points in the animation, and the move the player chose would affect the order of later scenes. Space Ace, another Don Bluth animated game released by Cinematronics the following year, also featured a similar branching formula.[7] In 1984, Super Don Quix-ote,[8] Esh's Aurunmilla and Ninja Hayate overlaid crude computer graphics on top of the animation to indicate the correct input to the player, which the 1985 games Time Gal and Road Blaster also featured.

Because Dragon's Lair and Space Ace were immensely popular, they spawned a deluge of sequels and similar laserdisc games, despite the astronomical cost of the animation. To cut costs, several companies simply hacked together scenes from anime that were obscure to American audiences of the day. One such early example was Stern's Cliff Hanger, a 1983 game released around the same time which used footage from the Lupin III movies Castle of Cagliostro (directed by Hayao Miyazaki) and Mystery of Mamo. Another example released around that time was Bega's Battle, which used footage from Harmagedon, though it used a different approach, introducing a new form of video game storytelling: using brief full-motion video cutscenes to develop a story between the game's shooting stages. Years later, this would become the standard approach to video game storytelling.[9] Bega's Battle also featured a branching storyline.[7] Time Gal (1985) added a time-stopping feature, where specific moments in the game involve Reika stopping time; during these moments, players are presented with a list of three options and have seven seconds to choose the one which will save the character.[10]

In 1987, the game Night Trap, featuring full-motion video, was created for Hasbro's Control-Vision video game system (originally codenamed "NEMO"), which used VHS tapes. When Hasbro discontinued production of Control-Vision, the footage was placed into archive until it was purchased in 1991 by the founders of Digital Pictures. Digital Pictures ported Night Trap to the Sega CD platform, releasing it in 1992.

In 1988, Epyx announced three VCR games including one based on its video game California Games. They combined videotape footage with a board game.[11] In the late 1980s, American Laser Games started to produce a wide variety of live-action light gun laserdisc video games, which played much like the early cartoon games, but used a light gun instead of a joystick to affect the action. Meanwhile, Digital Pictures started to produce a variety of interactive movies for home consoles. When CD-ROMs were embedded in home computers, games with live action and full motion video featuring actors were considered cutting-edge, and some interactive movies were made. Some notable adventure games from this era are Under a Killing Moon, The Pandora Directive, Gabriel Knight 2: The Beast Within, Voyeur, Star Trek: Klingon, Star Trek: Borg, Ripper, Snatcher, Black Dahlia, The X-Files Game, Phantasmagoria, Bad Day on the Midway and The Dark Eye. Others in the action genre are Brain Dead 13 and Star Wars: Rebel Assault.

Due to the limitation of memory and disk space, as well as the lengthy timeframes and high costs required for the production, not many variations and alternative scenes for possible player moves were filmed, so the games tended not to allow much freedom and variety of gameplay. Thus, interactive movie games were not usually very replayable after being completed once.

From the time of its original introduction, the DVD format specification has included the ability to use an ordinary DVD player to play interactive games, such as Dragon's Lair (which was reissued on DVD), the Scene It? and other series of DVD games, or games that are included as bonus material on movie DVDs. Aftermath Media (founded by Rob Landeros of Trilobyte) released the interactive movies Tender Loving Care and Point of View (P.O.V) for the DVD platform. Such games have appeared on DVDs aimed at younger target audiences, such as the special features discs of the Harry Potter film series.

Later video games used this approach using fully animated computer generated scenes, including various adventure games such as the Sound Novel series by Chunsoft, Shenmue series by Sega, Shadow of Memories by Konami, Time Travelers by Level 5, and Fahrenheit by Quantic Dream. During many scenes, the player has limited control of the character and chooses certain actions to progress the story. Other scenes are quick time event action sequences, requiring the player to hit appropriate buttons at the right time to succeed. Some of these games, such as the Sound Novel series, Shadow of Memories, Time Travelers, Heavy Rain, Beyond: Two Souls and Detroit: Become Human, have numerous branching storylines that result from what actions the player takes or fails to complete properly, which can include the death of major characters or failure to solve the mystery. This idea was even further realized in Telltale's The Walking Dead series, where player actions can drastically change future games, for example, different characters may be alive in the end depending on choices made by the player in The Walking Dead season 1, but those same characters affect The Walking Dead: Season Two.

Cast members' work during the 1990s on interactive movies' chroma key sets was different from traditional filmmaking: They performed multiple possible actions players choose in a game, usually looked into the camera to react to the player, and usually did not react to others on the set.[12] Such products were popular during the early 1990s as CD-ROMs and Laserdiscs made their way into the living rooms, providing an alternative to the low-capacity cartridges of most consoles. As the first CD-based consoles capable of displaying smooth and textured 3D graphics appeared, the full-FMV game had vanished from the mainstream circles around 1995, although it remained an option for PC adventure games for a couple more years. One of the last titles released was the 1998 PC and PlayStation adventure The X-Files: The Game, packed in 7 CDs. That same year, Tex Murphy: Overseer became the first game developed specifically for DVD-ROM, and one of the last "interactive movies" to make heavy use of live-action FMV. In 2014, the Tex Murphy series continued with a new FMV game, Tesla Effect: A Tex Murphy Adventure.

With advances in computer technology, interactive films waned as more developers used fully digitized characters and scenes. This format was popularized by Telltale Games, achieving success in The Walking Dead series of adventure games. These have sometimes been called interactive movies, as while the player can make choices that affect the game's overall narrative, they do not have direct control over characters, making the experience comparable to watching a sequence of cut scenes.

In the 2010s, streaming services like Netflix started to grow in popularity and sophistication. By 2016, Netflix had started experimenting with interactive works aimed at children, including an animated version of Puss in Boots and an adaption of Telltale's Minecraft: Story Mode.[13] Netflix's first major interactive film with live-action scenes was Black Mirror: Bandersnatch, a film in the Black Mirror anthology series and released in December 2018. Netflix worked with Black Mirror's creator Charlie Brooker to develop a narrative that took advantage of the interactive format, while developing their own tools to improve caching of scenes and management of the film's progression to use on future projects.

Specialized hardware formats

LaserDisc games

A LaserDisc video game is a video game that uses pre-recorded video (either live-action or animation) played from a LaserDisc, either as the entirety of the graphics, or as part of the graphics. The first arcade laserdisc game was Sega's Astron Belt, an early third-person space combat rail shooter featuring live-action full-motion video footage (largely borrowed from a Japanese science fiction film) over which the player/enemy ships and laser fire are superimposed.[4][5] Developed in 1982,[6] the game's unveiling at the 1982 AMOA show in Chicago marked the beginning of LaserDisc fever in the videogame industry, and its release in Japan the following year marked the first commercial release of a LaserDisc game. However, its release in the United States was delayed due to several hardware and software bugs, by which time Dragon's Lair had beaten it to public release there.[5]

The first LaserDisc game to gain popularity in the United States was Dragon's Lair in 1983.[5] It contained animated scenes, much like a cartoon. The scenes would be played back and at certain points during playback the player would have to press a specific direction on the joystick or the button to advance the game to the next scene, like a quick time event. For instance, a scene begins with the hero falling through a hole in a drawbridge and being attacked by tentacles. If the player presses the button at this point, the hero fends off the tentacles with his sword, and pulls himself back up out of the hole. If the player fails to press the sword button at the right time, or instead presses a direction on the joystick, the hero is attacked by the tentacles and crushed. Each move of the joystick, however, would produce a few moments of black screen, when the graphics switched between either a successful outcome or the death of the character, which interrupted the continuous flow of gameplay found in other videogame graphic systems of the time; this was a common criticism of some players and critics.

Despite the high cost of the animation, a deluge of similar LaserDisc video games followed Dragon's Lair because of its immense popularity. To cut costs, several companies simply hacked together scenes from several Japanese anime movies that were obscure in America at the time, creating games like Cliff Hanger (from Hayao Miyazaki's Castle of Cagliostro and from Mystery of Mamo) and Bega's Battle (from Harmagedon), both of which were released roughly around the same time as Dragon's Lair. Later arcade LaserDisc games include Freedom Fighter, Badlands, Space Ace, and Road Blaster.

Other LaserDisc video games followed the lead of Astron Belt by integrating more and more computer graphics with the pre-recorded video. For example, Funai's Inter Stellar in 1983 was a forward-scrolling third-person rail shooter that used computer graphics for the ships and full-motion video for the backgrounds.[14] Similarly, M.A.C.H. 3 and Cube Quest were vertical scrolling shooters that used the LaserDisc video for the background and computer graphics for the ships. The Firefox arcade game included a Philips LaserDisc player to combine live action video and sound from the Firefox film with computer generated graphics and sound. The game used a special CAV LaserDisc containing multiple storylines stored in very short, interleaved segments on the disc. The player would seek the short distance to the next segment of a storyline during the vertical retrace interval by adjusting the tracking mirror, allowing perfectly continuous video even as the player switched storylines under control of the game's computer. This method of seeking was noted for being extremely strenuous on the player and frequently led to the machines breaking, slightly hindering the appeal of LaserDisc arcade games. In the 1990s, American Laser Games produced a wide variety of live-action light gun LaserDisc video games, which played much like the early LaserDisc games, but used a light gun instead of a joystick to affect the action.

Bega's Battle, released by Data East in 1983, took a different approach and introduced a new form of video game storytelling: using brief full-motion video cut scenes to develop a story between the game's shooting stages. Years later, this would become the standard approach to video game storytelling.[15] Bega's Battle also featured a branching storyline.[7]

DVD games

A DVD game (sometimes called DVDi, "DVD interactive") is a standalone game that can be played on a set-top DVD player. The game takes advantage of technology built into the DVD format to create an interactive gaming environment compatible with most DVD players without requiring additional hardware. DVD TV games were first developed in the late 1990s. They were poorly received and understood as an entertainment medium. However, DVD-based game consoles like the PlayStation 2 popularized DVD-based gaming, and also functioned as a DVD video player. In addition, the format has been used to import some video games to the DVD format, allowing them to be played with a standard DVD player rather than requiring a PC. Examples include Dragon's Lair and Who Shot Johnny Rock?. The PC/console game Tomb Raider: The Angel of Darkness was released in 2006 as a DVD game entitled Lara Croft Tomb Raider: The Action Adventure. Japanese games such as visual novels and eroge that were originally made for PC are commonly ported to DVDPG (a term that stands for DVD Players Game). Instead of standard save methods, DVDPGs use password save systems. Similar game types include BDPG (Blu-ray Disc Players Game) and UMDPG (Universal Media Disc Players Game).[16][17][18]

Live Interactive movies

The world's first live interactive movie was My One Demand[19] filmed and premiered on 25 June 2015[20] Created by Blast Theory, the film was streamed live to the TIFF Lightbox[21] on three successive nights. The cast of eight included Julian Richings and Clare Coulter.[22] Audiences in the cinema used mobile phones to answer questions from the narrator, played by Maggie Huculak and their answers were included in the voiceover as well as in the closing credits.[23]

Reception

Although interactive movies had a filmic quality that sprite-based games could not duplicate at the time, they were a niche market— the limited amount of direct interactivity put off many gamers.[24] The popularity of FMV games declined during 1995, as real-time 3D graphics gained increasing attention.[25] The negative response to FMV-based games was so common that it was even acknowledged in game marketing; a print advertisement for the interactive movie Psychic Detective stated, "Yeah, we know full-motion video games in the past sucked."[26]

Cost was also an issue, as live action video with decent production values is expensive to film, while video shot on a low budget damages the overall image of the game.[27] Ground Zero: Texas cost Sega around US$3 million, about the same as a low-budget movie would cost in 1994.

Though not as crucial an issue as the limited interactivity, another issue that drew criticism was the quality of the video itself.[25] While the video was often relatively smooth, it was not actually full-motion as it was not of 24 frames per second or higher. In addition to this, the hardware it was displayed on, particularly in the case of the Sega CD, had a limited color palette (of which a maximum of 64 colors were displayable simultaneously), resulting in notably inferior image quality due to the requirement of dithering. Game designer Chris Crawford disparages the concept of interactive movies, except those aimed at elementary-school-age children, in his book Chris Crawford on Game Design.[28] He writes that since the player must process what is known and explore the options, choosing a path at a branch-point is every bit as demanding as making a decision in a conventional game, but with much less reward since the result can only be one of a small number of branches.

Defenders of the genre have argued that, by allowing the player to interact with real people rather than animated characters, interactive full-motion video can produce emotional and visceral reactions that are not possible with either movies or traditional video games.[24]

Other uses

Some studios hybridized ordinary computer game play with interactive movie play; the earliest examples of this were the entries in the Origin Systems Wing Commander series starting with Wing Commander III: Heart of the Tiger. Between combat missions, Wing Commander III featured cut-scenes with live actors; the game offered limited storyline branching based on whether missions were won or lost and on choices made at decision points during the cut-scenes.

Other games like BioForge would, perhaps erroneously, use the term for a game that has rich action and plot of cinematic proportions—but, in terms of gameplay, has no relation to FMV movies.

The term is an ambiguous one since many video games follow a storyline similar to the way movies would.

See also

References

  1. ^ "The Next Generation 1996 Lexicon A to Z: Vite". Next Generation. No. 15. Imagine Media. March 1996. p. 42.
  2. ^ Carl Therrien, Inspecting Video Game Historiography Through Critical Lens: Etymology of the First-Person Shooter Genre, Game Studies: The International Journal of Computer Game Research, Volume 15, issue 2, December 2015, ISSN 1604-7982
  3. ^ Kasco and the Electro-Mechanical Golden Age (Interview), Classic Videogame Station ODYSSEY, 2001
  4. ^ a b Astron Belt at AllGame
  5. ^ a b c d e "ASTRON BELT". Atari HQ. Retrieved 2011-03-25.
  6. ^ a b Mark Isaacson (2002). "The History of Sega: From Service Games to Master Systems". Retrieved 2011-03-25.
  7. ^ a b c Mark J. P. Wolf (2008), The video game explosion: a history from PONG to Playstation and beyond, ABC-CLIO, p. 100, ISBN 0-313-33868-X, retrieved 2011-04-10
  8. ^ Super Don Quix-ote at the Killer List of Videogames
  9. ^ Travis Fahs (3 March 2008). "The Lives and Deaths of the Interactive Movie". IGN. Retrieved 2011-03-11.
  10. ^ Captain Pachinko (April 1993). "Overseas Prospects: Time Gal". GamePro. No. 45. Bob Huseby. p. 138.
  11. ^ Keizer, Gregg (May 1988). "Computer Games Go VCR; Teenage Boys Hit the Couch". Compute!. p. 8. Retrieved 10 November 2013.
  12. ^ Wilson, Johnny L. (August 1994). "Even Interactresses Get The Blues". Computer Gaming World. pp. 24–26.
  13. ^ Stevens, Colin (27 December 2018). "Telltale's Minecraft: Story Mode Launches on Netflix". IGN. Retrieved 25 December 2018.
  14. ^ Interstellar at the Killer List of Videogames
  15. ^ Travis Fahs (3 March 2008). "The Lives and Deaths of the Interactive Movie". IGN. Retrieved 2011-03-11.
  16. ^ "PlayersGame(DVD-PG/UMD-PG/BD-PG) - Getchu.com" (in Japanese). Getchu. Retrieved 2013-02-18.
  17. ^ "DVD-PG(DVDPG) とは?" [What is "DVD-PG" (DVDPG)?] (in Japanese). Illusion. Archived from the original on 13 March 2013. Retrieved 18 February 2013.
  18. ^ ぶる~べり~そふと DVDPGとは [Blueberry Soft: What is DVDPG?] (in Japanese). Blueberry Soft. Archived from the original on 21 January 2013. Retrieved 18 February 2013.
  19. ^ "My One Demand | Blast Theory". www.blasttheory.co.uk. Retrieved 2017-01-11.
  20. ^ Szklarski, Cassandra. "Live film 'My One Demand' blurs reality and fiction at Toronto's Luminato". CTVNews. Retrieved 2017-01-11.
  21. ^ "Toronto International Film Festival". www.tiff.net. Retrieved 2017-01-11.
  22. ^ "Luminato: My One Demand is a movie in a live stream". National Post. Retrieved 2017-01-11.
  23. ^ "{{ ($root.post && $root.post.id) ? $root.post.translations[$root.lang].socialTitle : $root.seo.pageTitle | translate }}". www.nowness.com. Retrieved 2017-01-11.
  24. ^ a b "Is This the End of FMV as We Know It?". Next Generation. Imagine Media (10): 7–8. October 1995.
  25. ^ a b Ramshaw, Mark James (October 1995). "Generator". Next Generation. Imagine Media (10): 31.
  26. ^ "Advertisement". Next Generation. Imagine Media (12): 136–7. December 1995.
  27. ^ "Is Your Favorite Game Company Ripping You Off?". Next Generation. No. 30. Imagine Media. June 1997. pp. 38–39.
  28. ^ Crawford, Chris (2003). Chris Crawford on Game Design. New Riders. pp. 81–87. ISBN 0-88134-117-7.

External links

Aaron Koblin

Aaron Koblin (born January 14, 1982) is an American digital media artist and entrepreneur best known for his innovative use of data visualization and his pioneering work in crowdsourcing, virtual reality, and interactive film. He is Co-Founder and CTO of virtual reality company WITHIN (formerly Vrse) along with Chris Milk. Formerly he created and lead the Data Arts Team at Google in San Francisco, California from 2008 to 2015.Koblin's artworks are part of the permanent collections of the Victoria and Albert Museum (V&A), the Museum of Modern Art (MoMA), and the Centre Georges Pompidou. He has presented at TED, and The World Economic Forum, and his work has been shown at international festivals including Ars Electronica, SIGGRAPH, and the Japan Media Arts Festival.

In 2006, his Flight Patterns project received the National Science Foundation's first place award for science visualization. In 2009, he was named to Creativity Magazine's Creativity 50, in 2010 he was one of Esquire Magazine's Best and Brightest and Fast Company's Most Creative People in Business, and in 2011 was one of Forbes magazine's 30 under 30. Koblin was an Eyebeam exhibiting artist.Koblin is a graduate of UCLA's Design | Media Arts MFA program, and sits on the board of the non-profit Gray Area Foundation For The Arts GAFFTA in San Francisco. He was the Abramowitz Artist in Residence at MIT in 2010 and the Annenberg Innovator in residence at USC in 2013.

In 2014, Koblin was awarded the National Design Award for Interactive Design.

Black Mirror

Black Mirror is a British anthology science fiction television series created by Charlie Brooker, with Brooker and Annabel Jones serving as the programme showrunners. It examines modern society, particularly with regard to the unanticipated consequences of new technologies. Episodes are standalone, usually set in an alternative present or the near future, often with a dark and satirical tone, though some are more experimental and lighter.

Black Mirror was inspired by older anthology series like The Twilight Zone, which were able to deal with controversial, contemporary topics without fear of censorship. Brooker developed Black Mirror to highlight topics related to humanity's relationship to technology, creating stories that feature "the way we live now – and the way we might be living in 10 minutes' time if we're clumsy."

The series premiered for two series on the British television channel Channel 4 in December 2011 and February 2013, respectively. After its addition to the catalogue in December 2014, Netflix purchased the programme in September 2015. It commissioned a series of 12 episodes later divided into the third and fourth series, each six episodes; the former was released on 21 October 2016 and the latter on 29 December 2017. A fifth series was announced on 5 March 2018. A standalone interactive film titled Black Mirror: Bandersnatch was released on 28 December 2018.

The series has garnered positive reception from critics, received many awards and nominations, and seen an increase in interest internationally, particularly in the United States after its addition to Netflix. Two episodes, "San Junipero" (from the third series) and "USS Callister" (fourth series), won a total of six Emmy Awards, with both episodes winning Outstanding Television Movie.

Crimeface

Crimeface is an online interactive film created in Manchester between 2004 and 2007 by Krishna Stott. The film "pushes the notion of interactivity and play into a different game space." This new media project mixes popular formats: film, literature, music and gaming resulting in an episodic hyper-narrative that is interactive and multiplatform and has played in cinemas, on DVD, mobile phones and on the internet.

Family Feud

Family Feud is an American television game show created by Mark Goodson where two families compete to name the most popular responses to survey questions in order to win cash and prizes. It first aired on July 12, 1976 on the ABC, and has also aired on CBS and in syndication.

The show has had three separate runs; the original run from 1976–85 aired on ABC during the daytime, and had a separate nighttime edition that ran in syndication and was hosted by Richard Dawson. In 1988, the series was revived and aired on CBS and also had a nighttime syndication edition. This version was hosted by Ray Combs until 1994, and brought back Richard Dawson for the 1994–95 season. A third run began in 1999 in syndication only, and continues to run through 2019, being hosted by a series of different hosts, including Louie Anderson (1999–2002), Richard Karn (2002–06), John O'Hurley (2006–10), and Steve Harvey (2010–present). Aside from the host, there have been several studio announcers who would introduce the contestants and read credits. These have included Gene Wood (1976–85, 1988–95), Burton Richardson (1999–2010), Joey Fatone (2010–15), and Rubin Ervin (2015–present). Within a year of its debut, the original version became the number one game show in daytime television; however, as viewing habits changed, the ratings declined. Harvey's takeover in 2010 increased Nielsen ratings significantly and eventually placed the program among the top five most popular syndicated television shows in the country. In 2013, TV Guide ranked Family Feud third in its list of the 60 greatest game shows of all time.

The program has spawned multiple regional adaptations in over 50 international markets outside the United States. Reruns of Steve Harvey-hosted episodes also air on the Game Show Network, while reruns of earlier versions air on the Buzzr network. Aside from TV shows, there have been also many home editions produced in the board game, interactive film, and video game formats.

Final Destination 3

Final Destination 3 is a 2006 American supernatural horror film directed by James Wong; it is the third installment in the Final Destination film series. Wong and Glen Morgan, who worked on the franchise's first film, wrote the screenplay. Final Destination 3 stars Mary Elizabeth Winstead and Ryan Merriman, and takes place five years after the first film. Winstead plays Wendy Christensen, a teenager who has a premonition that a roller-coaster she and her classmates are riding will derail. Although she saves some of them, Death begins hunting the survivors. Wendy realizes photographs she took at the amusement park contain clues about her classmates' death. She tries to use this knowledge to save the rest of them.

The film's development began shortly after the release of Final Destination 2 (2003); Jeffrey Reddick, creator of the franchise and a co-writer of the first two films, did not return for the third one. Unlike the second film, which was a sequel to the first, the producers envisioned Final Destination 3 as a stand-alone film. The idea of featuring a roller-coaster derailment as the opening-scene disaster came from New Line Cinema executive Richard Bryant. From the beginning, Wong and Morgan saw control as a major theme in the film. Casting began in March 2005 and concluded in April. Like the previous two installments, it was filmed in Vancouver, Canada. The first two weeks of the three-month shoot were spent filming the roller-coaster's derailment.

Following its premiere at Grauman's Chinese Theatre on February 2, 2006, the film was released in cinemas in the United States on February 10, 2006. The DVD, released on July 25, 2006, includes commentaries, documentaries, a deleted scene and an animated video. A special-edition DVD called "Thrill Ride Edition" includes a feature called "Choose Their Fate", which acts as an interactive film, allowing viewers to make decisions at specific points in the film that alter the course of the story.

Final Destination 3 received a mixed critical response. Some critics called the film formulaic and said it brought nothing new to the franchise, while others praised it for being enjoyable and fulfilling its audience's expectations. The death scenes involving tanning beds and a nail gun, as well as Winstead's performance attracted positive comments from reviewers. The film was a financial success and, with box office receipts of nearly $118 million, the highest-grossing installment in the franchise at the time.

Hilltop Hoods

Hilltop Hoods are an Australian hip hop group that formed in 1994 in Blackwood, Adelaide, South Australia. The group was founded by Suffa (Matthew David Lambert) and Pressure (Daniel Howe Smith), who were joined by DJ Debris (Barry John M. Francis) after fellow founder, DJ Next (Ben John Hare), left in 1999. The group released its first extended play, Back Once Again, in 1997 and have subsequently released seven studio albums, two "restrung" albums and three DVDs.

Five of their albums have peaked at number one on the Australian Record Industry Association (ARIA) Albums Charts: The Hard Road (2006), State of the Art (2009), Drinking from the Sun (2012), Walking Under Stars (2014) and Drinking from the Sun, Walking Under Stars Restrung (2016). Three tracks have reached the top 10 on the ARIA Singles Chart—"Chase That Feeling" (2009), "I Love It", featuring Sia (2011) and "Higher", featuring James Chatburn (2015)—while two tracks—"Cosby Sweater" (2014) and "1955" (2016)—have reached the top 5. Their song "1955" (2016), featuring Montaigne & Tom Thum, peaked at number 2 in the Australian charts.

Hilltop Hoods have toured both in Australia and overseas, including playing at music festivals: T in the Park, Oxegen, the Big Day Out, Clipsal 500, Southbound, The Great Escape, Splendour in the Grass, Bassinthegrass, Groovin' The Moo, Falls Festival, Pyramid Rock Festival, Rollercoaster, Come Together Festival and Make Poverty History.

At the ARIA Music Awards of 2006 they won "Best Independent Release" and "Best Urban Album" for The Hard Road. In 2007, they won "Best Urban Album" for their remix album, The Hard Road: Restrung (2007). They won the same category in 2009 for State of the Art and in 2012 for Drinking from the Sun. In 2009, Debris also won "Engineer of the Year" for his work on State of the Art.

The first preview of the band's seventh studio album, Walking Under Stars, was uploaded to the Hilltop Hoods SoundCloud page on 21 June 2014, and the Golden Era Records album was released in partnership with the Universal music company on 8 August 2014. The band received their seventh ARIA award in 2014 when Walking Under Stars won in the Best Urban Album category at the 28th ARIA Awards.

IFilm

iFilm was a U.S.-based video-sharing website on which users could upload, share and view videos. It was founded by filmmaker Raphael Raphael in 1997. It was later acquired by iFilm.net, a popular online interactive film and media archive, originally specializing in independent films. Ifilm.net was founded in 1998 by new media entrepreneurs Roger Raderman, J. Patrick Forden, and Luke McDonough. Percepticon Corporation engineered and built the website and content publishing system. Greg Deocampo, the founding CTO, developed the core engineering team, encoding network, presentation engine, and ad serving network. Its URL is now owned by Defy Media.

Late Shift

Late Shift is an interactive film and full motion video adventure video game written and directed by Tobias Weber. The participative film technology behind the title was developed by CtrlMovie Ltd. The title was screened at many international film festivals, including The New York Film Festival, Raindance Film Festival, and the Festival du nouveau cinéma.

The film was released in movie theatres in England, Switzerland, Russia, Germany, Belgium, and Czech Republic. Digitally it was published by CtrlMovie and British game developer WalesInteractive. It was released on the Nintendo Switch in April 2018.

List of Black Mirror episodes

Black Mirror is a British television series created by Charlie Brooker. The series is produced by Zeppotron for Endemol. Regarding the programme's content and structure, Brooker noted, "each episode has a different cast, a different setting, and even a different reality. But they're all about the way we live now; and the way we might be living in 10 minutes' time if we're clumsy."As of 29 December 2017, 19 episodes of Black Mirror have been released, including one special, concluding the fourth series. The first two series comprised three episodes each and aired on Channel 4 from 2011 to 2013, along with a special episode in December 2014. In September 2015, Netflix commissioned a series of 12 episodes, which was later divided into two separate series. The third and fourth series of Black Mirror, each comprising six episodes, were released in 2016 and 2017 respectively. Netflix also released a standalone interactive film titled Bandersnatch on 28 December 2018, while a fifth series has been in production since March 2018.

Lynn Hershman Leeson

Lynn Hershman Leeson (born Cleveland Ohio, US, 1941) is an American artist and filmmaker. Her work combines art with social commentary, particularly on the relationship between people and technology. Leeson's work in media-based technology helped legitimize digital art forms.

Mia Kirshner

Mia Kirshner (born January 25, 1975 or 1976) is a Canadian actress, writer and social activist who works in movies and television series. She is known for her role as Jenny Schecter on the cable TV series The L Word (2004–2009), and for her recurring guest role as the terrorist Mandy on the TV series 24 (2001–2005).

Rome (Danger Mouse and Daniele Luppi album)

Rome is an album written by the American music producer Danger Mouse and the Italian composer Daniele Luppi. The album took five years to make and was inspired by the music from spaghetti westerns.The album was recorded using vintage equipment and, as well as featuring musicians who recorded spaghetti western soundtracks, also features a reunited Cantori Moderni – the choir put together by Alessandro Alessandroni – which features on the soundtrack to The Good, the Bad and the Ugly. The album also features vocals by the American singers Jack White on the tracks "The Rose with the Broken Neck", "Two Against One" and "The World", and Norah Jones on the tracks "Season's Trees", "Black" and "Problem Queen". White also chose to provide the lyrics for his three songs.

The song "Black" was featured during the ending of "Face Off", the final episode of Breaking Bad's fourth season. It is also featured in Rome: Three Dreams of Black, an interactive film by Chris Milk. The song "Two Against One" peaked number 20 in Billboard Alternative Songs chart and was featured on the soundtrack for 2 Guns, the 2013 film directed by Baltasar Kormákur. In 2015, the song featured as the song for the advertisement of long-running British soap opera Emmerdale, promoting the show's big Summer Fate storyline.

Social film

A social film is a type of interactive film that is presented through the lens of social media. A social film is distributed digitally and integrates with a social networking service, such as Facebook or Google+. It combines features of web video, social-network games and social media.

Switching

Switching is what is done by a switch:

Electronic switching

Packet switching, a digital networking communications methodology

LAN switching, packet switching on Local Area Networks

Telephone switching, the activity performed by a telephone exchange.

a synonym for shunting in rail transportSwitching may also refer to:

Switching (ecology), a pattern of predation where predators select food based on its abundance

Switching (film), a 2003 Danish interactive film

Code-switching of languages

Immunoglobulin class switching, an immunological mechanism that changes the type of antibody produced by B cells

Task switching (psychology), an experimental research paradigm used in cognitive psychology

The Oogieloves in the Big Balloon Adventure

The Oogieloves in the Big Balloon Adventure (also referred to as The Oogieloves) is a 2012 American interactive educational children's musical adventure comedy film based loosely on the children's television series My Bedbugs by Alex Greene and Carol Sweeney.

It features the voice talents of Malerie Grady, Stephanie Renz and Misty Miller as the three Oogieloves and also stars Toni Braxton, Cloris Leachman, Christopher Lloyd, Chazz Palminteri, Cary Elwes and Jaime Pressly.

Marketed as an "interactive film", The Oogieloves encourages the viewers to sing and dance along. The film was theatrically released on August 29, 2012 by Kenn Viselman Presents and Freestyle Releasing and was negatively reviewed by critics. It earned $1,065,907 on a budget of $20 million, making it a huge box office bomb. The film was nominated for Worst Picture and Worst Screen Ensemble at the 33rd Golden Raspberry Awards, but lost both to The Twilight Saga: Breaking Dawn – Part 2. The film was released on DVD on February 5, 2013.

Through the Dark (2016 film)

Through the Dark is a 4​1⁄2 minute 3D-animated interactive film, which is viewed in a web browser and rendered in real-time. The film is a collaboration between Google Play Music and Australian hip hop group Hilltop Hoods, featuring the band's song of the same title ("Through the Dark"). The song was written by band member MC Pressure (Daniel Smith) after his son was diagnosed with leukemia at eight-years-old. Based on this experience, which is told through the song's lyrics, the film tells an emotional story of a boy and his father. Through the Dark has been awarded over 50 accolades at international award shows.

Way to Go (interactive)

Way to Go (French: Jusqu'ici) is a 2015 Canada/France interactive film and virtual reality web-based experience created by the Montreal digital studio AATOAA (Vincent Morisset, Philippe Lambert, Édouard Lanctôt-Benoit and Caroline Robert) and produced by National Film Board of Canada (Hugues Sweeney) and France Télévisions. The production lets users take a virtual walk in the woods, through a combination of animation and immersive video.

Will Poulter

William Jack Poulter (born 28 January 1993) is an English actor known for his work in the films Son of Rambow (2007), The Chronicles of Narnia: The Voyage of the Dawn Treader (2010), We're the Millers (2013), The Maze Runner (2014), The Revenant (2015), Detroit (2017), Maze Runner: The Death Cure (2018), and Black Mirror: Bandersnatch (2018). For his work in We're the Millers, Poulter won the BAFTA Rising Star Award.

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