Inter-city rail

Inter-city rail services are express passenger train services that cover longer distances than commuter or regional trains.

There is no precise definition of inter-city rail; its meaning may vary from country to country. Most broadly, it can include any rail services that are neither short-distance commuter rail trains within one city area, nor slow regional rail trains calling at all stations and covering local journeys only. Most typically, an inter-city train is an express train with limited stops and comfortable carriages to serve long-distance travel.

Inter-city rail sometimes provides international services. This is most prevalent in Europe, due to the close proximity of its 50 countries in a 10,180,000 square kilometre (3,930,000 sq mi) area. Eurostar and EuroCity are examples of this. In many European countries the word "InterCity" or "Inter-City" is an official brand name for a network of regular-interval, relatively long-distance train services that meet certain criteria of speed and comfort. This use of the term appeared in the United Kingdom in the 1960s and has been widely imitated.

Acela old saybrook ct summer2011
A high-speed Acela Express train traveling on the busy Northeast Corridor between Boston and Washington, D.C.

Speed

The speeds of inter-city rail lines are quite diverse, ranging from 50 km/h (31 mph) in a mountainous area or on undeveloped tracks to 200–350 km/h (124–217 mph) on newly constructed or improved tracks. As a result, Inter-city rail may or may not fall into the category of higher-speed rail or high-speed rail. Ideally, the average speed of inter-city rail service would be faster than 100 km/h (62 mph) in order to be competitive with car, bus and other methods of transport.

Distance of inter-city rail

  • 50–100 km

The distance of an inter-city rail journey is usually at least 50–100 km (30–60 mi), although in many large metropolitan areas commuter and regional services cover equal or longer distances.

  • 100–500 km

A distance of 100–500 km (60–300 mi) is a common journey distance for inter-city rail in many countries. In many cases, railway travel is most competitive at about 2–3 hours journey time. Inter-city rail can often compete with highways and short-haul air travel for journeys of this distance.

  • 500–1,000 km

In journeys of 500–1,000 km (300–600 mi), the role of inter-city rail is often replaced by faster air travel. Development of high-speed rail in some countries increases the share of railway for such longer-distance journeys. The Paris-Marseille TGV (750 km or 466 mi, or 3 hours) and Tokyo-Aomori Shinkansen (675 km or 419 mi, or 2 hours 59 minutes) are examples of this type of journey. In conventional non high-speed rail, overnight trains are common for this distance.

  • 1,000 km or more

In some countries with a dense rail network, large territory, or less air and car transport, such as China, India, and Russia, overnight long-distance train services are provided and used practically.

In many other countries, such long-distance rail journey has been replaced by air travel except for tourism or hobbyist purposes, luxury train journeys, or significant cost benefit. Discount Eurail Pass in Europe, Amtrak in the United States, and Indian Pacific in Australia are examples.

Faster high-speed rail of 350 km (220 mi), such as the Beijing–Shanghai High-Speed Railway in China (1,300 km or 810 mi, or 5 hours) and Tokyo-Sapporo in the proposed Hokkaido Shinkansen in Japan (1,030 km or 640 mi, or 4 hours), may play a significant role in long-distance travel in the future.

Overview of Inter-city rail by country

Train heading Fes at Rabat Train Station
A Moroccan Inter-city train at Rabat station

Africa

Railways in Africa are still developing or not practically used for passenger purposes in many countries, but the following countries have inter-city services between major cities:

Asia

East Asia

Trains run by China Railway link almost every town and city in the People's Republic of China mainland, including Beijing, Guangzhou, Shanghai, Shenzhen and Xi'an, as well as onwards from Shenzhen across the border to Kowloon, Hong Kong. New high-speed lines from 200–350 km/h (124–217 mph) operation are constructed, and many conventional lines are also upgraded to 200 km/h (124 mph) operation. Currently there are seven High-Speed Inter-City lines in China, with up to 21 planned. They are operated independently from the often parallel High-Speed-Rail-Lines.

JR Hokkaido Kiha 283 series 002
DMU tilting train express "Super Ōzora" in Japan. The train type shown is a KiHa 283 series diesel multiple unit.

Japan has six main regional passenger railway companies, known collectively as Japan Railways Group or simply as JR. Four JR companies operate the "bullet trains" on very fast and frequent Shinkansen lines that link all the larger cities, including Tokyo, Yokohama, Nagoya, Kyoto, Osaka, Hiroshima, Fukuoka and many more.

Many other cities are covered by a network of JR's "limited express" inter-city trains on 1,067 mm (3 ft 6 in), narrow gauge, lines. Major cities are covered by convenient train services of every one hour or more frequent. In addition to the JR Group, Japan has several major regional carriers such as the Kintetsu and Nagoya Railroads.

Inter-city railway services crossing the Hong Kong-China border (often known as through trains) are jointly operated by Hong Kong's MTR Corporation Limited and the Ministry of Railways of the People's Republic of China. Currently, Hung Hom Station is the only station in the territory where passengers can catch these cross-border trains. Passengers are required to go through immigration and customs inspections of Hong Kong before boarding a cross-border train or alighting from such a train. There are currently four cross-border train services on the conventional line:

A new border-crossing service, the Guangzhou-Shenzhen-Hong Kong Express Rail Link, has been approved and has been granted HKD 6.6 billion in funding by the Legislative Council's Finance Committee. The line has been opened in 2018 with a new station West Kowloon Terminus in the city centre.

Taiwan Island's coastline is connected by frequent inter-city train services by Taiwan Railway Administration. Taiwan High Speed Rail, opened in 2007, covers the most populated west-coast corridor. Chinese:對號列車

There are Chu-kuang express (莒光號) and Tze-chiang limited express (自強號).

ITX-Saemaeul
KORAIL ITX-Saemaeul

Almost every major town and city in South Korea is linked by railway, run by Korail. ITX-Saemaeul is operated in most Main railway lines like Japanese limited express or German Intercity. Also, Mugunghwa-ho is the most common and most popular type of intercity rail travel like German Regional-Express. In addition, Seoul and Busan are linked by a high-speed train line known as KTX, which was built using French TGV technology.

South Asia

Train leaving KGP station
A Rajdhani Express train, one of the fastest Inter-city services in India

Indian inter-city trains are run by Indian Railways. With 63,000 km (39,146 mi) of rail routes and 6,800 stations, the railway network in India is the third-largest in the world (after Russia and China) and the largest in the world in terms of passenger kilometres. Shatabdi Express, Jan Shatabdi Express, Rajdhani Express and Duronto Express are the fastest Inter-city services in India of which the Bhopal Shatabdi Express is the fastest train of India. All long-distance journeys generally require a reservation and unreserved travel is allowed in some trains.

Southeast Asia

There is only one train service in Cambodia, from Phnom Penh to Sihanoukville, stopping at Doun Kaev (Takeo) and Kampot.[1]

In Indonesia, PT Kereta Api operates inter-city services in many cities, especially in Java. Inter-city serves some of Indonesia's major cities like Jakarta, Bandung, Semarang, Yogyakarta, Surakarta, Surabaya, Medan, Padang, and Palembang. In Jakarta metropolitan area (or Jabodetabek), KRL Jabotabek operates the inter-city and commuter.

Keretapi Tanah Melayu (Malayan Railways) operates loco-hauled express trains called KTM Intercity along Peninsular Malaysia and into Singapore. At the MalaysiaThailand border, connections to State Railway of Thailand trains are available. KTM Intercity trains are diesel-powered and run on a single-track 1,000 mm (3 ft 3 38 in) metre gauge system. The rail track is gradually being duplicated and electrified. On the completed Central to Northern section (border), KTM runs the higher-speed Electric Train Service (ETS).

The Philippine National Railways have two inter-city rail trains: the Bicol Express and the Mayon Limited. The Bicol Express leaves Manila and passes through cities of Manila, Pasay, and Muntinlupa, along with the provinces of Laguna, Quezon, and Camarines Sur before arriving at Naga City. The trip clocks 10 hours or 600 minutes.[2] The Mayon Limited connects Minola and Ligao in 10 and a half hours.[3]

Trains in Vietnam, run by Vietnam Railways, link Hanoi, Hué, Da Nang, Nha Trang, and Ho Chi Minh City.

Southwest Asia

Israel Railways operates inter-city services between all the 4 major metropolitan areas of Israel: Tel Aviv, Jerusalem, Be'er Sheva and Haifa. However, due to the small geography of Israel, most of the railway services have a more suburban service pattern, with many short stops at stations between the major city centres.

Europe

Western and Central Europe

43002 Ealing Broadway
An InterCity 125 passes Ealing Broadway Station in London, England on its way to Swansea, Wales. This is the world's fastest diesel train and is used on various intercity services in Great Britain.

In Europe, many long-distance inter-city trains are operated under the InterCity (often simply IC) brand. InterCity (or, initially, "Inter-City" with a hyphen) was first conceived as a brand name by British Rail for the launch of its electrification of the major part of the West Coast Main Line in 1966, which brought new express services between London and the major cities of Manchester, Birmingham and Liverpool. It later became the name of one of British Rail's new business sectors in the 1980s and was used to describe the whole network of main-line passenger routes in Great Britain, but it went out of official use following privatisation. The introduction of the British Rail Class 43 (HST) helped InterCity become an iconic brand in the 1970s.

The principal network of international express trains in continental Europe is called EuroCity, even though some IC trains also cross borders.

High-speed railways have relatively few stops. The German high-speed train service was named InterCityExpress, indicating its evolution from older InterCity trains. Other high-speed lines include the TGV (France), AVE (Spain), Treno Alta Velocità (Italy), Eurostar (United Kingdom–France and Belgium), Thalys (Netherlands–Belgium–Germany and France) and Railjet (Germany-Austria–Czechia/Hungary).

In Great Britain, the inter-city rail links are now operated by a number of private companies as well as Continental State owned railways such as Virgin Trains, Virgin Trains East Coast, East Midlands Trains, CrossCountry,TransPennine Express, and First Great Western. Ireland's inter-city rail network is maintained by Iarnród Éireann and Northern Ireland's is run by Northern Ireland Railways.

Eastern Europe

The Polish State Railways (PKP), a state-owned corporate group, is the main provider of railway services. The PKP group holds an almost unrivaled monopoly over rail services in Poland as it is both supported and partly funded by the national government.

As of 2018, foreign services operate on the Polish Railways network. These include EuroCity and EuroNight trains operating between Western and Eastern European destinations, most notably the EN 440/441 from Berlin via Warsaw to Moscow operated by Talgo train of Russian Railways company.

In 2019, new nightjet train from Wien to Berlin via Ostrava (CZ) and Wroclaw (PL) starts the service. "source 1". This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain..

Russia

Russia has a dense network of long-distance railways all over its vast territory, the longest and most famous being the Trans-Siberian Railway from Moscow to Vladivostok. Long distance train routes of more than 1,000 or 2,000 km (621 or 1,243 mi) are common, with many trips taking two or three days. Speed is relatively low: trains average 60 or 70 km/h (37 or 43 mph).

North America

Canada

Canadian inter-city trains are mostly run by Via Rail and connect many but not all major cities. Ontario Northland Railway operates passenger service between Cochrane and Moosonee in Northern Ontario. International trains, run jointly by Amtrak and Via Rail, connect New York City with Toronto and Montreal. Amtrak operates the Amtrak Cascades service linking Vancouver and Seattle. The White Pass and Yukon Route links Alaska with the Yukon.

Tourist-oriented inter-city service includes the Royal Canadian Pacific and Rocky Mountaineer.

Mexico

The Mexican federal government discontinued almost all scheduled inter-city passenger trains in January 2000. Ferromex operates trains on three routes: Chihuahua to Los Mochis, Torreon to Felipe Pescador, and Guadalajara to Amatitan. The President Enrique Peña Nieto has proposed intercity trains, the proposed projects are Mexico City–Toluca (construction began July 7, 2014), the Peninsular train (Yucatán-Mayan Riviera), Mexico-Querétaro high-speed train (with future expansion to Guadalajara) and Puebla–Tlaxcala–Mexico City.

United States

Amtrak California Zephyr Green River - Floy, Utah
Westbound California Zephyr by Book Cliffs in Utah, U.S.

There was a dense system of inter-city railways in the United States in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. After the decline of passenger railroads in North America in the 1960s, the inter-city lines decreased greatly and today the national system is far less dense. The most heavily used routes with the greatest ridership and schedule frequencies are in the Northeastern United States, on Amtrak's Northeast Corridor. About one in every three users of mass transit in the United States and two-thirds of the nation's rail riders live in New York City. The two busiest passenger rail stations in the United States are Penn Station and Grand Central Terminal, both in Manhattan, New York City. Passenger rail outside the Northeast, Northwest, California and the Chicago metropolitan area is infrequent and rarely used relative to networks in Europe and Japan.

Passenger lines in most of the United States are operated by the quasi-public corporation Amtrak. The separate Alaska Railroad (also government-owned) runs passenger trains in Alaska, and Virgin Trains USA rail service operating in Florida. The California High-Speed Rail system began construction in 2015 and aims to connect major job centers in California.

Multiple new rail corridors have been identified for private development throughout the country. These include the XpressWest corridor from Las Vegas to Victor Valley, California, the Texas Central Railway between Dallas and Houston in Texas, as well as others.

Oceania

Australia

Three-car-VLocity-VL38
A V/Line VLocity train running in Victoria

In Australia the national interstate network operated by Great Southern Rail connects all mainland Australian capital cities except Canberra and Brisbane. Intrastate inter-city trains that traverse shorter distances are operated by V/Line, NSW TrainLink, Queensland Rail and Transwa. Many of Australia's inter-city trains are not true inter-city services, given their leisurely average speed and primary role to transport people between regional areas and the nearest capital city or for the tourist market. As a result, Australian networks refer to these services as "country" trains. The fastest intercity trains in regular service are the Queensland Rail Tilt Train, NSW TrainLink XPT, V/Line VLocity and Transwa WDA/WDB/WDC class, all of which have a top service speed of 160 km/h.

In Australia, electrified interurban commuter railway systems are used to connect urban areas separated by long distances and use heavy-rail equipment:

On these systems, services either run as limited-stop expresses in the suburban area (e.g. Blue Mountains services) or as shuttles terminating where the suburban lines end (e.g. Rosewood services).

A large-scale non-electric project of four regional lines (Regional Fast Rail) is operational in Victoria. Current interurban and intercity journeys outside the suburban area are often locomotive-hauled (particularly for longer-distance services), due to Victoria's lack of electrification outside of Melbourne.

New Zealand

In New Zealand there are currently three long-distance passenger services classed as inter-city: the Coastal Pacific, the Northern Explorer and the TranzAlpine. Their slow average speed is limited by the narrow Cape gauge and the rugged country traversed, particularly in the middle of the North Island, where the North Island Main Trunk has many sharp curves and steep gradients.

Other current non-commuter passenger services are long-distance commuter or scenic services: the Capital Connection, Seasider, and the Wairarapa Connection. A network of regional and long-distance rail passenger services up till the mid-twentieth century has largely been replaced by air or bus services.

South America

A few countries of South America were once interconnected by international train services, but today they are almost non-existent. Most governments in the continent have favoured roads and automobile transportation since the mid-20th century.

Argentina

Argentina has inter-city services on a number of routes, run by Ferrobaires, Ferrocentral, and Trenes Especiales Argentinos. Trains in Argentina are experiencing a revival, since the government intends to re-establish long-distance passenger trains between major cities.

Bolivia

Inter-city train services in Bolivia are operated by two train companies: Eastern and Western. The western network runs daily trains from Oruro to Tupiza, with both espresso (fast) and WaraWara (slow) trains. The eastern rail hub is Santa Cruz de la Sierra, with connections to Puerto Suárez and Villamontes, and international lines to Brazil and Argentina.

Brazil

Brazilian inter-city services operate on two routes, one from Vitória to Belo Horizonte and another from Carajás to São Luís.

Chile

TerraSur estacion Chillan
TerraSur on Estación Chillán. This is Chile's fastest inter-city rail service, reaching 160 kmh on the fastest section of its route

Chile has inter-city services connecting Santiago to Chillán (occasionally to Temuco), run by Empresa de los Ferrocarriles del Estado. The fastest in Chile (and South America) is TerraSur, reaching around 150 km/h (93 mph).

See also

References

  1. ^ "Royal Railways (Cambodia)". royal-railway.com. Archived from the original on 23 March 2018. Retrieved 4 May 2018.
  2. ^ "Bicol Express - Philippine National Railways". Pnr.gov.ph. Archived from the original on 2012-05-29. Retrieved 2012-10-04.
  3. ^ "Mayon Limited - Philippine National Railways". Pnr.gov.ph. Archived from the original on 2012-03-17. Retrieved 2012-10-04.

External links

Commuter rail

Commuter rail, or suburban rail, is a passenger rail transport service that primarily operates within a metropolitan area, connecting commuters to a central city from adjacent suburbs or commuter towns. Generally commuter rail systems are considered heavy rail, using electrified or diesel trains. Distance charges or zone pricing may be used.

The term can refer to systems with a wide variety of different features and service frequencies, but is often used in contrast to rapid transit or light rail.

Similar non-English terms include Treno suburbano in Italian, Cercanías in Spanish, Rodalies in Catalan, Proastiakos in Greek, Train de banlieue in French, Příměstský vlak or Esko in Czech, Elektrichka in Russian, Pociąg podmiejski in Polish and Pendeltåg in Swedish.

Some services share similarities with both commuter rail and high-frequency rapid transit, such as the German S-Bahn, the Réseau Express Régional in Paris, many Japanese commuter systems, and some Australasian suburban networks. Some services, like British commuter rail, share tracks with other passenger services and freight.

In the United States, commuter rail often refers to services that operate a higher frequency during peak periods and a lower frequency off-peak. Since the creation of GO Transit's commuter service in 1967, commuter rail services and route length have been expanding in North America. In the US, commuter rail is sometimes referred to as regional rail.

Elron (rail transit)

AS Eesti Liinirongid, operating as Elron, is a government-owned passenger train operator in Estonia.

The company was separated from Eesti Raudtee in 1998. Before 2014, the company operated exclusively the electrified commuter rail system in Harjumaa, and was known until October 2013 as Elektriraudtee, i.e. "the Electrical Railway". On January 1, 2014 Elron took over all domestic passenger train services in Estonia from Edelaraudtee.

EuroCity

EuroCity, abbreviated as EC, is a cross-border train category within the European inter-city rail network. In contrast to trains allocated to the lower-level "IC" (InterCity) category, EC trains are international services that meet 20 criteria covering comfort, speed, food service, and cleanliness. Each EC train is operated by more than one European Union or Swiss rail company, under a multilateral co-operative arrangement, and all EC trains link important European cities with each other.The EuroCity label replaced the older Trans Europ Express (TEE) name for border-crossing trains in Europe. Whereas TEE services were first-class only, EuroCity trains convey first and second class coaches. The EuroCity schedule was designed with train pairs running one train in both directions, thus resulting in a more frequent service than the TEE, which normally ran only once a day.

EuroNight

EuroNight, abbreviated EN, is a European train category which denotes many main-line national and international night train services within the Western and Central European inter-city rail network.

Fort Lauderdale station (Virgin Trains USA)

Fort Lauderdale station is an inter-city rail station located in Fort Lauderdale, Florida. It is served by Virgin Trains USA, which connects Miami, West Palm Beach, and eventually Orlando International Airport. The station is located in downtown Fort Lauderdale, on NW 2nd Avenue between Broward Boulevard and NW 4th Street, adjacent to the Broward County Transit's Central Terminal.

Golden West Books

Golden West Books is a privately owned American publishing company specializing in American Railroads. Donald Duke founded the company in 1960, and wrote some of its titles. Its headquarters are in San Marino, California. The company's titles cover steam locomotives, diesel locomotives, logging railroads, mining railways, funiculars, the caboose, electric interurbans, Inter-city rail and histories of the Santa Fe Railroad. Model railroad-oriented hobby retail shops sell some of Golden West's books.

Greater Bangkok Commuter rail

Greater Bangkok Commuter rail is a commuter rail system in Bangkok Metropolitan Region, Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya Province, Saraburi Province, Lopburi Province, Suphan Buri Province, Ratchaburi Province, Chacheongsao Province, Nakhon Nayok Province, Prachinburi Province, and Samut Songkhram Province. It runs from and to the outskirts of the city during the rush hour, and the passenger number is high. It is operated by State Railway of Thailand (SRT) that also operates inter-city rail. Commuter rail services always have number 3xx. Most of the system are double track.

Hanyang railway station

Hanyang railway station, located at Hanyang Street in Hanyang District, Wuhan, Hubei, China, is a station of Jingguang Railway and Handan Railway. It will be the terminus of Inter-city rail, towards Qianjiang, Tianmen.

Haramain high-speed railway

The Haramain high-speed railway, also known as the Western railway or Mecca–Medina high-speed railway, is a 453-kilometre-long (281 mi) high-speed inter-city rail transport system in Saudi Arabia. It links the Muslim holy cities of Medina and Mecca via King Abdullah Economic City, using 449.2 kilometres (279.1 mi) of main line and a 3.75-kilometre (2.33 mi) branch connection to King Abdulaziz International Airport (KAIA), in Jeddah.The rail line aims to provide a safe and comfortable transport in 300 kilometres per hour (190 mph) electric trains. Construction on the project began in March 2009, and was officially inaugurated on 25 September 2018. The line was opened to the public on 11 October 2018 with the first two trains, each carrying 417 passengers, departing from Makkah and Medina at 8 AM. According to the Saudi transport minister and General Transport Authority chairman Nabil Al-Amoudi, the railway is expected to carry 60 million passengers a year, including around 3-4 million, Hajj and Umrah pilgrims, helping to relieve traffic congestion on the roads.

Inter-city rail in the United Kingdom

In Great Britain, there are inter-city trains to numerous parts of the country. Most of these trains are high speed, and some operate into France and Belgium.

After the sectorisation of British Rail, inter-city trains were operated by InterCity. InterCity ran trains from London to Devon, Cornwall, Bristol, South Wales, Cheltenham, the Cotswolds, Oxford, the West Midlands, the East Midlands, North Wales, North West England, Yorkshire and the Humber, North East England, Scotland, East Anglia, and London Gatwick Airport. There were also numerous cross-country services, which were inter-city services that traversed several regions and usually avoided Greater London.

The UK's longest direct rail service is operated by CrossCountry from Aberdeen to Penzance, and takes 13 hours 23 minutes to complete.

Inter-city trains from London operate out of the following London terminals:

London Paddington — trains to Devon, Cornwall, Bristol, South Wales, Cheltenham, the Cotswolds, Oxford and the West Midlands;

London Euston — trains to North Wales, North West England, the West Midlands and Scotland;

London St Pancras — trains to the East Midlands, Yorkshire and the Humber, France and Belgium;

London King's Cross — trains to the East Midlands, Yorkshire and the Humber, North East England and Scotland;

London Liverpool Street — trains to Essex and East Anglia.The following train operating companies operate inter-city trains in Great Britain (operators marked with an asterisk are open-access operators):

Caledonian Sleeper

CrossCountry

East Midlands Railway

Eurostar*

Great Western Railway

Greater Anglia

Grand Central*

Hull Trains*

London North Eastern Railway

Virgin Trains West Coast

TransPennine Express

KTM ETS

The KTM ETS (commercially known as ETS, shortform for 'Electric Train Service') is an inter-city rail service operated by Keretapi Tanah Melayu Berhad utilizing electric multiple units. The KTM ETS is the second electric train service to be operated by the Malaysian railway company, after the KTM Komuter service.

The ETS is the fastest metre gauge train service in Malaysia (and potentially in the world, see below) and operates along the electrified and double-tracked stretch of the West Coast Line between Gemas and Padang Besar on the Malaysia-Thai border by the Malaysian national railway operator, Keretapi Tanah Melayu.

The rail service is currently operated by KTM Intercity Division. It was previously operated by ETS Sendirian Berhad, a fully owned subsidiary of Keretapi Tanah Melayu Berhad.

List of major cities in U.S. lacking inter-city rail service

Several major cities and regional business centers in the continental United States lack Amtrak or some form of inter-city passenger rail service. Four of these metropolitan areas boast more than one million residents. However, some of these cities may be served by Thruway Motorcoach. Other than the service provided by the Alaska Railroad, there is no U.S. based long-distance passenger rail service outside of 46 of the contiguous states and the Canadian provinces of British Columbia, Ontario, and Quebec. There is no inter-city passenger rail service to the states of South Dakota or Wyoming. For purposes of this list, a city is considered served if it is within 30 miles of an Amtrak or other inter-city passenger rail station. Unless otherwise noted, the provider of the last passenger service noted in each of the following cities was Amtrak. A partial list of the cities with a population of over 100,000 that are not served by some form of inter-city rail service is as follows (in order by decreasing population of metropolitan area):

In addition, the following cities are not directly served by inter-city rail service, but have a rail station within 30 miles of the city.

Other cities are not served directly due to inconvenient water barriers:

San Francisco, California - Last had direct intercity service in 1971, when the Coast Daylight was rerouted to Oakland with the formation of Amtrak. That service was later rerouted to continue north to Portland and renamed the Coast Starlight. Trains stop across San Francisco Bay in Oakland and Emeryville. Whereas trains once went from Oakland to San Francisco, they had been replaced by auto traffic by the 1950s. The BART commuter heavy rail system operates a trans-bay tube underneath the bay with connections in Richmond, Oakland and Emeryville. Caltrain connects to Amtrak in San Jose. However, since the late 1990s, Amtrak has worked on plans to resume the Coast Daylight from San Francisco to Los Angeles. Proposals to add a San Francisco stop to the San Jose-Sacramento Capitol Corridor are also being seriously considered.

St. Petersburg, Florida - trains stop across Tampa Bay in Tampa. Trains had previously crossed the bay into St. Petersburg. The city lost direct service across the bay when CSX lacked adequate funds to maintain the bridge across the bay. There is Thruway Bus Service at 110th Avenue north of City Limits off US19 to Tampa Union Station (PSTA local bus route 34 passes near this location). Otherwise the only other method of transportation is taxi. The TECO Line Streetcar System and HART buses both do not connect with the two areas, although express bus service exists between PSTA and HART.Amtrak provides no service to Mexico. From 1973 to 1981 Amtrak operated the Inter-American, which allowed for transfers between Laredo, Texas and Nuevo Laredo, Tamaulipas for connecting service with the Ferrocarriles Nacionales de México. The closest Amtrak service to Mexico may be found at stations along the western portion of the Sunset Limited and southwestern portion of the Texas Eagle in Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, and California; as well as the Pacific Surfliner service to Union Station in San Diego.

Phoenix, Arizona is served via Thruway Motorcoach from the Southwest Chief at Flagstaff, Arizona. The Sunset Limited stops three times a week at Maricopa, roughly 30 miles (48 km) south of the city; private taxis and the Maricopa MAX express bus are the only transportation from there to metro Phoenix, although MAX bus schedules do not coincide with Amtrak, which arrives during the night. Phoenix lost direct service in June 1996 after Southern Pacific (now part of the Union Pacific) threatened to abandon the line from Yuma.

Amtrak has studied rail lines formerly canceled that could renew service to some cities. Cities involved include Boise, Mobile, Tallahassee, the Quad Cities (four adjoining cities in northwest Illinois and southeastern Iowa), Billings, and Wichita. Proposals for high-speed rail could also restore service for several cities. Other services Amtrak could restore include the Pioneer (serving Chicago-Denver-Seattle via the California Zephyr), the Black Hawk (Chicago-Dubuque, eastern Iowa), the North Coast Hiawatha (serving Chicago-Fargo-Seattle via the Montana Rail Link), and the New Orleans-Orlando segment of the Sunset Limited.

Montreal Central Station

Montreal Central Station (French: Gare centrale de Montréal) is the major inter-city rail station and a major commuter rail hub in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Nearly 11 million rail passengers use the station every year making it the second-busiest train station in Canada.

The main concourse occupies almost the entire block bounded by De la Gauchetière Street, Robert-Bourassa Boulevard, René Lévesque Boulevard and Mansfield Street in Downtown Montreal. Its street address and principal vehicular access are on de La Gauchetière; pedestrian access is assured by numerous links through neighboring buildings. The station is adorned with art deco bas-relief friezes on its interior and exterior. The station building and associated properties are owned by Cominar REIT as of January 2012. Homburg Invest Inc. (renamed Canmarc in September 2011) was the previous owner, since November 30, 2007. Prior to that, from the station's inception in 1943, it had been owned by Canadian National Railway (CN).

Central Station is at the centre of the Quebec City–Windsor Corridor, the busiest inter-city rail service area in the nation (marketed as the Corridor), which extends from Windsor and Sarnia in the west, through Toronto, Ottawa, and Montreal, to Quebec City in the east. Inter-city trains at Central Station are operated by Via Rail and Amtrak, while commuter rail services are operated by Réseau de transport métropolitain (RTM). The station is also connected to the Montreal Metro subway system.

Central Station is the second-busiest Via Rail station in Canada, after Toronto Union Station. Its Via station code is MTRL; its Amtrak code is MTR, and its IATA code is YMY.

Passenger Rail Agency of South Africa

The Passenger Rail Agency of South Africa (PRASA) is a South African state-owned enterprise responsible for most passenger rail services in the country. It consists of four branches: Metrorail, which operates commuter rail services in urban areas; Shosholoza Meyl, which operates regional and inter-city rail services; Autopax, which operates regional and inter-city coach services; and Intersite, which manages the property owned by PRASA.

Regional rail

Regional rail, also known as local trains and stopping trains, are passenger rail services that operate between towns and cities. These trains operate with more stops over shorter distances than inter-city rail, but fewer stops and faster service than commuter rail. Regional rail services operate beyond the limits of urban areas, and either connect similarly-sized smaller cities and towns, or cities and surrounding towns, outside or at the outer rim of a suburban belt.

Regional rail normally operates with an even service load throughout the day, although slightly increased services may be provided during rush-hour. The service is less oriented around bringing commuters to the urban centers, although this may generate part of the traffic on some systems. Other regional rail services operate between two large urban areas, but make many intermediate stops.

In the United States, "regional rail" more commonly refers to commuter rail (and sometimes even larger heavy rail and light rail) systems that offer bidirectional all-day service and may provide useful connections between suburbs and edge cities, rather than merely transporting workers to a central business district.

Talgo

Talgo, S.A. is a Spanish manufacturer of intercity, standard, and high speed passenger trains.

The word Talgo is also used by the rail operator RENFE for a type of inter-city rail service (using Talgo VI cars).

TerraSur

TerraSur (previously known as EFE Chillán) is a Chilean Inter-city rail service, opened in 2001 between Santiago and Chillán, on the Chilean Central Valley. It is operated by the Trenes Regionales Terra S.A., a subsidiary of the Empresa de los Ferrocarriles del Estado (EFE). Covering almost 400 km in less than 5 hours, it is the fastest public transportation between those cities.

Currently is the one of the only inter-city services that still operates in the country, (the other intercity rail service is the Alameda-Temuco train, a seasonal train) and is the fastest rail service in South America, with an operational speed reaching 150 km/h.

Since June 2012, TerraSur has 3 daily services on each direction, between Santiago and Chillán.

Transportation in Edmonton

The city of Edmonton, Alberta, has a transportation network fairly typical for a Canadian city of its size, involving most modes of transport including, but certainly not limited to, air, rail, road and public transit.

With very few natural barriers to growth and largely flat to gently rolling terrain bisected by a deep river valley, the city of Edmonton has expanded to cover an area of nearly 684 km2, of which only two-thirds is built-up. The metropolitan area covers over 9,418 km2. This has resulted in a heavily private transportation-oriented transportation network typical of any other city of its size in North America. However, Edmonton does not have the extensive limited access freeway system typical of what one would find in a US metro area, and the road network is somewhat unusual in regard to access to downtown.

West Palm Beach station (Virgin Trains USA)

West Palm Beach station is an inter-city rail station in West Palm Beach, Florida. It is served by Virgin Trains USA, connecting Miami and Orlando International Airport. The station is located in downtown West Palm Beach, on Evernia Street between Rosemary Avenue and Quadrille Boulevard. This is about half a mile east of Amtrak and Tri-Rail's West Palm Beach station and half a mile south of the older Florida East Coast Railway station that operated on the same tracks in the first half of the 1900s, next to where Quadrille Boulevard turns south after crossing the Flagler Memorial Bridge.

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