Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) is a set of communication standards for simultaneous digital transmission of voice, video, data, and other network services over the traditional circuits of the public switched telephone network. It was first defined in 1988 in the CCITT red book. Prior to ISDN, the telephone system was viewed as a way to transport voice, with some special services available for data. The key feature of ISDN is that it integrates speech and data on the same lines, adding features that were not available in the classic telephone system. The ISDN standards define several kinds of access interfaces, such as Basic Rate Interface (BRI), Primary Rate Interface (PRI), Narrowband ISDN (N-ISDN), and Broadband ISDN (B-ISDN).
ISDN is a circuit-switched telephone network system, which also provides access to packet switched networks, designed to allow digital transmission of voice and data over ordinary telephone copper wires, resulting in potentially better voice quality than an analog phone can provide. It offers circuit-switched connections (for either voice or data), and packet-switched connections (for data), in increments of 64 kilobit/s. In some countries, ISDN found major market application for Internet access, in which ISDN typically provides a maximum of 128 kbit/s bandwidth in both upstream and downstream directions. Channel bonding can achieve a greater data rate; typically the ISDN B-channels of three or four BRIs (six to eight 64 kbit/s channels) are bonded.
ISDN is employed as the network, data-link and physical layers in the context of the OSI model. In common use, ISDN is often limited to usage to Q.931 and related protocols, which are a set of signaling protocols establishing and breaking circuit-switched connections, and for advanced calling features for the user. They were introduced in 1986.
In a videoconference, ISDN provides simultaneous voice, video, and text transmission between individual desktop videoconferencing systems and group (room) videoconferencing systems.
Integrated services refers to ISDN's ability to deliver at minimum two simultaneous connections, in any combination of data, voice, video, and fax, over a single line. Multiple devices can be attached to the line, and used as needed. That means an ISDN line can take care of what were expected to be most people's complete communications needs (apart from broadband Internet access and entertainment television) at a much higher transmission rate, without forcing the purchase of multiple analog phone lines. It also refers to integrated switching and transmission in that telephone switching and carrier wave transmission are integrated rather than separate as in earlier technology.
The entry level interface to ISDN is the Basic Rate Interface (BRI), a 128 kbit/s service delivered over a pair of standard telephone copper wires. The 144 kbit/s overall payload rate is divided into two 64 kbit/s bearer channels ('B' channels) and one 16 kbit/s signaling channel ('D' channel or data channel). This is sometimes referred to as 2B+D.
The interface specifies the following network interfaces:
The other ISDN access available is the Primary Rate Interface (PRI), which is carried over T-carrier (T1) with 24 time slots (channels) in North America, and over E-carrier (E1) with 32 channels in most other countries. Each channel provides transmission at a 64 kbit/s data rate.
With the E1 carrier, the available channels are divided into 30 bearer (B) channels, one data (D) channel, and one timing and alarm channel. This scheme is often referred to as 30B+2D.
In North America, PRI service is delivered via T1 carriers with only one data channel, often referred to as 23B+D, and a total data rate of 1544 kbit/s. Non-Facility Associated Signalling (NFAS) allows two or more PRI circuits to be controlled by a single D channel, which is sometimes called 23B+D + n*24B. D-channel backup allows for a second D channel in case the primary fails. NFAS is commonly used on a Digital Signal 3 (DS3/T3).
Even though many network professionals use the term ISDN to refer to the lower-bandwidth BRI circuit, in North America BRI is relatively uncommon whilst PRI circuits serving PBXs are commonplace.
The bearer channel (B) is a standard 64 kbit/s voice channel of 8 bits sampled at 8 kHz with G.711 encoding. B-channels can also be used to carry data, since they are nothing more than digital channels.
Each one of these channels is known as a DS0.
Most B channels can carry a 64 kbit/s signal, but some were limited to 56K because they traveled over RBS lines. This was commonplace in the 20th century, but has since become less so.
X.25 can be carried over the B or D channels of a BRI line, and over the B channels of a PRI line. X.25 over the D channel is used at many point-of-sale (credit card) terminals because it eliminates the modem setup, and because it connects to the central system over a B channel, thereby eliminating the need for modems and making much better use of the central system's telephone lines.
X.25 was also part of an ISDN protocol called "Always On/Dynamic ISDN", or AO/DI. This allowed a user to have a constant multi-link PPP connection to the internet over X.25 on the D channel, and brought up one or two B channels as needed.
In theory, Frame Relay can operate over the D channel of BRIs and PRIs, but it is seldom, if ever, used.
There is a second viewpoint: that of the telephone industry, where ISDN is a core technology. A telephone network can be thought of as a collection of wires strung between switching systems. The common electrical specification for the signals on these wires is T1 or E1. Between telephone company switches, the signaling is performed via SS7. Normally, a PBX is connected via a T1 with robbed bit signaling to indicate on-hook or off-hook conditions and MF and DTMF tones to encode the destination number. ISDN is much better because messages can be sent much more quickly than by trying to encode numbers as long (100 ms per digit) tone sequences. This results in faster call setup times. Also, a greater number of features are available and fraud is reduced.
ISDN is also used as a smart-network technology intended to add new services to the public switched telephone network (PSTN) by giving users direct access to end-to-end circuit-switched digital services and as a backup or failsafe circuit solution for critical use data circuits.
ISDN is used heavily by the broadcast industry as a reliable way of switching low-latency, high-quality, long-distance audio circuits. In conjunction with an appropriate codec using MPEG or various manufacturers' proprietary algorithms, an ISDN BRI can be used to send stereo bi-directional audio coded at 128 kbit/s with 20 Hz – 20 kHz audio bandwidth, although commonly the G.722 algorithm is used with a single 64 kbit/s B channel to send much lower latency mono audio at the expense of audio quality. Where very high quality audio is required multiple ISDN BRIs can be used in parallel to provide a higher bandwidth circuit switched connection. BBC Radio 3 commonly makes use of three ISDN BRIs to carry 320 kbit/s audio stream for live outside broadcasts. ISDN BRI services are used to link remote studios, sports grounds and outside broadcasts into the main broadcast studio. ISDN via satellite is used by field reporters around the world. It is also common to use ISDN for the return audio links to remote satellite broadcast vehicles.
In many countries, such as the UK and Australia, ISDN has displaced the older technology of equalised analogue landlines, with these circuits being phased out by telecommunications providers. Use of IP-based streaming codecs such as Comrex ACCESS and ipDTL is becoming more widespread in the broadcast sector, using broadband internet to connect remote studios.
ISDN-BRI never gained popularity as a general use telephone access technology in Canada and the US, and remains a niche product. The service was seen as a solution in search of a problem, and the extensive array of options and features were difficult for customers to understand and use. ISDN has long been known by derogatory backronyms highlighting these issues, such as It Still Does Nothing, Innovations Subscribers Don't Need, and I Still Don't kNow.
Once the concept of "broadband Internet access" came to be associated with data rates incoming to the customer at 256 kbit/s or more,[a] and alternatives like ADSL grew in popularity, the consumer market for BRI did not develop. Its only remaining advantage is that, while ADSL has a functional distance limitation and can use ADSL loop extenders, BRI has a greater limit and can use repeaters. As such, BRI may be acceptable for customers who are too remote for ADSL. Widespread use of BRI is further stymied by some small North American CLECs such as CenturyTel having given up on it and not providing Internet access using it. However, AT&T in most states (especially the former SBC/SWB territory) will still install an ISDN BRI line anywhere a normal analog line can be placed and the monthly charge is roughly $55.
ISDN-BRI is currently primarily used in industries with specialized and very specific needs. High-end videoconferencing hardware made by companies such as Sony, Polycom, Tandberg, and LifeSize via the LifeSize Networker can bond up to 8 B-channels together (using a BRI circuit for every 2 channels) to provide digital, circuit-switched video connections to almost anywhere in the world. This is very expensive, and is being replaced by IP-based conferencing, but where cost concern is less of an issue than predictable quality and where a QoS-enabled IP does not exist, BRI is the preferred choice.
Most modern non-VoIP PBXs use ISDN-PRI circuits. These are connected via T1 lines with the central office switch, replacing older analog two-way and direct inward dialing (DID) trunks. PRI is capable of delivering Calling Line Identification (CLID) in both directions so that the telephone number of an extension, rather than a company's main number, can be sent. It is still commonly used in recording studios, when a voice-over actor is in one studio (possibly telecommuting from home), but the director and producer are in a studio at another location. The ISDN protocol delivers channelized, not-over-the-Internet service, powerful call setup and routing features, faster setup and tear down, superior audio fidelity as compared to POTS (plain old telephone service), lower delay and, at higher densities, lower cost.
Telstra provides the business customer with the ISDN services. There are five types of ISDN services which are ISDN2, ISDN2 Enhanced, ISDN10, ISDN20 and ISDN30. Telstra changed the minimum monthly charge for voice and data calls. In general, there are two group of ISDN service types; The Basic Rate services – ISDN 2 or ISDN 2 Enhanced. Another group of types are the Primary Rate services, ISDN 10/20/30 . Telstra announced that the new sales of ISDN product would be unavailable as of 31 January 2018. The final exit date of ISDN service and migration to the new service would be confirmed by 2022. 
Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited, Reliance Communications and Bharti Airtel are the largest communication service providers, and offer both ISDN BRI and PRI services across the country. Reliance Communications and Bharti Airtel uses the DLC technology for providing these services. With the introduction of broadband technology, the load on bandwidth is being absorbed by ADSL. ISDN continues to be an important backup network for point-to-point leased line customers such as banks, Eseva Centers, Life Insurance Corporation of India, and SBI ATMs.
On April 19, 1988, Japanese telecommunications company NTT began offering nationwide ISDN services trademarked INS Net 64, and INS Net 1500, a fruition of NTT's independent research and trial from the 1970s of what it referred to the INS (Information Network System).
Previously, in April 1985, Japanese digital telephone exchange hardware made by Fujitsu was used to experimentally deploy the world's first I interface ISDN. The I interface, unlike the older and incompatible Y interface, is what modern ISDN services use today.
Since 2000, NTT's ISDN offering have been known as FLET's ISDN, incorporating the "FLET's" brand that NTT uses for all of its ISP offerings.
In Japan, the number of ISDN subscribers dwindled as alternative technologies such as ADSL, cable Internet access, and fiber to the home gained greater popularity. On November 2, 2010, NTT announced plans to migrate their backend from PSTN to the IP network from around 2020 to around 2025. For this migration, ISDN services will be retired, and fiber optic services are recommended as an alternative.
In the United Kingdom, British Telecom (BT) provides ISDN2e (BRI) as well as ISDN30 (PRI). Until April 2006, they also offered services named Home Highway and Business Highway, which were BRI ISDN-based services that offered integrated analogue connectivity as well as ISDN. Later versions of the Highway products also included built-in USB sockets for direct computer access. Home Highway was bought by many home users, usually for Internet connection, although not as fast as ADSL, because it was available before ADSL and in places where ADSL does not reach.
In early 2015, BT announced their intention to retire the UK's ISDN infrastructure by 2025.
France Telecom offers ISDN services under their product name Numeris (2 B+D), of which a professional Duo and home Itoo version is available. ISDN is generally known as RNIS in France and has widespread availability. The introduction of ADSL is reducing ISDN use for data transfer and Internet access, although it is still common in more rural and outlying areas, and for applications such as business voice and point-of-sale terminals.
In Germany, ISDN was very popular with an installed base of 25 million channels (29% of all subscriber lines in Germany as of 2003 and 20% of all ISDN channels worldwide). Due to the success of ISDN, the number of installed analog lines was decreasing. Deutsche Telekom (DTAG) offered both BRI and PRI. Competing phone companies often offered ISDN only and no analog lines. However, these operators generally offered free hardware that also allows the use of POTS equipment, such as NTBAs[b] with integrated terminal adapters. Because of the widespread availability of ADSL services, ISDN was primarily used for voice and fax traffic.
Until 2007 ISDN (BRI) and ADSL/VDSL were often bundled on the same line, mainly because the combination of DSL with an analog line had no cost advantage over a combined ISDN-DSL line. This practice turned into an issue for the operators when vendors of ISDN technology stopped manufacturing it and spare parts became hard to come by. Since then phone companies started introducing cheaper xDSL-only products using VoIP for telephony, also in an effort to reduce their costs by operating separate data & voice networks.
Since approximately 2010, most german operators are offering more and more VoIP on top of DSL lines and ceased offering ISDN lines. As from 2018 on, new ISDN lines are not available anymore in Germany, existing ISDN lines are phased out from 2016 onwards and existing customers are encouraged to move to DSL-based VoIP products. Deutsche Telekom expected to complete this phase-out by 2018 but postponed the date to 2020, other provides like Vodafone estimate to have their phase-out completed by 2022.
OTE, the incumbent telecommunications operator, offers ISDN BRI (BRA) services in Greece. Following the launch of ADSL in 2003, the importance of ISDN for data transfer began to decrease and is today limited to niche business applications with point-to-point requirements.
A study of the German Department of Science shows the following spread of ISDN-channels per 1,000 inhabitants in the year 2005:
In ISDN, there are two types of channels, B (for "bearer") and D (for "data"). B channels are used for data (which may include voice), and D channels are intended for signaling and control (but can also be used for data).
There are two ISDN implementations. Basic Rate Interface (BRI), also called basic rate access (BRA) — consists of two B channels, each with bandwidth of 64 kbit/s, and one D channel with a bandwidth of 16 kbit/s. Together these three channels can be designated as 2B+D. Primary Rate Interface (PRI), also called primary rate access (PRA) in Europe — contains a greater number of B channels and a D channel with a bandwidth of 64 kbit/s. The number of B channels for PRI varies according to the nation: in North America and Japan it is 23B+1D, with an aggregate bit rate of 1.544 Mbit/s (T1); in Europe, India and Australia it is 30B+2D, with an aggregate bit rate of 2.048 Mbit/s (E1). Broadband Integrated Services Digital Network (BISDN) is another ISDN implementation and it is able to manage different types of services at the same time. It is primarily used within network backbones and employs ATM.
Another alternative ISDN configuration can be used in which the B channels of an ISDN BRI line are bonded to provide a total duplex bandwidth of 128 kbit/s. This precludes use of the line for voice calls while the internet connection is in use. The B channels of several BRIs can be bonded, a typical use is a 384K videoconferencing channel.
Using bipolar with eight-zero substitution encoding technique, call data is transmitted over the data (B) channels, with the signaling (D) channels used for call setup and management. Once a call is set up, there is a simple 64 kbit/s synchronous bidirectional data channel (actually implemented as two simplex channels, one in each direction) between the end parties, lasting until the call is terminated. There can be as many calls as there are bearer channels, to the same or different end-points. Bearer channels may also be multiplexed into what may be considered single, higher-bandwidth channels via a process called B channel BONDING, or via use of Multi-Link PPP "bundling" or by using an H0, H11, or H12 channel on a PRI.
The D channel can also be used for sending and receiving X.25 data packets, and connection to X.25 packet network, this is specified in X.31. In practice, X.31 was only commercially implemented in the UK, France, Japan and Germany.
Most NT-1 devices can perform the functions of the NT2 as well, and so the S and T reference points are generally collapsed into the S/T reference point.
In North America, the NT1 device is considered customer premises equipment (CPE) and must be maintained by the customer, thus, the U interface is provided to the customer. In other locations, the NT1 device is maintained by the telco, and the S/T interface is provided to the customer. In India, service providers provide U interface and an NT1 may be supplied by Service provider as part of service offering.
Among the kinds of data that can be moved over the 64 kbit/s channels are pulse-code modulated voice calls, providing access to the traditional voice PSTN. This information can be passed between the network and the user end-point at call set-up time. In North America, ISDN is now used mostly as an alternative to analog connections, most commonly for Internet access. Some of the services envisioned as being delivered over ISDN are now delivered over the Internet instead. In Europe, and in Germany in particular, ISDN has been successfully marketed as a phone with features, as opposed to a POTS phone with few or no features. Meanwhile, features that were first available with ISDN (such as Three-Way Calling, Call Forwarding, Caller ID, etc.) are now commonly available for ordinary analog phones as well, eliminating this advantage of ISDN. Another advantage of ISDN was the possibility of multiple simultaneous calls (one call per B channel), e.g. for big families, but with the increased popularity and reduced prices of mobile telephony this has become less interesting as well, making ISDN unappealing to the private customer. However, ISDN is typically more reliable than POTS, and has a significantly faster call setup time compared with POTS, and IP connections over ISDN typically have some 30–35ms round trip time, as opposed to 120–180ms (both measured with otherwise unused lines) over 56k or V.34/V.92 modems, making ISDN more reliable and more efficient for telecommuters.
Where an analog connection requires a modem, an ISDN connection requires a terminal adapter (TA). The function of an ISDN terminal adapter is often delivered in the form of a PC card with an S/T interface, and single-chip solutions seem to exist, considering the plethora of combined ISDN- and ADSL-routers.
ISDN is commonly used in radio broadcasting. Since ISDN provides a high quality connection this assists in delivering good quality audio for transmission in radio. Most radio studios are equipped with ISDN lines as their main form of communication with other studios or standard phone lines. Equipment made by companies such as Telos/Omnia (the popular Zephyr codec), Comrex, Tieline and others are used regularly by radio broadcasters. Almost all live sports broadcasts on radio are backhauled to their main studios via ISDN connections.
The following is an example of a Primary Rate (PRI) ISDN call showing the Q.921/LAPD and the Q.931/Network message intermixed (i.e. exactly what was exchanged on the D-channel). The call is originating from the switch where the trace was taken and goes out to some other switch, possibly an end-office LEC, who terminates the call.
The first line format is <time> <D-channel> <Transmitted/Received> <LAPD/ISDN message ID>. If the message is an ISDN level message, then a decoding of the message is attempted showing the various Information Elements that make up the message. All ISDN messages are tagged with an ID number relative to the switch that started the call (local/remote). Following this optional decoding is a dump of the bytes of the message in <offset> <hex> ... <hex> <ascii> ... <ascii> format.
The RR messages at the beginning prior to the call are the keep alive messages. SETUP message indicate the start of the call. Each message is acknowledged by the other side with a RR.
Specifications defining the physical layer and part of the data link layers of ISDN:
From the point of view of the OSI architecture, an ISDN line has a stack of three protocols
You may not obtain Internet services over ISDN lines (BRI or PRI), dedicated circuits or special service circuits.
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Two-binary, one-quaternary (2B1Q) is a line code used in the U interface of the Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) Basic Rate Interface (BRI) and the high-bit-rate digital subscriber line (HDSL). 2B1Q is a four-level pulse amplitude modulation (PAM-4) scheme without redundancy, mapping two bits (2B) into one quaternary symbol (1Q). A competing encoding technique in the ISDN basic rate U interface, mainly used in Europe, is 4B3T.
To minimize error propagation, bit pairs (dibits) are assigned to voltage levels according to a Gray code, as follows:
If the voltage is misread as an adjacent level, this causes only a 1-bit error in the decoded data. 2B1Q code is not DC-balanced. Symbol rate is half of data rate.4B3T
4B3T, which stands for 4 (four) Binary 3 (three) Ternary, is a line encoding scheme used for ISDN PRI interface. 4B3T represents four binary bits using three pulses.BT Highway
BT Highway was a UK retail ISDN2e service from British Telecom which was announced in November 1997 and withdrawn in February 2007. In the domestic market, it was sold as BT Home Highway and for small businesses, BT Business Highway. These names were used simply to differentiate billing schemes; the hardware for both services used the name BT Highway. Unlike regular ISDN2e service where only a digital S interface is provided BT Highway provided both digital and analogue connections simplifying migration from regular POTS service.Basic Rate Interface
Basic Rate Interface (BRI, 2B+D, 2B1D) or Basic Rate Access is an Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) configuration intended primarily for use in subscriber lines similar to those that have long been used for voice-grade telephone service.
As such, an ISDN BRI connection can use the existing telephone infrastructure at a business.
The BRI configuration provides 2 data (bearer) channels (B channels) at 64 kbit/s each and 1 control (delta) channel (D channel) at 16 kbit/s. The B channels are used for voice or user data, and the D channel is used for any combination of data, control/signaling, and X.25 packet networking. The 2 B channels can be aggregated by channel bonding providing a total data rate of 128 kbit/s. The BRI ISDN service is commonly installed for residential or small business service (ISDN PABX) in many countries.
In contrast to the BRI, the Primary Rate Interface (PRI) configuration provides more B channels and operates at a higher bit rate.Broadband Integrated Services Digital Network
In the 1980s, the telecommunications industry expected that digital services would follow much the same pattern as voice services did on the public switched telephone network, and conceived an end-to-end circuit switched services, known as Broadband Integrated Services Digital Network (B-ISDN).Digital Access Signalling System 1
Digital Access Signalling System 1 (DASS1) is a proprietary protocol defined by British Telecom to provide ISDN services in the United Kingdom. It is now obsolete, having been replaced by DASS2. This too will become obsolete over the coming years as Q.931, a European standard, becomes widely adopted in the EU.Digital Access Signalling System 2
Digital Access Signalling System 2 (DASS2) is an obsolescent protocol defined by British Telecom for digital links to PSTN based on ISDN. Although still available on request, it has been superseded by ETS 300 102 ("EuroISDN").
DASS2 is an improved version over DASS1, based on experiences with DPNSS.
In the UK, the ISDN concept was first introduced to customers by BT with their
DASS2 connections. DASS2 (Digital Access Signalling System) is a BT-designed
signalling standard, and was introduced before the Q.931 standard was finalised
by the international community. British Telecom used the term ISDN when
describing their DASS2 lines.
DASS2 lines are provided to customers on a 2Mbit/s link and can handle 30 simultaneous calls (64kbit/s each). DASS2 is still offered by BT and other UK carriers. Q.931 is the name of the CCITT document that describes the agreed signalling format for International ISDN. CCITT had previously been known as International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee. The organisation set out the internationally agreed standards for telecommunications, and subsequently evolved into the ITU. In the United Kingdom, the Q.931-based protocol is ETS 300 102 (also known as EuroISDN). This is a very close implementation of the original CCITT specification. It is a 2Mbit/s service as
with DASS2, but the feature capability is far greater and has negated the problems associated with DASS2, including echo problems and circuit spikes. In the UK, both DASS 2 and EuroISDN (ETS 300 102) lines are available to customers with EuroISDN as the preferred signalling type. Customers normally choose the desired signalling system, as this will be dictated by their CPE (Customer Premises Equipment),
usually a PABX.
Most modern PABXs can handle many different types of signalling system, however
the trend seems to be away from the DASS2 (which is no longer being developed by
BT and has been known to deny problems with their DASS2 circuits), and towards the internationally recognised Q.931 standard, which is utilised by many country's telephony service providers.
The CCITT specify the standards for the layers 1, 2 and 3 signalling messages. The layer 3 messages are the messages which actually control the call setup, teardown, and routing.
The layer 3 messages or call control messages are the minimum messages that must be understood by the interfacing equipment. Individual service providers may
publish their own documentation which details further messages that will be
transported in addition to Q.931 messages. There are a number of additional
European documents that cover supplementary services. These cover features that may be instigated by exchanges via the ISDN and require a higher degree of layer 3 implementation.I.431
The I.431/430 Networking standards are recommendations produced by the ITU. They are Layer 1 specifications for ISDN networks, using either an E1 or T1 circuit. The I.431 standard is known as the 'PRI Physical Layer' whereas the I.430 is known as the 'BRI Physical Layer'.ISDN digital subscriber line
ISDN Digital Subscriber Line (IDSL) uses ISDN-based digital subscriber line technology to provide a data communication channel across existing copper telephone lines at a rate of 144 kbit/s, slightly higher than a bonded dual channel ISDN connection at 128kbit/s. The digital transmission bypasses the telephone company's central office equipment that handles analogue signals. IDSL uses the ISDN grade loop without Basic Rate Interface in ISDN transmission mode. The benefits of IDSL over ISDN are that IDSL provides always-on connections and transmits data via a data network rather than the carrier's voice network.IDSL also avoids per-call fees by being generally billed at a flat-rate.
IDSL is not available in all countries.
ISDN digital subscriber line (IDSL) is a cross between ISDN and xDSL. It is like ISDN in that it uses a single-wire pair to transmit full-duplex data at 128 kbit/s and at distances of up to RRD range. Like ISDN, IDSL uses a 2B1Q line code to enable transparent operation through the ISDN U interface. Finally, the user continues to use existing CPE (ISDN BRI terminal adapters, bridges, and routers) to make the CO connections.
The big difference is from the carrier's point of view. Unlike ISDN, IDSL does not connect through the voice switch. A new piece of data communications equipment terminates the IDSL connection and shunts it off to a router or data switch. This is a key feature because the overloading of central office voice switches by data users is a growing problem for telcos.
The limitation of IDSL is that the customer no longer has access to ISDN signaling or voice services. But for Internet service providers, who do not provide a public voice service, IDSL is an alternative way of using POTS dial service to offer higher-speed Internet access, targeting the embedded base of more than five million ISDN users as an initial market.MSISDN
MSISDN (pronounced as /'em es ai es di en/ or MISS-den) is a number uniquely identifying a subscription in a Global System for Mobile communications or a Universal Mobile Telecommunications System mobile network. It is the mapping of the telephone number to the subscriber identity module in a mobile or cellular phone. This abbreviation has several interpretations, the most common one being "Mobile Station International Subscriber Directory Number".The MSISDN and international mobile subscriber identity are two important numbers used for identifying a mobile subscriber. The latter is stored in the SIM, i.e. the card inserted into the mobile phone, and each IMSI uniquely identifies the mobile station, its home wireless network, and the home country of the home wireless network, while the former is the number used for routing calls to the subscriber. IMSI is often used as a key in the home location register ("subscriber database") and MSISDN is the number normally dialed to connect a call to the mobile phone. A SIM has a unique IMSI that does not change, while the MSISDN can change in time, i.e. different MSISDNs can be associated with the SIM.
The MSISDN follows the numbering plan defined in the International Telecommunication Standard Sector recommendation E.164.Network termination 1
Network Termination 1 (NT1) or Network Termination type 1 refers to equipment in an Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) that physically and electrically terminates the network at the customer's premises. The NT1 network termination provides signal conversion and timing functions which correspond to layer 1 of the OSI model. In a Basic Rate Interface, the NT1 connects to line termination (LT) equipment in the provider's telephone exchange via the local loop two wire U interface and to customer equipment via the four wire S interface or T interface. The S and T interfaces are electrically equivalent, and the customer equipment port of a NT1 is often labelled as S/T interface. There are many types of NT1 available.
In the United States, the NT1 is considered customer-premises equipment (CPE) and is as such generally provided by the customer or integrated into the customer's equipment. In this case, the U interface is the termination point of the ISDN network. In Europe, the NT1 is generally provided by the provider, and the S/T is the termination point of the ISDN network.Plain old telephone service
Plain old telephone service (POTS), or plain ordinary telephone service, is a retronym for voice-grade telephone service employing analog signal transmission over copper loops. POTS was the standard service offering from telephone companies from 1876 until 1988 in the United States when the Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) Basic Rate Interface (BRI) was introduced, followed by cellular telephone systems, and voice over IP (VoIP). POTS remains the basic form of residential and small business service connection to the telephone network in many parts of the world. The term reflects the technology that has been available since the introduction of the public telephone system in the late 19th century, in a form mostly unchanged despite the introduction of Touch-Tone dialing, electronic telephone exchanges and fiber-optic communication into the public switched telephone network (PSTN).Primary Rate Interface
The Primary Rate Interface (PRI) is a telecommunications interface standard used on an Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) for carrying multiple DS0 voice and data transmissions between the network and a user.
PRI is the standard for providing telecommunication services to enterprises and offices. It is based on T-carrier (T1) transmission in the US, Canada, and Japan, while the E-carrier (E1) is common in Europe and Australia. The T1 line consists of 23 bearer (B) channels and one data (D) channel for control purposes, for a total bandwidth of 24x64-kbit/s or 1.544 Mbit/s. The E1 carrier provides 30 B- and one D-channel for a bandwidth of 2.048 Mbit/s. The first timeslot on the E1 is used for synchronization purposes and is not considered to be a B- or D-channel. The D-channel typically uses timeslot 16 on an E1, while it is timeslot 24 for a T1. Fewer active bearer channels, sometimes called user channels, may be used in fractional T1 or E1 services.S interface
The S interface or S reference point, also known as S0, is a user–network interface reference point for basic rate access in an Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) environment, that
is characterized by a four-wire circuit, 144 kbit/s (2 bearer and 1 signaling channel; 2B+D) user rate,
serves as a universal interface between ISDN terminals or terminal adapters and the network channel termination,
allows a variety of terminal types and subscriber networks, such as PBXs, local area networks (LANs), and controllers, to be connected to the network, and
operates at 4000 48-bit frames per second; i.e., 192 kbit/s, with a user portion of 36 bits per frame; i.e., 144 kbit/s.The S interface is electrically equivalent to the T interface, and the two are jointly referred to as the S/T interface.T interface
A T-interface or T reference point is used for basic rate access in an Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) environment. It is a User–network interface reference point that is characterized by a four-wire, 144 kbit/s (2B+D) user rate.
Other characteristics of a T-interface are:
it accommodates the link access and transport layer function in the ISDN architecture
it is located at the user premises
it is distance sensitive to the servicing Network termination 1
it functions in a manner similar to that of the Channel service units (CSUs) and the Data service units (DSUs).The T interface is electrically equivalent to the S interface, and the two are jointly referred to as the S/T interface.Telephone network
A telephone network is a telecommunications network used for telephone calls between two or more parties.
There are a number of different types of telephone network:
A landline network where the telephones must be directly wired into a single telephone exchange. This is known as the public switched telephone network or PSTN.
A wireless network where the telephones are mobile and can move around anywhere within the coverage area.
A private network where a closed group of telephones are connected primarily to each other and use a gateway to reach the outside world. This is usually used inside companies and call centres and is called a private branch exchange (PBX).
Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN)Public telephone operators (PTOs) own and build networks of the first two types and provide services to the public under license from the national government. Virtual Network Operators (VNOs) lease capacity wholesale from the PTOs and sell on telephony service to the public directlyTerminal adapter
A terminal adapter or TA is a device that connects a terminal device – a computer, a mobile communications device, or other – to a communications network.Up0-interface
The Up0-Interface is an integrated services digital network (ISDN) interface used in private networks. It is derived from the UK0-Interface used in public networks.
In public networks, the maximum cable length of an U bus is between 4 and 8 km, and the maximum length of an S0-bus is 900 meters for Point-to-Point configuration and about 150-300m for point-to-multipoint configurations. The Up0-bus has, depending on cable quality, a reach of between 2 and 4 km, far more than the S0-bus. This allows the use of ISDN telephone equipment in large private networks. Unlike the S0-bus, the Up0-bus runs at half duplex; that is, both sides alternate in sending and receiving.
While the S0-bus allows for several ISDN device connections (up to 8), the Up0-bus can connect only two devices, one at each end of the cable.VB5 interface
VB5 is a set of protocols that define the interface between a broadband user access node and a service node. It is the broadband equivalent of the V5 interface, and is a member of the Broadband ISDN architecture.