Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance

The Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance (commonly known as the Rio Treaty, the Rio Pact, or by the Spanish-language acronym TIAR from Tratado Interamericano de Asistencia Recíproca) was an agreement signed in 1947 in Rio de Janeiro among many countries of the Americas.[2] The central principle contained in its articles is that an attack against one is to be considered an attack against them all; this was known as the "hemispheric defense" doctrine. The treaty was initially created in 1947 and came into force in 1948, in accordance with Article 22 of the treaty. The Bahamas was the most recent country to sign and ratify it in 1982.[1] Several countries have however breached the treaty on multiple occasions.

Rio Pact
Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance.
Traité interaméricain d'assistance réciproque.
Tratado Interamericano de Assistência Recíproca.
Tratado Interamericano de Asistencia Recíproca.
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Member states in dark blue, states that withdrew in cyan. (Representing 754,901,942 citizens)
Signed2 September 1947[1]
LocationRio de Janeiro[1]
Effective12 March 1948[1]
Conditionratifications of two-thirds of the Signatory States
Signatories23[1]
Parties17[1]
DepositaryPan American Union
LanguagesEnglish, French, Portuguese and Spanish

Background and history

The United States maintained a hemispheric defense policy relative to European influence under the Monroe Doctrine since 1823, which became increasingly interventionist with the Roosevelt Corollary in 1904. During the 1930s the US had been alarmed by Axis overtures toward military cooperation with Latin American governments; apparent strategic threats against the Panama Canal were of particular concern. These were discussed in a series of meetings of the International Conference of American States and the 1936 Inter-American Conference for the Maintenance of Peace.[3] During the war Washington had been able to secure Allied support from all individual governments except Uruguay, which remained neutral, and Argentina, whose government was not recognized by the Allied powers.[3] Some countries had signed the Declaration by United Nations in early 1942 and more had signed by the end of 1945. At the Inter-American Conference on the Problems of War and Peace, in Mexico City during February and March 1945, discussions of the post-war world order were held and produced the Act of Chapultepec.[3][4]

In light of the developing Cold War and following the statement of the Truman Doctrine, the US wished to make those new anti-communist commitments permanent. The Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance was the first of many so-called 'mutual security agreements',[5] and the formalization of the Act of Chapultepec. The treaty was adopted by the original signatories on 2 September 1947 in Rio de Janeiro (hence the colloquial name "Rio Treaty"). It came into force on 3 December 1948 and was registered with the United Nations on 20 December 1948.[1]

The treaty was invoked numerous times during the 1950s and 1960s, in particular supporting the United States' naval blockade unanimously during the Cuban Missile Crisis. With the exceptions of Trinidad and Tobago (1967) and the Bahamas (1982), no countries that became independent after 1947 have joined the treaty; Canada is yet to become a member, though it already has separate defense commitments with the US. During the Falklands War, the United States favored the United Kingdom because Argentina had been the agressor, and because Argentina had not been attacked, as did Chile and Colombia. This was seen by most Latin American countries as the final failure of the treaty.[6][7] In 2001, the United States invoked the Rio Treaty after the September 11 attacks. In September 2002, citing the Falklands example [8][9] and anticipating the Iraq War, Mexico formally withdrew from the treaty; after the requisite two years, Mexico ceased to be a signatory in September 2004.

On 2008, the Union of South American Nations (UNASUR) created a new regional security council to take care of their own defence issues.[10][11]

On 5 June 2012, ALBA countries Bolivia, Ecuador, Nicaragua and Venezuela, under the leadership of leftist governments, initiated the retirement from the TIAR,[12][13] a decision which the Obama Administration deplored as "unfortunate" but respected.[14] The treaty has been denounced by Nicaragua on 20 September 2012, Bolivia on 17 October 2012, Venezuela on 14 May 2013, and Ecuador on 19 February 2014.

Members

Current members:

Former members:

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g "B-29: INTER-AMERICAN TREATY OF RECIPROCAL ASSISTANCE (RIO TREATY)". Organization of American States. Retrieved 1 March 2014.
  2. ^ n.d. (2013). "Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance.". The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia®. Columbia University Press. Retrieved August 31, 2018.
  3. ^ a b c Act of Chapultepec The Oxford Companion to World War II, 2001, I. C. B. Dear and M. R. D. Foot
  4. ^ Act of Chapultepec: Declarations on Reciprocal Assistance and American Solidarity, March 3, 1945, Pillars of Peace, Documents Pertaining To American Interest In Establishing A Lasting World Peace: January 1941-February 1946, Book Department, Army Information School, Carlisle Barracks, Pa., May 1946
  5. ^ "Alliances, Coalitions, and Ententes - The american alliance system: an unamerican tradition". Encyclopedia of the New American Nation. Advameg, Inc. 2018. Retrieved August 31, 2018.
  6. ^ Sennes, Ricardo; Onuki, Janina; de Oliveira, Amacio Jorge (2006). "The Brazilian foreign policy and the hemispheric security". Revista Fuerzas Armadas y Sociedad. Santiago. 1 (SE). ISSN 0717-1498. Retrieved 1 September 2018. Additionally, the deep weakening of hemispheric relations occurred due to the American support, without mediation, to the United Kingdom in the Falklands war in 1982, which definitively turned TIAR in dead letter.
  7. ^ Malamud, Carlos (30 September 2002). "México abandona el TIAR. Implicaciones continentales de la iniciativa" (PDF). Boletín Elcano (in Spanish). Real Instituto Elcano. 5: 1–5. ISSN 1696-3326. Retrieved 1 September 2018. El episodio dejó un mal sabor de boca en muchas de las cancillerías latinoamericanas, que pensaban que el TIAR era un mero papel mojado o una herramienta sólo al servicio de EEUU.
  8. ^ "OEA: México abandona el TIAR". BBC Mundo (in Spanish). Servicio Mundial de la BBC. BBC. 6 September 2002. Retrieved August 31, 2018.
  9. ^ OAS official document: He cited the 1982 conflict over the Falkland Islands as a classic demonstration of the Treaty's failure
  10. ^ Nace UNASUR y alianza militar sin EE.UU.
  11. ^ FILATINA (April 14, 2009). "La defensa regional en manos propias: UNASUR". BLOG DE FILATINA (Fundación Integradora Latinoamericana). Fundación Integradora Latinoamericana Ambiental. Retrieved 1 September 2018.
  12. ^ Periódico La Jornada (6 June 2012). "Bolivia, Ecuador, Nicaragua y Venezuela dejan el mecanismo de defensa TIAR". La Jornada (in Spanish) (Mundo). DEMOS S.A. de C.V. Afp, Dpa, Xinhua y Reuters. p. 31. Retrieved 1 September 2018.
  13. ^ ALBA countries renounced the TIAR in OAS Assembly
  14. ^ EEUU lamenta que Bolivia, Ecuador, Nicaragua y Venezuela se retiren de TIAR
Brazil–United States Treaty

The Brazil–United States Treaty was a military assistance agreement signed in 1952 in Rio de Janeiro between the two countries, with the goal of defending the Western Hemisphere.

Chile–United States relations

Chile–United States relations are the bilateral relations between the Republic of Chile and the United States of America. Relations, which can be traced to the nineteenth century, have improved in the period 1988 to the present to be better than any other time in history. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, the United States government applauded the rebirth of democratic practices in Chile, despite having facilitated the 1973 Chilean coup d'état and aided the subsequent military regime, the build-up to which included destabilizing the country's economy and politics.

Regarded as one of the least corrupt and most vibrant democracies in South America, with a healthy economy, Chile is noted as being one of the closest strategic allies of the United States in the Southern Hemisphere, along with Colombia, and remains part of the Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance. A prime example of cooperation includes the landmark 2003 Chile–United States Free Trade Agreement. Chile is also the only South American nation that shares membership in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development with the United States, as well as the only Latin American country to be included in the U.S. Visa Waiver Program.

The governments consult frequently on issues including multilateral diplomacy, security, culture and science. Recently the governments have signed agreements on education and green energy.

According to several global opinion polls, Chileans have a considerably positive opinion of the U.S., with 55% of Chileans viewing the U.S. favorably in 2007, and 62% of Chileans viewing American influence positively in 2013, the highest rating for any surveyed country in Latin America. According to the 2012 U.S. Global Leadership Report, 42% of Chileans approve of U.S. leadership, with 25% disapproving and 32% uncertain.

Defense pact

A defense pact is a type of treaty or military alliance where the signatories promise to support each other militarily, to defend each other. In general the signatories point out the threats in the treaty and concretely prepare to respond to it together.

Ecuador–United States relations

The Republic of Ecuador and the United States of America maintained close ties based on mutual interests in maintaining democratic institutions; combating cannabis and cocaine; building trade, investment, and financial ties; cooperating in fostering Ecuador's economic development; and participating in inter-American organizations. Ties are further strengthened by the presence of an estimated 150,000-200,000 Ecuadorians living in the United States and by 24,000 U.S. citizens visiting Ecuador annually, and by approximately 15,000 U.S. citizens residing in Ecuador. The United States assists Ecuador's economic development directly through the Agency for International Development (USAID) program in Ecuador and through multilateral organizations such as the Inter-American Development Bank and the World Bank. In addition, the U.S. Peace Corps operates a sizable program in Ecuador. More than 100 U.S. companies are doing business in Ecuador.

Relations between the two nations have been strained following Julian Assange's bid to seek political asylum in the Ecuadorian embassy in London following repeated claims that the US government was pursuing his extradition due to his work with Wikileaks.

Ecuador offered political asylum to Julian Assange in November 2012. This was then revoked in 2019, following negotiations between the Moreno administration and the British Government.

Guatemalan Air Force

The Guatemalan Air Force (Fuerza Aérea Guatemalteca or FAG) is a small air force composed mostly of U.S.-made aircraft throughout its history.

The FAG is a subordinate to the Guatemalan Military and its commanding officer reports to the Defence Minister.

Honduran Air Force

The Honduras Air Force (Spanish: Fuerza Aérea Hondureña, sometimes abbreviated to FAH in English) is the air force of Honduras. As such it is the air power arm of the Honduras Armed Forces.

Inter-American

Inter-American can refer to:

Inter-American Biodiversity Information Network

Inter-American Conference

Inter-American Commission on Human Rights

Inter-American Court of Human Rights

Inter-American Defense Board

Inter-American Defense Board Medal

Inter-American Defense College

Inter-American Democratic Charter

Inter-American Development Bank

Inter-American Division of Seventh-day Adventists

Inter-American Economic Council

Inter-American Foundation

Inter-American Highway

Inter-American Institute for Global Change Research

Inter-American Magnet School

Inter-American League

Inter American Press Association

Inter American Regional Organisation of Workers, now Trade Union Confederation of the Americas

Inter-American Telecommunication Commission

Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance

Inter-American University of Puerto Rico

Inter-American (train)

Inter-American Conventions:

Inter-American Convention Against Corruption

Inter-American Convention Against Racism and All Forms of Discrimination and Intolerance

Inter-American Convention Against Terrorism

Inter-American Convention against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and Other Related Materials

Inter-American Convention on Forced Disappearance of Persons

Inter-American Convention on International Commercial Arbitration

Inter-American Convention on International Traffic in Minors

Inter-American Convention on Letters Rogatory

Inter-American Convention on Proof of and Information on Foreign Law

Inter-American Convention on Serving Criminal Sentences Abroad

Inter-American Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Persons with Disabilities

Inter-American Convention on the International Amateur Radio Permit

Inter-American Convention on the International Return of Children

Inter-American Convention on the Prevention, Punishment and Eradication of Violence against Women

Inter-American Convention on Transparency in Conventional Weapons Acquisition

Inter-American Convention to Prevent and Punish Torture

The Inter-American Convention on Human Rights is correctly titled the American Convention on Human Rights

List of regional organizations by population

The following is a list of regional organizations by population in 2018.

Mexico–United States relations

Mexico–United States relations refers to the foreign relations between the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) and the United States of America. The two countries share a maritime and land border in North America. Several treaties have been concluded between the two nations bilaterally, such as the Gadsden Purchase, and multilaterally, such as the North American Free Trade Agreement. Both are members of various international organizations, including the Organization of American States and the United Nations.

Since the late nineteenth century during the regime of President Porfirio Díaz (1876–1911), the two countries have had close diplomatic and economic ties. During Díaz's long presidency, Mexico was opened to foreign investment and U.S. entrepreneurs invested in ranching and agricultural enterprises and mining. The U.S. played an important role in the course of the Mexican Revolution (1910–20) with direct actions of the U.S. government in supporting or repudiating support of revolutionary factions.

The long border between the two countries means that peace and security in that region is important to the U.S.'s national security and international trade. The U.S. is Mexico's biggest trading partner and Mexico is the U.S.'s third largest trading partners. In 2010, Mexico's exports totaled US$309.6 billion, and almost three quarters of those purchases were made by the United States. They are also closely connected demographically, with over one million U.S. citizens living in Mexico and Mexico being the largest source of immigrants to the United States. Illegal immigration and illegal trade in drugs and in fire arms have been causes of differences between the two governments, but also of cooperation.

While condemning the terrorist attacks of 9/11 and providing considerable relief aid to the U.S. after Hurricane Katrina, the Mexican government, pursuing neutrality in international affairs, opted not to actively join the controversial War on Terror and the even more controversial Iraq War, instead being the first nation in history to formally and voluntarily leave the Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance in 2002, though Mexico later joined the U.S. in supporting military intervention in the Libyan Civil War.According to a 2010 Gallup poll, 4.4% of surveyed Mexicans, roughly 6.2 million people, say that they would move permanently to the United States if given the chance, and according to the 2012 U.S. Global Leadership Report, 37% of Mexicans approve of U.S. leadership, with 27% disapproving and 36% uncertain. As of 2013, Mexican students form the 9th largest group of international students studying in the United States, representing 1.7% of all foreigners pursuing higher education in the U.S. The election of Donald Trump, who had provoked the ire of the Mexican government through threats against companies who invest in Mexico instead of the U.S, and his claims that he would construct a border wall and force Mexico to fund its construction, has raised questions over the future of the relationship between the United States and Mexico.

A 2017 survey conducted by the Pew Research Center showed 65% of Mexicans had a negative view of the US, with only 30% having a positive view. The same study also showed only 5% of Mexicans had confidence in the current US leader, President Donald Trump, with 93% having no confidence in the current US president.

Military history of North America

The military history of North America can be viewed in a number of phases.

Olga Núñez Abaunza

Olga Núñez Abaunza (22 March 1920 – 1971) was the first female Nicaraguan lawyer and first female notary. She was the first woman to serve in a Ministerial capacity and the First woman Deputy to serve in the National Assembly of Nicaragua. She was an ardent feminist, attending feminist conferences, forming a feminine wing of the liberal party, and running for office on a feminist platform.

Organization of American States

The Organization of American States (Spanish: Organización de los Estados Americanos, Portuguese: Organização dos Estados Americanos, French: Organisation des États américains), or the OAS or OEA, is a continental organization that was founded on 30 April 1948, for the purposes of regional solidarity and cooperation among its member states. Headquartered in the United States capital Washington, D.C., the OAS's members are the 35 independent states of the Americas.

As of 26 May 2015, the Secretary General of OAS is Luis Almagro.

Pan American Union Building

The Pan American Union Building is the headquarters for the Organization of American States. It is located at 17th Street N.W. between C Street N.W. and Constitution Avenue, Northwest, Washington, D.C. on the former site of the John Peter Van Ness Mansion. The cornerstone was laid on May 11, 1908, by Theodore Roosevelt, Elihu Root, and Andrew Carnegie, and the building was dedicated on April 26, 1910.In 1919, the initial meeting of the International Labour Organization was held in the building.In 1969, the building was added to the National Register of Historic Places.

Reciprocity Treaty

There have been a number of Reciprocity Treaties, including:

the Canadian–American Reciprocity Treaty of 1854

the Reciprocity Treaty of 1875 between the United States and the Hawaiian Kingdom

the Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance of 1947 (also known as the Rio Treaty)See also;

Reciprocity (international relations)

Rio Group

The Rio Group (G-Rio) was a permanent association of political consultation of Latin America and Caribbean countries, created in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil on December 18, 1986 with the purpose of creating a better political relationship among the countries. It was succeeded in 2011 by the Community of Latin American and Caribbean StatesThe first countries to be members of this organization were Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Mexico, Panama, Peru, Uruguay, and Venezuela, the same members of the Contadora Group (Mexico, Colombia and Panama) and the Contadora Support Group (Argentina, Brazil, Peru, and Uruguay) which is also known as the Group of Lima or Group of Eight. The purpose of this group was to strengthen the political relationships and some issues among Latin American and Caribbean countries, this group was based on consultations of common interest such as the Latin American unity, by 2010 the Rio Group was composed by 23 countries and 1 representative from the Eastern Caribbean. On July 29, 1985, Argentina, Peru, and Uruguay announced the creation of the Contadora Support Group or Lima Group, which together with the Contadora Group was known as the Group of Eight.In 1983, the governments of Mexico, Colombia, Panama, and Venezuela established a system to promote peace in Central America. On June 6, 1986, The Central American countries visited Panama and signed the Contadora Act for peace and cooperation of Central America in which they signed to strengthen peace and cooperation among the peoples of the region and improve political confidence among the Central American countries caused by border incidents such as the arms race, arms trafficking, among others. this was also signed to restore economic development and cooperation in Central America and thus be able to negotiate better access to international markets.

South America air forces maneuvers

The South American air forces performs several joint aerial combat training exercises. Among the more important are Cruzex ( Portuguese: Exercício Cruzeiro do Sul ) which is hosted by the Brazilian Air Force, Salitre ( English: Saltpeter ) hosted by the Chilean Air Force and Ceibo ( English: Erythrina crista-galli flower ) hosted by the Argentine Air Force. The goal is to train together in order to respond to a crisis or integrate into United Nations peacekeeping operations as a unified team; the United States Air Force and the Royal Canadian Air Force have also participated in some of these exercises in recent years.

The exercises include combat search and rescue, aerial refueling and combined air operations center training opportunities focused on interoperability.

USS Marquette (AKA-95)

USS Marquette (AKA-95) was an Andromeda-class attack cargo ship named after counties in Michigan and Wisconsin. She served as a commissioned ship for 10 years.

Marquette (AKA–95), built under Maritime Commission contract by the Federal Shipbuilding and Drydock Co., Kearny, N.J., was launched on 29 April 1945, sponsored by Mrs. Sydney B. Wertheimer, acquired by the Navy on loan charter from the Maritime Commission on 19 June 1945, and commissioned on 20 June 1945, Comdr. John E. Gabrielson in command.

War of aggression

A war of aggression, sometimes also war of conquest, is a military conflict waged without the justification of self-defense, usually for territorial gain and subjugation. The phrase is distinctly modern and diametrically opposed to the prior legal international standard of "might makes right", under the medieval and pre-historic beliefs of right of conquest. Since the Korean War of the early 1950s, waging such a war of aggression is a crime under the customary international law. Possibly the first trial for waging aggressive war is that of the Sicilian king Conradin in 1268.Wars without international legality (i.e. not out of self-defense nor sanctioned by the United Nations Security Council) can be considered wars of aggression; however, this alone usually does not constitute the definition of a war of aggression; certain wars may be unlawful but not aggressive (a war to settle a boundary dispute where the initiator has a reasonable claim, and limited aims, is one example).

In the judgment of the International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg, which followed World War II, "War is essentially an evil thing. Its consequences are not confined to the belligerent states alone, but affect the whole world. To initiate a war of aggression, therefore, is not only an international crime; it is the supreme international crime differing only from other war crimes in that it contains within itself the accumulated evil of the whole."

Article 39 of the United Nations Charter provides that the UN Security Council shall determine the existence of any act of aggression and "shall make recommendations, or decide what measures shall be taken in accordance with Articles 41 and 42, to maintain or restore international peace and security".

The Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court refers to the crime of aggression as one of the "most serious crimes of concern to the international community", and provides that the crime falls within the jurisdiction of the International Criminal Court (ICC). However, the Rome Statute stipulates that the ICC may not exercise its jurisdiction over the crime of aggression until such time as the states parties agree on a definition of the crime and set out the conditions under which it may be prosecuted. At the Review Conference on June 11, 2010 a total of 111 State Parties to the Court agreed by consensus to adopt a resolution accepting the definition of the crime and the conditions for the exercise of jurisdiction over this crime. The relevant amendments to the Statute, however has not been entered into force yet as of May 14, 2012.

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