Insurrection of 10 August 1792

The Insurrection of 10 August 1792 was a defining event of the French Revolution. The storming of the Tuileries Palace by the National Guard of the Paris Commune and fédérés from Marseille and Brittany caused the fall of the French monarchy. King Louis XVI and the royal family took shelter with the suspended Legislative Assembly. The formal end of the monarchy occurred six weeks later as one of the first acts of the new National Convention.[1] This insurrection and its outcomes are most commonly referred to by historians of the Revolution simply as "the 10 August"; other common designations include "the day of the 10 August" (French: journée du 10 août) or "the Second Revolution".

The Insurrection of 10 August 1792
Part of the French Revolution
Jacques Bertaux - Prise du palais des Tuileries - 1793

Capture of the Tuileries Palace
Jean Duplessis-Bertaux (1747–1819)
National Museum of the Chateau de Versailles, 1793
Date10 August 1792
Location
Result Republican victory
Belligerents

Republicans:

 Royalists:

Commanders and leaders
Antoine Joseph Santerre
François Joseph Westermann
Charles-Alexis Alexandre
Claude Fournier-L'Héritier
Claude François Lazowski
Louis XVI Surrendered
Augustin-Joseph de Mailly
Karl Josef von Bachmann
Strength
~20,000
12 cannons
900 Swiss Guard
200 to 300 Gentlemen-at-arms
Some royalist National Guards
Casualties and losses
200 to 400 killed 600 killed
200 captured

Context

War was declared on 20 April 1792 against the King of Bohemia and Hungary (Austria). The initial battles were a disaster for the French, and Prussia joined Austria in active alliance against France. The blame for the disaster was put upon the King and his ministers (the Austrian Committee), and after upon the Girondin party.[2]

The Legislative Assembly passed decrees sentencing any priest denounced by 20 citizens to immediate deportation (17 May), dissolving the King's guard because it was manned by aristocrats (29 May), and establishing in the vicinity of Paris a camp of 20,000 Fédérés (8 June). The King vetoed the decrees and dismissed Girondists from the Ministry.[3] When the King formed a new cabinet mostly of constitutional monarchists (Feuillants), this widened the breach between the King and the Assembly and the majority of the common people of Paris. These events happened on 16 June when Lafayette sent a letter to the Assembly, recommending suppression of "anarchists" and political clubs in the capital.[4]

PeopleStormingTuileries
Journée of 20 June 1792

The King's veto of the Legislative Assembly's decrees was published on 19 June, one day before the 3rd anniversary of the Tennis Court Oath, which had inaugurated the Revolution. The popular journée of 20 June 1792 was organized to put pressure on the King. Appearing before the crowd, the King put on the bonnet rouge of liberty and drank to the health of the nation, but refused to ratify decrees or to recall the ministers. The Paris mayor, Pétion, was suspended. On 28 June, Lafayette left his post with the army and appeared before the Assembly to call on the deputies to dissolve the Jacobin Club and punish those who were responsible for the demonstration of 20 June.[5] The deputies indicted the general for deserting his command. The King rejected all suggestions of escape from the man who had long presided over his imprisonment. The crowd burnt him in effigy at the Palais-Royal. There was no place for Lafayette beside the republican emblem, nor in the country which had adopted it. Within six weeks he was arrested whilst fleeing to England and immured in an Austrian prison.[6] Lafayette failed because his views clashed with French national sentiment, and his passive leadership of French armies had given the Prussians time to finish their preparations and concentrate upon the Rhine undisturbed.[7]

A decree of 2 July authorized national guards, many of whom were already on their way to Paris, to come to the Federation ceremony. A decree of 5 July declared that in the event of danger to the nation all able-bodied men could be called to service and necessary arms requisitioned. Six days later the Assembly declared la patrie est en danger (the homeland is in danger).[8] Banners were placed in the public squares, with the words:

Would you allow foreign hordes to spread like a destroying torrent over your countryside! That they ravage our harvest! That they devastate our fatherland through fire and murder! In a word, that they overcome you with chains dyed with the blood of those whom you hold the most dear... Citizens, the country is in danger! [9]

Toward crisis

On 3 July Pierre Vergniaud gave a wider scope to the debate by uttering a terrible threat against the King's person: "It is in the King's name that the French princes have tried to rouse all the courts of Europe against the nation, it is to avenge the dignity of the King that the treaty of Pillnitz was concluded and the monstrous alliance formed between the Courts of Vienna and Berlin; it is to defend the King that we have seen what were formerly companies of the Gardes du Corps hurrying to join the standard of rebellion in Germany; it is to come to the assistance of the King that the émigrés are soliciting and obtaining employment in the Austrian army and preparing to stab their fatherland to the heart... it is in the name of the King that liberty is being attacked... yet I read in the Constitution, chapter II, section i, article 6: If the king place himself at the head of an army and turn its forces against the nation, or if he do not explicitly manifest his opposition to any such enterprise carried out in his name, he shall be considered to have abdicated his royal office." Vergniaud recalled the royal veto, the disorders it had caused in the provinces, and the deliberate inaction of the generals who had opened the way to invasion; and he implied it to the Assembly that Louis XVI came within the scope of this article of the Constitution. By this means he put the idea of deposing the King into the minds of the public. His speech, was circulated by the Assembly through all the departments.[10]

Evading the royal veto on an armed camp, the Assembly had invited National Guards from the provinces, on their way to the front, to come to Paris, ostensibly for 14 July celebrations. By mid-July the Fédérés were petitioning the Assembly to dethrone the king. The Fédérés were reluctant to leave Paris before a decisive blow had been struck, and the arrival on 25 July of 300 from Brest and five days later of 500 Marseillais, who made the streets of Paris echo with the song to which they gave their name, provided the revolutionaries with a formidable force.[11]

The Fédérés set up a central committee and a secret directory that included some of the Parisian leaders and to assure direct contact with the sections. A coordinating committee had been formed of one federal from each department. Within this body soon appeared a secret committee of five members. Vaugeois of Blois, Debesse of The Drome, Guillaume of Caen, and Simon of Strasbourg were names nearly unknown to history: but they were the creators of a movement that shook France. They met at Maurice Duplay's house in the Rue Saint-Honoré, where Robespierre had his lodgings, in a room occupied by their fifth member, Antoine, the mayor of Metz. They conferred with a group of section leaders hardly better known than themselves—the journalists Carra and Gorsas, Alexandre and Lazowski of the Faubourg Saint-Marceau, Fournier "the American", Westermann (the only soldier among them), the baker Garin, Anaxagoras Chaumette and Santerre of the Faubourg Saint-Antoine.[12] Daily meetings were held by the individual sections, and on 25 July the assembly authorized continuous sessions for them. On the 27th Pétion permitted a "correspondence office" to be set up in the Hôtel de Ville. Not all sections opposed the king, but passive citizens joined them, and on the 30th the section of the Théâtre Français gave all its members the right to vote. At the section meetings, Jacobins and sans-culottes clashed with moderates and gradually gained the upper hand. On 30 July a decree admitted passive citizens to the National Guard.[13]

On 1 August came news of a manifesto signed by the Duke of Brunswick, threatening as it did summary justice on the people of Paris if Louis and his family were harmed: "they will wreak an exemplary and forever memorable vengeance, by giving up the city of Paris to a military execution, and total destruction, and the rebels guilty of assassinations, to the execution that they have merited."[14] The Brunswick Manifesto became known in Paris on 1 August; that same day and the following days the people of Paris received news that Austrian and Prussian armies had marched into French soil. These two occurrences heated the republican spirit to revolutionary fury.[13]

Insurrection threatened to break out on the 26th, again on the 30th. It was postponed both times through the efforts of Pétion, who was to present the section petitions to the Assembly on 3 August. On 4 August, the "section of 300" gave an ultimatum to the Legislative assembly.[15] Of the forty-eight sections of Paris, all but one concurred. Pétion informed the Legislative Assembly that the sections had "resumed their sovereignty" and that he had no power over the people other than that of persuasion. The Faubourg Saint-Antoine, a section of the Quinze-Vingts, gave the Assembly until 9 August to prove itself. On the 9th it refused to indict Lafayette. That night the tocsin rang.[16]

Insurrection

Throughout the night of 9 August, the sections sat in consultation. At 11 o'clock the Quinze-Vingts section proposed that each section should appoint three of its members onto a body with instructions "to recommend immediate steps to save the state" (sauver la chose publique). During the night 28 sections answered this invitation. Their representatives constituted the Insurrectional Commune.[17] Carra and Chaumette went to the barracks of the Marseilles Fédérés in the section of the Cordeliers, while Santerre roused the Faubourg Saint-Antoine, and Alexandre the Faubourg Saint-Marceau.[7]

The municipality was already in session. From midnight until three o'clock the next morning the old and new, the legal and the insurrectional communes, sat in adjoining rooms at the Town Hall (Hôtel de Ville). The illegal body organized the attack on Tuileries. The legal body, by recalling the officer in charge of the troops at the Tuileries, disorganized its defense. Between six and seven in the morning this farcical situation was brought to an end. The Insurrectional Commune informed the municipal body, in a formally worded resolution, that they had decided upon its suspension; but they would retain the mayor (Pétion), the prosecutor (Manuel), the deputy-prosecutor (Danton), and the administrators in their executive functions.[17] The resolution stated that "When the People puts itself into a state of insurrection, it withdraws all powers and takes it to itself."[18]

Tuileries defenses

Tuileries palace - Turgot - 1739
The Tuileries Palace, Louis XVI's residence at the time of the insurrection

The king had failed to buy off the popular leaders. According to Malouet, thirty-seven thousand pounds had been paid to Pétion and Santerre for worthless promises to stop the insurrection. He rejected the last-minute advice, not only of Vergniaud and Guadet, now alarmed by a turn of affairs they brought about and also of his loyal old minister Malesherbes, to abdicate the throne. He was determined to defend the Tuileries. His supporters had anticipated and prepared for the attack long beforehand, and were confident of success. A plan of defense, drawn up by a professional soldier, had been adopted by the Paris department on 25 June: for it was their official duty to safeguard the Executive Power. The palace was easy to defend. It was garrisoned by the only regular troops on either side—950 veteran Swiss mercenaries of the Gardes Suisse; these were backed by 930 gendarmes, 2000 national guards, and 200–300 Chevaliers de Saint Louis, and other royalist volunteers. Five thousand men should have been an ample defense; though it appears that, by some oversight, they were seriously short of ammunition. Police spies reported to the commune that underground passages had been constructed by which additional troops could be secretly introduced from their barracks.[17] Mandat, the commander of the National Guard, was not very sure of his forces, but the tone of his orders was so resolute that it seemed to steady the troops. He had stationed some troops on the Pont Neuf so as to prevent a junction between the insurgents on the two sides of the river, which could prevent any combined movement on their part.[18]

Dislocation of the defense

De mailly et louis xvi
Louis XVI inspecting loyal troops

Pétion, the mayor of Paris, Roederer the prosecutor of the Paris department, and Mandat, the commander of the National Guard and the officer in charge of the troops detailed for the defense of the Tuileries. Pétion professed that he had to come to defend the royal family; but at about two a.m., hearing himself threatened by a group of royalist gunners, he obeyed summons to the Parliament-house, reported that all precautions had been taken to keep the peace, and retired to the Mairie, where he was confined on the orders of the Insurrectional Commune. Roederer's first act was to assure the royal family that there would be no attack. His second act, when a series of bulletins from Blondel, the secretary of the department, made it clear that an attack was imminent, was to persuade Louis to abandon the defense of the palace and to put himself under the protection of the assembly. Mandat, after seeing to the defense of the palace, was persuaded by Roederer (in the third and fatal mistake of the Tuileries defense) to obey a treacherous summons from the Town Hall.[19] Mandat knew nothing of the formation of the Insurrectional Commune, and thus he departed without any escort. He was put under arrest, and shortly after murdered. His command was transferred to Santerre.[18]

At about seven a.m. the head of the federal column was seen debouching on the back of the palace, there was no one to order the defense. Louis, sleepily reviewing his garrison, "in full dress, with his sword at his side, but with the powder falling out his hair," was greeted by some of the National Guards with cries of "Vive la nation!" and "A bas le véto!". Louis made no reply and went back to the Tuileries. Behind him, quarrels were breaking out in the ranks. The gunners declared they would not fire on their brethren.[18]

Hating violence, and dreading bloodshed, Louis listened willingly to Roederer's suggestion that he should abandon the defense of the palace. The queen urged in vain that they should stay and fight. Before even a single shot had been fired, the royal family were in retreat across the gardens to the door of the Assembly. "Gentlemen," said the king, "I come here to avoid a great crime; I think I cannot be safer than with you." "Sire," replied Vergniaud, who filled the chair, "you may rely on the firmness of the national assembly. Its members have sworn to die in maintaining the rights of the people, and the constituted authorities." The king then took his seat next to the president. But Chabot reminded him that the assembly could not deliberate in the presence of the king, and Louis retired with his family and ministers into the reporter's box behind the president.[20] There, the king was given a seat and he listened, with his customary air of bland indifference, whilst the deputies discussed his fate. The queen sat at the bar of the House, with the Dauphin on her knees.[19]

Assault on the Tuileries

Tuileries Henri Motte
Staircase faceoff

The incentive for resistance fell away with the king's departure. The means of defense had been diminished by the departure of the National Guardsmen who escorted the king. The gendarmerie left their posts, crying "Vive la nation!", and the National Guard's inclination began to move towards the insurgents. On the right bank of the river, the battalions of the Faubourg Saint-Antoine, and, on the left, those of the Faubourg Saint-Marcel, the Bretons, and the Marseilles fédérés, marched forth as freely as if going to parade. At many places that had been ordered guarded, no resistance was put up at all, like at the Arcade Saint-Jean, the passages of the bridges, alongside the quays, and in the court of the Louvre. An advance guard consisting of men, women, and children, all armed with cutters, cudgels, and pikes, spread over the abandoned Carrousel, and around eight o'clock the advance column, led by Westerman, was in front of the palace.[21]

The assault on the Palace began at eight o'clock in the morning. As per the King's orders, the Swiss troops had retired into the interior of the building, and the defense of the courtyard had been left to the National Guard. The Marseillais rushed in, fraternized with the gunners of the National Guard, reached the vestibule, ascended the grand staircase, and called on the Swiss Guard to surrender. "Surrender to the Nation!", shouted Westermann in German. "We should think ourselves dishonored!" was the reply.[22] "We are Swiss, the Swiss do not part with their arms but with their lives. We think that we do not merit such an insult. If the regiment is no longer wanted, let it be legally discharged. But we will not leave our post, nor will we let our arms be taken from us."[21]

The Swiss filled the windows of the château and stood motionless. The two bodies confronted each other for some time, without either of them making a definitive move. A few of the assailants advanced amicably, and the Swiss threw some cartridges from the windows as a token of peace. The insurgents penetrated as far as the vestibule, where they were met by other defenders of the château. The two bodies of troops remained facing each other on the staircase for forty-five minutes. A barrier separated them, and there the combat began; it is unknown which side took the initiative. [23] The Swiss, firing from above, cleaned out the vestibule and the courts, rushed down into the square and seized the cannon; the insurgents scattered out of range. The bravest, nevertheless, rallied behind the entrances of the houses on the Carrousel, threw cartridges into the courts of the small buildings and set them on fire. Then the Swiss attacked, stepped over the corpses, seized the cannon, recovered possession of the royal entrance, crossed the Place du Carrousel, and even carried off the guns drawn up there.[22] As at the Bastille, the cry of treachery went up. The attackers assumed that they had been drawn into a deliberate ambush and henceforth the Swiss were the subject of violent hatred on the part of sans-culottes.[24][25]

Louis XVI order to surrender 10 August 1792
Louis XVI order to surrender

At that moment the battalions of the Faubourg Saint-Antoine arrived, and the reinforced insurgents pushed the Swiss back into the palace. Louis, hearing from the manége the sound of firing, wrote on a scrap of paper: "The king orders the Swiss to lay down their arms at once, and to retire to their barracks." To obey this order in the midst of heavy fighting meant almost certain death and the Swiss officers in command did not immediately act upon it. However, the position of the Swiss Guard soon became untenable as their ammunition ran low and casualties mounted. The King's note was then produced and the defenders were ordered to disengage. The main body of Swiss Guards fell back through the palace and retreated under fire through the gardens at the rear of the building. They were brought to a halt near the central Round Pond, broken into smaller groups and slaughtered.[26] Some sought sanctuary in the Parliament House: about sixty were surrounded, carried off to the Town Hall, and put to death beneath the statue of Louis XIV.[27] Out of the nine hundred Swiss only three hundred survived, and of these an estimated two hundred either died of their wounds in prison or during the September Massacres that followed.[28]

The victims of the massacre also included some of the male courtiers and members of the palace staff, although being less conspicuous than the red-coated Swiss Guards others were able to escape. However, no female members of the court seem to have been killed during the massacre. According to Jeanne-Louise-Henriette Campan, after the royal family left the palace only in the company of Princess de Lamballe and Madame de Tourzel, the remaining ladies-in-waiting were gathered in a room in the queen's apartment, and when they were spotted, a man prevented an attack upon them by exclaiming, in the name of Pétion: "Spare the women! Don't disgrace the nation!"[29] As the queen's entire household was gathered in her apartment, this may also have included female servants. Campan also mentioned two maids outside of this room, neither of whom was killed despite a male member of the staff being murdered beside them.[29] The ladies-in-waiting were, according to Campan, "escorted to prison."[29] This is more or less confirmed in the memoirs of Pauline de Tourzel, who states that when the mob entered the chamber where the ladies-in-waiting were gathered, the Princesse de Tarente approached one of the rebels and asked for his protection for her colleagues Madame de Ginestous and Pauline de Tourzel, upon which he replied: "We do not fight with women; go, all of you, if you choose". [30] Following this example, the rest of the ladies-in-waiting departed the palace in about the same way,[29] and all passed safely out.[30]

The total losses on the king's side were perhaps eight hundred. On the side of the insurgents, three hundred and seventy-six were either killed or wounded. Eighty-three of these were fédérés, and two hundred and eighty-five members of these were the National Guard: common citizens from every branch of the trading and working classes of Paris, including hair-dressers, harness-makers, carpenters, joiners, house-painters, tailors, hatters, boot-makers, locksmiths, laundry-men, and domestic servants. Two female combatants were among the wounded.[27]

Aftermath

10 aout 1792 Catacombes
Plaque commemorating 10 August 1792 assault on the Tuileries, in the Catacombs of Paris where many of those killed have been buried.

The crisis of the summer of 1792 was a major turning-point of the Revolution. By overthrowing the monarchy, the popular movement had effectively issued a challenge to the whole of Europe; internally, the declaration of war and overthrow of the monarchy radicalized the Revolution. If the Revolution was to survive it would have to call on all of the nation's reserves.[31]

A second revolution had, indeed, occurred, ushering in universal suffrage and, in effect, a republic. However, it did not have the warm and virtually unanimous support that the nation had offered the first. Events since 1789 had brought difference and divisions: many had followed the refractory priests; of those who remained loyal to the revolution some criticized 10 August while others stood by, fearing the day's aftermath. Those who had participated in the insurrection or who approved it were few in number, a minority resolved to crush counter-revolution by any means.[32]

Legislative Assembly

The people of Paris storm the Tuileries
The insurgents at Legislative Assembly

Over half of the Legislative Assembly's members fled and on the evening 10 August only 284 deputies were in their seats.[33] The Assembly looked on anxiously at the vicissitudes of the struggle. So long as the issue was doubtful, Louis XVI was treated like a king. As soon as the insurrection was definitely victorious, the Assembly announced the suspension of the King. The King was placed under a strong guard. The Assembly would have liked to assign him the Luxembourg Palace, but the insurgent Commune demanded that he should be taken to the Temple, a smaller prison, which would be easier to guard.[7]

14 July had saved the Constitutional Assembly, 10 August passed sentence on the Legislative Assembly: the day's victors intended to dissolve the Assembly and keep power in their own hands. But because the new Commune, composed of unknowns, hesitated to alarm the provinces, the Girondins were kept and the Revolution was mired in compromise. The Assembly remained for the time being but recognized the Commune, increased through elections to 288 members. The Assembly appointed a provisional Executive Council and put Monge and Lebrun-Tondu on it, along with several former Girondin ministers. The Assembly voted that the Convention should be summoned and elected by universal suffrage to decide on the future organization of the State.[34] One of its first acts was to abolish the monarchy.[1]

Social changes

With the fall of the Tuileries, the face of Parisian society underwent an abrupt change. The August insurrection greatly increased sans-culotte influence in Paris. Whereas the old Commune had been predominantly middle class, the new one contained twice as many artisans as lawyers—and the latter were often obscure men, very different from the brilliant barristers of 1789. Moreover, the Commune itself was little more than "a sort of federal parliament in a federal republic of 48 states". It had only a tenuous control over the Sections, which began practicing the direct democracy of Rousseau. "Passive" citizens were admitted to meetings, justices of the peace and police officers dismissed and the assemblée générale of the Section became, in some cases, a "people's court", while a new comité de surveillance hunted down counter-revolutionaries. For the Parisian nobility, it was 10 August 1792 rather than 14 July 1789 that marked the end of the ancien régime.[33]

The victors of 10 August were concerned with establishing their dictatorship. The Commune silenced the opposition press, closed the toll gates, and seized a number of refractory priests and aristocratic notables. On 11 August the Legislative Assembly gave municipalities the authority to arrest suspects.[35] The volunteers were preparing to leave to the front and the rumors spread rapidly that their departure was to be the signal for prisoners to stage an uprising. The wave of executions in prisons followed, what later was known as The September Massacres.[36]

War

Lionmonumentlucerne
The Lion Monument in Lucerne in memory of the Swiss Guards.
Text reads: HELVETIORUM FIDEI AC VIRTUTI (To the loyalty and bravery of the Swiss)

To convince the revolutionaries that the insurrection of 10 August had decided nothing, the Prussian army crossed the French frontier on the 16th. A week later the powerful fortress of Longwy fell so quickly that Vergniaud declared it to "have been handed over to the enemy." By the end of the month the Prussians were at Verdun, the last fortress barring the road to Paris. In the capital, there was a well- justified belief that Verdun would offer no more than a token resistance. The war, which had appeared to bring the triumph of the Revolution, now seemed likely to lead it to disaster.[37]

On 2 September the alarm gun was fired and drums beat the citizens to their Sections again. The walls of Paris were plastered with recruiting posters whose opening sentence, "To arms, citizens, the enemy is at our gates!" was taken literally by many readers. In the Assembly, Danton concluded the most famous of all his speeches: "De l’audace, encore de l’audace, toujours de l’audace, et la France est sauvée!" (Audacity, and yet more audacity, and always audacity, and France will be saved!) Once more the sans-culottes responded and in the next three weeks, 20,000 marched from Paris for the defence of the Revolution.[38]

References

  1. ^ a b Thompson 1959, p. 315.
  2. ^ Thompson 1959, p. 267.
  3. ^ Soboul 1974, p. 245.
  4. ^ Pfeiffer 1913, p. 221.
  5. ^ Soboul 1974, p. 246.
  6. ^ Thompson 1959, p. 275.
  7. ^ a b c Mathiez 1929, p. 159.
  8. ^ Hampson 1988, p. 145.
  9. ^ McPhee 2002, p. 96.
  10. ^ Mathiez 1929, p. 155.
  11. ^ Hampson 1988, p. 146.
  12. ^ Thompson 1959, p. 280.
  13. ^ a b Lefebvre 1962, p. 230.
  14. ^ McPhee 2002, p. 97.
  15. ^ Camille Bloch, ed., La Révolution Française, no. 27 (1894), 177–82
  16. ^ Lefebvre 1962, p. 231.
  17. ^ a b c Thompson 1959, p. 286.
  18. ^ a b c d Madelin 1926, p. 267.
  19. ^ a b Thompson 1959, p. 287.
  20. ^ Mignet 1824, p. 287.
  21. ^ a b Taine 2011, p. 298.
  22. ^ a b Madelin 1926, p. 270.
  23. ^ Mignet 1824, p. 298.
  24. ^ Hampson 1988, p. 147.
  25. ^ Rude 1972, p. 104.
  26. ^ M.J. Sydenham, page 111 "The French Revolution", B.T. Batesford Ltd, London 1965
  27. ^ a b Thompson 1959, p. 288.
  28. ^ Tozzi, Christopher J. Nationalizing France's Army. p. 80. ISBN 978-0-8139-3833-2.
  29. ^ a b c d Madame Campan, Memoirs of the Court of Marie Antoinette, Queen of France, Project Gutenberg
  30. ^ a b Hardy, B. C. (Blanche Christabel), The Princesse de Lamballe; a biography, 1908, Project Gutenberg
  31. ^ McPhee 2002, p. 98.
  32. ^ Lefebvre 1962, p. 234.
  33. ^ a b Hampson 1988, p. 148.
  34. ^ Lefebvre 1962, p. 238.
  35. ^ Lefebvre 1962, p. 235.
  36. ^ Soboul 1974, p. 262.
  37. ^ Hampson 1988, p. 151.
  38. ^ Hampson 1988, p. 152.

Sources

  • Hampson, Norman (1988). A Social History of the French Revolution. Routledge: University of Toronto Press. ISBN 0-710-06525-6.
  • Lefebvre, Georges (1962). The French Revolution: from its Origins to 1793. vol. I. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-08599-0.
  • Madelin, Louis (1926). The French Revolution. London: William Heinemann Ltd.
  • Mathiez, Albert (1929). The French Revolution. New York: Alfred a Knopf.
  • McPhee, Peter (2002). The French Revolution 1789–1799. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-199-24414-6.
  • Mignet, François (1824). History of the French Revolution from 1789 to 1814. Project Gutenberg EBook.
  • Pfeiffer, L. B. (1913). The Uprising of June 20, 1792. Lincoln: New Era Printing Company.
  • Rude, George (1972). The Crowd in the French Revolution. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Soboul, Albert (1974). The French Revolution: 1787–1799. New York: Random House. ISBN 0-394-47392-2.
  • Taine, Hippolyte (2011). The Origins of Contemporary France, Volume 3. Project Gutenberg EBook.
  • Thompson, J. M. (1959). The French Revolution. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

External links

Adrien Duport

Adrien Duport (6 February 1759 – 6 July 1798) was a French politician, and lawyer.

Agathe de Rambaud

Agathe de Rambaud was born in Versailles as Agathe-Rosalie Mottet and was baptized in the future cathedral Saint-Louis of Versailles, on 10 December 1764. She died in Aramon, in the département of Gard, on 19 October 1853. She was the official nurse of the royal children, and particularly in charge of the Dauphin from 1785 to 1792.

André Chénier

André Marie Chénier (30 October 1762 – 25 July 1794) was a French poet of Greek and Franco-Levantine origin, associated with the events of the French Revolution of which he was a victim. His sensual, emotive poetry marks him as one of the precursors of the Romantic movement. His career was brought to an abrupt end when he was guillotined for supposed "crimes against the state", just three days before the end of the Reign of Terror. Chénier's life has been the subject of Umberto Giordano's opera Andrea Chénier and other works of art.

Antoine-François Momoro

Antoine-François Momoro (1756 – 24 March 1794) was a French printer, bookseller and politician during the French Revolution. An important figure in the Cordeliers club and in Hébertisme, he is the originator of the phrase ″Unité, Indivisibilité de la République; Liberté, Égalité, Fraternité ou la mort″, one of the mottoes of the French Republic.

Claire Lacombe

Claire Lacombe (4 August 1765-?) was a French actress and revolutionary. She is best known for her contributions during the French Revolution. Though it was only for a few years, Lacombe was a revolutionary and a founding member of the Society of Revolutionary Republican Women.

Demonstration of 20 June 1792

The Demonstration of 20 June 1792 (French: Journée du 20 juin 1792) was the last peaceful attempt made by the people of Paris to persuade King Louis XVI of France to abandon his current policy and attempt to follow what they believed to be a more empathetic approach to governing. The demonstration occurred during the French Revolution. Its objectives were to convince the government to enforce the Legislative Assembly's rulings, defend France against foreign invasion, and preserve the spirit of the French Constitution of 1791. The demonstrators hoped that the king would withdraw his veto and recall the Girondin ministers.

The Demonstration was the last phase of the unsuccessful attempt to establish a constitutional monarchy in France. After the Insurrection of 10 August 1792, the monarchy fell.

Faubourg Saint-Antoine

The Faubourg Saint-Antoine was one of the traditional suburbs of Paris, France.

It grew up to the east of the Bastille around the abbey of Saint-Antoine-des-Champs, and ran along the Rue du Faubourg Saint-Antoine.

Hugues-Bernard Maret, duc de Bassano

Hugues-Bernard Maret, 1st Duc de Bassano (1 May 1763 – 13 May 1839), was a French statesman, diplomat and journalist.

Jean-Marie Calès

Jean-Marie Calès (French pronunciation: ​[ʒɑ̃ ma.ʁi ka.lɛs]) was a French physician and politician in the period of the French Revolution. He was born on October 13, 1757 in Cessales (Haute-Garonne) and died on April 13, 1834 in Liège (Belgium).

Jean-Marie Collot d'Herbois

Jean-Marie Collot d'Herbois (19 June 1749 – 8 June 1796) was a French actor, dramatist, essayist, and revolutionary. He was a member of the Committee of Public Safety during the Reign of Terror and, while he saved Madame Tussaud from the Guillotine, he administered the execution of more than 2,000 people in the city of Lyon.

Journal de Paris

The Journal de Paris (1777-1840) was the first daily French newspaper.The paper was founded by Antoine-Alexis Cadet de Vaux, Jean Romilly, Olivier de Corancez, and Louis d'Ussieux, in 1777, following the model of the London Evening Post. The four-page daily paper eschewed politics in favor of popular culture, the weather, and other light-hearted culture, which made it the subject of jesting in its day. Nevertheless, the model proved popular. In 1784, the paper famously published an anonymous satirical letter by Benjamin Franklin encouraging Parisians to rise earlier in the day, which has been credited (though an overreach) with promoting the concept of daylight saving time.The paper did increase its coverage of politics as dictated by French events, and was publishing a supplement in 1789 covering the National Assembly. The paper was shut down after the Insurrection of 10 August 1792 for 50 days. With the support of Napoleon, the paper expanded its format and scope in 1811. Though it never recovered its former glory, its most well-known later writer was Henri Fonfrède.

List of coups d'état and coup attempts by country

This is a list by country of coups d'état and coup attempts, in chronological order.

Louis XVI of France

Louis XVI (French pronunciation: ​[lwi sɛːz]; 23 August 1754 – 21 January 1793), born Louis-Auguste, was the last King of France before the fall of the monarchy during the French Revolution. He was referred to as Citizen Louis Capet during the four months before he was guillotined. In 1765, at the death of his father, Louis, son and heir apparent of Louis XV, Louis-Auguste became the new Dauphin of France. Upon his grandfather's death on 10 May 1774, he assumed the title "King of France and Navarre", which he used until 4 September 1791, when he received the title of "King of the French" until the monarchy was abolished on 21 September 1792.

The first part of his reign was marked by attempts to reform the French government in accordance with Enlightenment ideas. These included efforts to abolish serfdom, remove the taille, and increase tolerance toward non-Catholics. The French nobility reacted to the proposed reforms with hostility, and successfully opposed their implementation. Louis implemented deregulation of the grain market, advocated by his economic liberal minister Turgot, but it resulted in an increase in bread prices. In periods of bad harvests, it would lead to food scarcity which would prompt the masses to revolt. From 1776, Louis XVI actively supported the North American colonists, who were seeking their independence from Great Britain, which was realised in the 1783 Treaty of Paris. The ensuing debt and financial crisis contributed to the unpopularity of the Ancien Régime. This led to the convening of the Estates-General of 1789. Discontent among the members of France's middle and lower classes resulted in strengthened opposition to the French aristocracy and to the absolute monarchy, of which Louis and his wife, Queen Marie Antoinette, were viewed as representatives. Increasing tensions and violence were marked by events such as the storming of the Bastille, during which riots in Paris forced Louis to definitively recognize the legislative authority of the National Assembly. Louis XVI was iniciated into masonic lodge Trois-Frères à l'Orient de la Cour.

Louis's indecisiveness and conservatism led some elements of the people of France to view him as a symbol of the perceived tyranny of the Ancien Régime, and his popularity deteriorated progressively. His disastrous flight to Varennes in June 1791, four months before the constitutional monarchy was declared, seemed to justify the rumors that the king tied his hopes of political salvation to the prospects of foreign intervention. The credibility of the king was deeply undermined, and the abolition of the monarchy and the establishment of a republic became an ever-increasing possibility. Despite his lack of popular approbation, Louis XVI did abolish the death penalty for deserters, as well as the labor tax, which had compelled the French lower classes to spend two weeks out of the year working on buildings and roads.In a context of civil and international war, Louis XVI was suspended and arrested at the time of the Insurrection of 10 August 1792; one month later, the absolute monarchy was abolished; the First French Republic was proclaimed on 21 September 1792. He was tried by the National Convention (self-instituted as a tribunal for the occasion), found guilty of high treason, and executed by guillotine on 21 January 1793, as a desacralized French citizen under the name of "Citizen Louis Capet," in reference to Hugh Capet, the founder of the Capetian dynasty – which the revolutionaries interpreted as Louis's family name. Louis XVI was the only King of France ever to be executed, and his death brought an end to more than a thousand years of continuous French monarchy. Both of his sons died in childhood, before the Bourbon Restoration; his only child to reach adulthood, Marie Therese, was given over to the Austrians in exchange for French prisoners of war, eventually dying childless in 1851.

National Convention

The National Convention (French: Convention nationale) was the first government of the French Revolution, following the two-year National Constituent Assembly and the one-year Legislative Assembly. Created after the great insurrection of 10 August 1792, it was the first French government organized as a republic, abandoning the monarchy altogether. The Convention sat as a single-chamber assembly from 20 September 1792 to 26 October 1795 (4 Brumaire IV under the Convention's adopted calendar).

The Convention came about when the Legislative Assembly, which had found it impossible to work with the king, decreed the provisional suspension of King Louis XVI and the convocation of a National Convention to draw up a new constitution with no monarchy. The other major innovation was to decree that deputies to that Convention should be elected by all Frenchmen twenty-five years old or more, domiciled for a year and living by the product of their labor. The National Convention was, therefore, the first French assembly elected by a suffrage without distinctions of class.

Although the Convention lasted until 1795, power was effectively stripped from the elected deputies and concentrated in the small Committee of Public Safety from April 1793. The eight months from the fall of 1793 to the spring of 1794, when Maximilien Robespierre and his allies dominated the Committee of Public Safety, represent the most radical and bloodiest phase of the French Revolution, known as the Reign of Terror. After the fall of Robespierre, the Convention lasted for another year until a new constitution was written, ushering in the French Directory.

Pierre Gaspard Chaumette

Pierre Gaspard Chaumette (24 May 1763 – 13 April 1794) was a French politician of the Revolutionary

period.

Pierre Samuel du Pont de Nemours

Pierre Samuel du Pont de Nemours (English: or ; French: [dypɔ̃]; 14 December 1739 – 7 August 1817) was a French-American writer, economist, publisher and government official. During the French Revolution, he, his two sons and their families emigrated to the United States.

His son Éleuthère Irénée du Pont was the founder of E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company. He was the patriarch and progenitor of one of the United States' most successful and wealthiest business dynasties of the 19th and 20th centuries.

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