Instrumental

An instrumental is a musical composition or recording without lyrics, or singing, although it might include some inarticulate vocals, such as shouted backup vocals in a Big Band setting. Through semantic widening, a broader sense of the word song may refer to instrumentals.[1][2][3] The music is primarily or exclusively produced using musical instruments. An instrumental can exist in music notation, after it is written by a composer; in the mind of the composer (especially in cases where the composer himself will perform the piece, as in the case of a blues solo guitarist or a folk music fiddle player); as a piece that is performed live by a single instrumentalist or a musical ensemble, which could range in components from a duo or trio to a large Big Band, concert band or orchestra.

In a song that is otherwise sung, a section that is not sung but which is played by instruments can be called an instrumental interlude, or, if it occurs at the beginning of the song, before the singer starts to sing, an instrumental introduction. If the instrumental section highlights the skill, musicality, and often the virtuosity of a particular performer (or group of performers), the section may be called a "solo" (e.g., the guitar solo that is a key section of heavy metal music and hard rock songs). If the instruments are percussion instruments, the interlude can be called a percussion interlude or "percussion break". These interludes are a form of break in the song.

In popular music

In commercial popular music, instrumental tracks are sometimes renderings, remixes of a corresponding release that features vocals, but they may also be compositions originally conceived without vocals. One example of a genre in which both vocal/instrumental and solely instrumental songs are produced is blues. A blues band often uses mostly songs that have lyrics that are sung, but during the band's show, they may also perform instrumental songs which only include electric guitar, harmonica, upright bass/electric bass and drum kit.

Opposite concept

The opposite of instrumental music, that is, music for voices alone, without any accompaniment instruments, is a cappella, an Italian phrase that means "in the chapel". In early music, instruments such as trumpet and drums were considered outdoor instruments, and music for inside a chapel typically used quieter instruments, voices, or just voices alone. A capella music exists in both Classical music choir pieces (for choir without any accompanist piano or pipe organ) and in popular music styles such as doo wop groups and Barbershop quartets. For genres in which a non-vocal song or interlude is conceived using computers and software, rather than with acoustic musical instruments or electronic musical instruments, the term instrumental is still used for it.

Number-one instrumentals

Title Artist Country Reached number-one
Frenesi Artie Shaw US December 21, 1940
Song of the Volga Boatmen Glenn Miller US March 19, 1941
Piano Concerto in B Flat Freddy Martin US October 4, 1941
A String of Pearls Glenn Miller US February 7, 1942
Moonlight Cocktail Glenn Miller US February 28, 1942
Heartaches Ted Weems US March 15, 1947
Twelfth Street Rag Pee Wee Hunt US August 28, 1948
Blue Tango Leroy Anderson US May 17, 1952
The Song from Moulin Rouge[4][5] Mantovani UK August 14, 1953
Oh Mein Papa[note 1][5][6] Eddie Calvert UK January 8, 1954
Let's Have Another Party[5][7] Winifred Atwell UK December 3, 1954
Cherry Pink (and Apple Blossom White)[5][6] Perez Prado UK April 29, 1955
Cherry Pink (and Apple Blossom White)[8] Perez Prado US April 30, 1955
Cherry Pink (and Apple Blossom White)[6] Eddie Calvert UK May 27, 1955
Cherry Pink (and Apple Blossom White) Perez Prado Germany October 8, 1955
Autumn Leaves Roger Williams US October 29, 1955
Lisbon Antigua Nelson Riddle US February 25, 1956
The Poor People of Paris Les Baxter US March 17, 1956
The Poor People of Paris[5][7] Winifred Atwell UK April 13, 1956
Moonglow and Theme from Picnic Morris Stoloff US June 2, 1956
Tequila[note 2] The Champs US March 17, 1958
Patricia[8] Perez Prado US July 28, 1958
Patricia Perez Prado Germany October 18, 1958
Hoots Mon[note 3][5][9] Lord Rockingham's XI UK November 28, 1958
Side Saddle[5][10] Russ Conway UK March 27, 1959
The Happy Organ[11] Dave "Baby" Cortez US May 11, 1959
Roulette[5][10] Russ Conway UK June 19, 1959
Sleep Walk Santo & Johnny US September 21, 1959
Theme from A Summer Place[12] Percy Faith US February 22, 1960
Apache[5][11][13] The Shadows UK August 25, 1960
Wonderland by Night[12] Bert Kaempfert US January 9, 1961
Calcutta[12] Lawrence Welk US February 13, 1961
On the Rebound[5][14] Floyd Cramer UK May 18, 1961
Kon-Tiki[5][15] The Shadows UK October 5, 1961
Mexico Bob Moore Germany January 27, 1962
Wonderful Land[5][11] The Shadows UK March 22, 1962
Nut Rocker[5][16] B. Bumble and the Stingers UK May 17, 1962
Stranger on the Shore Acker Bilk US/UK
[note 4]
May 26, 1962
The Stripper[12] David Rose US July 7, 1962
Telstar[5][11] The Tornados UK October 4, 1962
Telstar[17] The Tornados US December 22, 1962
Dance On![5][18] The Shadows UK January 24, 1963
Diamonds[5][13][19][20] Jet Harris and Tony Meehan UK January 31, 1963
Telstar The Tornados France February 9, 1963
Foot Tapper[5][18] The Shadows UK March 29, 1963
Il Silenzio Nini Rosso Germany July 19, 1965
A Taste of Honey[17] Herb Alpert & The Tijuana Brass US November 27, 1965
Love is Blue[21] Paul Mauriat US February 10, 1968
The Good, the Bad and the Ugly[21] Hugo Montenegro US June 8, 1968
Grazing in the Grass[21] Hugh Masekela US July 20, 1968
The Good, the Bad and the Ugly[5][22] Hugo Montenegro, his Orchestra and Chorus UK November 13, 1968
Albatross[5][11] Fleetwood Mac UK January 29, 1969
Love Theme from Romeo and Juliet[21] Henry Mancini US June 28, 1969
Amazing Grace[5][11] Royal Scots Dragoon Guards UK April 15, 1972
Popcorn Hot Butter France July 13, 1972
Mouldy Old Dough[note 5][11] Lieutenant Pigeon UK October 14, 1972
Frankenstein[21] The Edgar Winter Group US May 26, 1973
Eye Level[5][11] Simon Park Orchestra UK September 29, 1973
Love's Theme[23] Love Unlimited Orchestra US February 9, 1974
TSOP (The Sound of Philadelphia)[note 6] MFSB featuring The Three Degrees US April 20, 1974
Pick Up the Pieces[note 7][23] Average White Band US February 22, 1975
The Hustle[note 8][23] Van McCoy and the Soul City Orchestra US July 26, 1975
Fly, Robin, Fly[note 9] Silver Convention US November 29, 1975
Theme from S.W.A.T.[23] Rhythm Heritage US February 28, 1976
A Fifth of Beethoven[23] Walter Murphy US October 9, 1976
Gonna Fly Now[note 10] Bill Conti US July 2, 1977
Star Wars Theme/Cantina Band[note 4] Meco US October 1, 1977
Rise[23] Herb Alpert US October 20, 1979
One Step Beyond Madness France March 7, 1980
Chariots of Fire[23] Vangelis US May 8, 1982
Miami Vice Theme[23] Jan Hammer US November 9, 1985
Song of Ocarina Jean-Philippe Audin and Diego Modena France January 18, 1992
Doop[note 11][5][24] Doop UK March 19, 1994
The X-Files Mark Snow France June 8, 1996
Flat Beat[note 12][5][25] Mr. Oizo UK April 3, 1999
Harlem Shake Baauer US March 2, 2013

Borderline cases

Some recordings which include brief or non-musical use of the human voice are typically considered instrumentals. Examples include songs with the following:

Songs including actual musical—rhythmic, melodic, and lyrical—vocals might still be categorized as instrumentals if the vocals appear only as a short part of an extended piece (e.g., "Unchained Melody" (Les Baxter), "TSOP (The Sound of Philadelphia)", "Pick Up the Pieces", "The Hustle", "Fly, Robin, Fly", "Get Up and Boogie", "Do It Any Way You Wanna", and "Gonna Fly Now"), though this definition is loose and subjective.

Falling just outside of that definition is "Theme From Shaft" by Isaac Hayes.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Contains several vocal interjections of the title track.
  2. ^ Features vocal interjections of the title track at the end of each chorus.
  3. ^ Contains several Scottish sounding grunts at the end of each chorus and immediately beforehand.
  4. ^ a b Stranger on the Shore hit #1 on the end of year UK charts, but NOT the weekly UK charts. Despite this, it is the highest selling instrumental single worldwide and in the UK; in the US, this honor falls to Meco's Star Wars Theme/Cantina Band.
  5. ^ Contains vocal interjections before, during, and immediately after the choruses.
  6. ^ Contains vocals at the beginning and during the fade-out.
  7. ^ Contains vocal interjections at the end of the second and third verses.
  8. ^ Contains screams of "do the hustle!" at the end of each chorus.
  9. ^ Contains vocal interjections of the title track at the end of each chorus and "up, up to the sky" as an ending.
  10. ^ Contains vocals, which total thirty words and thus contains the most lyrics of any instrumental song to hit number 1.
  11. ^ Contains, during its choruses, several nonsensical vocal interjections of the title.
  12. ^ At the beginning, before the main piece begins, it features the lyrics "Oh yeah, I used to know Quentin, he's a real, he's a real jerk".

References

  1. ^ Ozzi, Dan; Staff, Noisey (2018-04-11). "RLYR's 'Actual Existence' Is 40 Minutes of Beautiful Chaos". Noisey. Retrieved 2019-01-26.
  2. ^ Bernardinelli, Federico (2018-08-19). "Rocking on Banker's Hill, an Interview with El Ten Eleven". Arctic Drones. Retrieved 2019-01-26.
  3. ^ "Interview with Jasper TX | Sweden Experimental interviews". www.tokafi.com. Retrieved 2019-01-26.
  4. ^ Huey, Steve. "Mantovani: Biography". AllMusic. Retrieved 14 May 2010.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w "Instrumental #1s". ukcharts.20m.com.
  6. ^ a b c Mawer, Sharon. "Eddie Calvert: Biography". AllMusic. Retrieved 14 May 2010.
  7. ^ a b Mawer, Sharon. "Winifred Atwell: Biography". AllMusic. Retrieved 14 May 2010.
  8. ^ a b Huey, Steve. "Pérez Prado: Biography". AllMusic. Retrieved 14 May 2010.
  9. ^ Mawer, Sharon. "Lord Rockingham's XI: Biography". AllMusic. Retrieved 14 May 2010.
  10. ^ a b "Pianist Russ Conway dies". BBC News. 16 November 2000. Retrieved 13 May 2010.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h McNair, James (10 December 2009). "Whatever Happened To The Hit Instrumental?". Mojo. Archived from the original on 20 December 2009. Retrieved 19 December 2009.
  12. ^ a b c d "All Instrumental Top 20 Songs, every top 20 instrumental, Dec 1959 - Jun 1962". Tunecaster.
  13. ^ a b "The Shadows founder member dies". BBC News. November 29, 2005.
  14. ^ "Country Music Hall of Fame To Welcome Floyd Cramer and Carl Smith". Broadcast Music Incorporated. 13 August 2003. Retrieved 13 May 2010.
  15. ^ Boynton, Graham (25 September 2009). "Hank Marvin: 'We should have taken Harrison's advice and sung'". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 13 May 2010.
  16. ^ Perrone, Pierre (23 September 2008). "Obituary: Earl Palmer". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 14 May 2010.
  17. ^ a b "All Instrumental Top 20 Songs, every top 20 instrumental, Sep 1962 - Oct 1966". Tunecaster.
  18. ^ a b "Rhythm magazine". Rhythm. March 2001. Archived from the original on 2012-02-26.
  19. ^ "The Shadows founder member dies". BBC News. 29 November 2005. Retrieved 13 May 2010.
  20. ^ Unterberger, Richie. "Jet Harris – Biography". AllMusic. Retrieved 19 December 2009.
  21. ^ a b c d e "All Instrumental Top 20 Songs, every top 20 instrumental, Oct 1966 - Jun 1973". Tunecaster.
  22. ^ Erlewine, Stephen Thomas. "Hugo Montenegro: Biography". AllMusic. Retrieved 14 May 2010.
  23. ^ a b c d e f g h "All Instrumental Top 20 Songs, every top 20 instrumental, Nov 1973 - now". Tunecaster.
  24. ^ "All the No.1s: Doop – Doop". Official Charts Company. Archived from the original on 5 January 2010. Retrieved 19 December 2009.
  25. ^ Siegler, Dylan (April 2000). "Mr. Oizo". CMJ New Music Monthly. College Media Inc. (80): 39. ISSN 1074-6978.

External links

Applied science

Applied science is the application of existing scientific knowledge to practical applications, like technology or inventions.

Within natural science, disciplines that are basic science, also called pure science, develop basic information to

predict and perhaps explain and understand phenomena in the natural world. Applied science is the use of scientific processes and knowledge as the means to achieve a particular practical or useful result. This includes a broad range of applied science related fields from engineering, business, medicine to early childhood education.

Applied science can also apply formal science, such as statistics and probability theory, as in epidemiology. Genetic epidemiology is an applied science applying both biological and statistical methods.

Aria

In music, an aria ([ˈaːrja]; Italian: air; plural: arie [ˈaːrje], or arias in common usage, diminutive form arietta [aˈrjetta], plural ariette, or in English simply air) is a self-contained piece for one voice, with or without instrumental or orchestral accompaniment, normally part of a larger work.

The typical context for arias is opera, but vocal arias also feature in oratorios and cantatas, sharing features of the operatic arias of their periods. The term was originally used to refer to any expressive melody, usually, but not always, performed by a singer.

Baroque music

Baroque music (US: or UK: ) is a period or style of Western art music composed from approximately 1600 to 1750. This era followed the Renaissance music era, and was followed in turn by the Classical era. Baroque music forms a major portion of the "classical music" canon, and is now widely studied, performed, and listened to. Key composers of the Baroque era include Johann Sebastian Bach, Antonio Vivaldi, George Frideric Handel, Claudio Monteverdi, Domenico Scarlatti, Alessandro Scarlatti, Henry Purcell, Georg Philipp Telemann, Jean-Baptiste Lully, Jean-Philippe Rameau, Marc-Antoine Charpentier, Arcangelo Corelli, Tomaso Albinoni, François Couperin, Giuseppe Tartini, Heinrich Schütz, Giovanni Battista Pergolesi, Dieterich Buxtehude, and Johann Pachelbel.

The Baroque period saw the creation of common-practice tonality, an approach to writing music in which a song or piece is written in a particular key; this kind of arrangement has continued to be used in almost all Western popular music. During the Baroque era, professional musicians were expected to be accomplished improvisers of both solo melodic lines and accompaniment parts. Baroque concerts were typically accompanied by a basso continuo group (comprising chord-playing instrumentalists such as harpsichordists and lute players improvising chords from a figured bass part) while a group of bass instruments—viol, cello, double bass—played the bassline. A characteristic Baroque form was the dance suite. While the pieces in a dance suite were inspired by actual dance music, dance suites were designed purely for listening, not for accompanying dancers.

During the period, composers and performers used more elaborate musical ornamentation (typically improvised by performers), made changes in musical notation (the development of figured bass as a quick way to notate the chord progression of a song or piece), and developed new instrumental playing techniques. Baroque music expanded the size, range, and complexity of instrumental performance, and also established the mixed vocal/instrumental forms of opera, cantata and oratorio and the instrumental forms of the solo concerto and sonata as musical genres. Many musical terms and concepts from this era, such as toccata, fugue and concerto grosso are still in use in the 2010s. Dense, complex polyphonic music, in which multiple independent melody lines were performed simultaneously (a popular example of this is the fugue), was an important part of many Baroque choral and instrumental works.

The term "baroque" comes from the Portuguese word barroco, meaning "misshapen pearl". Negative connotations of the term first occurred in 1734, in a criticism of an opera by Jean-Philippe Rameau, and later (1750) in a description by Charles de Brosses of the ornate and heavily ornamented architecture of the Pamphili Palace in Rome; and from Jean Jacques Rousseau in 1768 in the Encyclopédie in his criticism of music that was overly complex and unnatural. Although the term continued to be applied to architecture and art criticism through the 19th century, it was not until the 20th century that the term "baroque" was adopted from Heinrich Wölfflin's art-history vocabulary to designate a historical period in music.

Easy listening

Easy listening (sometimes known as mood music) is a popular music genre and radio format that was most popular during the 1950s to 1970s. It is related to middle-of-the-road (MOR) music and encompasses instrumental recordings of standards, hit songs and popular non-rock vocals. It mostly concentrates on music that pre-dates the rock n' roll era, mostly concentrating on music from the 1940s and before. It was differentiated from the mostly instrumental beautiful music format by its variety of styles, including a percentage of vocals, arrangements and tempos to fit various day parts during the broadcast day.

Easy listening music is often confused with elevator music ("Muzak"), or lounge music, but while it was popular in some of the same venues it bore only modest resemblance to the background sound of this kind of music.

A significant portion of easy listening music is purely instrumental and included some big band and orchestral arrangements of standards, themes from movies, bossa nova hits and small instrumental ensembles playing instrumental versions of popular songs, including light jazz and even some soft rock. However, it was distinguished by slower tempo, and the large prominence of strings. When reed instruments such as saxophones were employed, they were used in a gentle, as opposed to brash, tone.

Electronic voice phenomenon

Within ghost hunting and parapsychology, electronic voice phenomena (EVP) are sounds found on electronic recordings that are interpreted as spirit voices that have been either unintentionally recorded or intentionally requested and recorded. Parapsychologist Konstantīns Raudive, who popularized the idea in the 1970s, described EVP as typically brief, usually the length of a word or short phrase.Enthusiasts consider EVP to be a form of paranormal phenomenon often found in recordings with static or other background noise. However, scientists regard EVP as a form of auditory pareidolia (interpreting random sounds as voices in one's own language) and a pseudoscience promulgated by popular culture. Prosaic explanations for EVP include apophenia (perceiving patterns in random information), equipment artifacts, and hoaxes.

Hip hop production

Hip hop production is the creation of hip hop music in a recording studio. While the term encompasses all aspects of hip hop music creation, including recording the rapping of an MC, a turntablist or DJ providing a beat, playing samples and "scratching" using record players and the creation of a rhythmic backing track, using a drum machine or sequencer, it is most commonly used to refer to recording the instrumental, non-lyrical and non-vocal aspects of hip hop.

Instrumental rock

Instrumental rock is rock music that emphasizes musical instruments and features very little or no singing. Examples of instrumental rock can be found in practically every subgenre of rock, often from musicians who specialize in the style. Instrumental rock was most popular from the mid-1950s to mid-1960s, with artists such as Bill Doggett Combo, The Fireballs, The Shadows, The Ventures, Johnny and the Hurricanes and The Spotnicks. Surf music had many instrumental songs. Many instrumental hits came from the R&B world. Funk and disco produced several instrumental hit singles during the 1970s. The Allman Brothers Band feature several instrumentals. Jeff Beck also recorded two instrumental albums in the 1970s. Progressive rock and art rock performers of the 1960s and 1970s did many virtuosic instrumental performances.

During the 1980s and 1990s, the instrumental rock genre was dominated by several guitar soloists, including Joe Satriani, Yngwie Malmsteen and Steve Vai. The 2000s gave way for a new style of instrumental performer. For example, John Lowery (a.k.a. John 5), released a solo instrumental album. The 2000s also saw the rise of instrumental music by bands that have been labeled post-rock.

Jeff Beck

Geoffrey Arnold Beck (born 24 June 1944) is an English rock guitarist. He is one of the three noted guitarists to have played with the Yardbirds (the other two being Eric Clapton and Jimmy Page). Beck also formed the Jeff Beck Group and with Tim Bogert and Carmine Appice, he formed Beck, Bogert & Appice.

Much of Beck's recorded output has been instrumental, with a focus on innovative sound, and his releases have spanned genres ranging from blues rock, hard rock, and an additional blend of guitar-rock and electronica. Although he recorded two hit albums (in 1975 and 1976) as a solo act, Beck has not established or maintained the sustained commercial success of many of his contemporaries and bandmates. Beck appears on albums by Rod Stewart, Mick Jagger, Tina Turner, Morrissey, Donovan, Diana Ross, Jon Bon Jovi, Malcolm McLaren, Kate Bush, Roger Waters, Stevie Wonder, Les Paul, Zucchero, Cyndi Lauper, Brian May, Roger Taylor, Stanley Clarke, Screaming Lord Sutch, ZZ Top, and Toots and the Maytals.He was ranked fifth in Rolling Stone's list of the "100 Greatest Guitarists of All Time" and the magazine, upon whose cover Beck has appeared three times, has described him as "one of the most influential lead guitarists in rock". He is often called a "guitarist's guitarist". Beck has earned wide critical praise and received the Grammy Award for Best Rock Instrumental Performance six times and Best Pop Instrumental Performance once. In 2014 he received the British Academy's Ivor Novello Award for Outstanding Contribution to British Music. Beck has been inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame twice: as a member of The Yardbirds (1992) and as a solo artist (2009).

John Williams

John Towner Williams (born February 8, 1932) is an American composer, conductor, and pianist. Widely regarded as one of the greatest American composers of all time, he has composed some of the most popular, recognizable, and critically acclaimed film scores in cinematic history in a career spanning over six decades. Williams has won 24 Grammy Awards, seven British Academy Film Awards, five Academy Awards, and four Golden Globe Awards. With 51 Academy Award nominations, he is the second most-nominated individual, after Walt Disney. In 2005, the American Film Institute selected Williams's score to 1977's Star Wars as the greatest American film score of all time. The soundtrack to Star Wars was additionally preserved by the Library of Congress into the National Recording Registry for being "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant".Williams has composed for many critically acclaimed and popular movies, including the Star Wars series, Jaws, Close Encounters of the Third Kind, Superman, E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial, the Indiana Jones series, the first two Home Alone films, Hook, the first two Jurassic Park films, Schindler's List, and the first three Harry Potter films. He has been associated with director Steven Spielberg since 1974, composing music for all but four of his feature films––Duel, The Color Purple, Bridge of Spies and Ready Player One. Other works by Williams include theme music for the 1984 Summer Olympic Games, NBC Sunday Night Football, "The Mission" theme used by NBC News and Seven News in Australia, the television series Lost in Space and Land of the Giants, and the incidental music for the first season of Gilligan's Island.Williams has also composed numerous classical concertos and other works for orchestral ensembles and solo instruments. He served as the Boston Pops's principal conductor from 1980 to 1993, and is its laureate conductor. He was inducted into the Hollywood Bowl's Hall of Fame in 2000, and was a recipient of the Kennedy Center Honors in 2004 and the AFI Life Achievement Award in 2016. Williams composed the score for eight of the top 20 highest-grossing films at the U.S. box office (adjusted for inflation).

Musical composition

Musical composition, or simply composition, can refer to an original piece or work of music , either vocal or instrumental, the structure of a musical piece, or to the process of creating or writing a new piece of music. People who create new compositions are called composers. Composers of primarily songs are usually called songwriters; with songs, the person who writes lyrics for a song is the lyricist. In many cultures, including Western classical music, the act of composing typically includes the creation of music notation, such as a sheet music "score," which is then performed by the composer or by other instrumental musicians or singers. In popular music and traditional music, songwriting may involve the creation of a basic outline of the song, called the lead sheet, which sets out the melody, lyrics and chord progression. In classical music, orchestration (choosing the instruments of a large music ensemble such as an orchestra which will play the different parts of music, such as the melody, accompaniment, countermelody, bassline and so on) is typically done by the composer, but in musical theatre and in pop music, songwriters may hire an arranger to do the orchestration. In some cases, a pop or traditional songwriter may not use written notation at all, and instead compose the song in their mind and then play, sing and/or record it from memory. In jazz and popular music, notable sound recordings by influential performers are given the weight that written or printed scores play in classical music.

Although a musical composition often uses musical notation and has a single author, this is not always the case. A work of music can have multiple composers, which often occurs in popular music when all of the members of a band collaborates to write a song, or in musical theatre, when one person writes the melodies, a second person writes the lyrics, and a third person orchestrates the songs. A piece of music can also be composed with words, images, or, since the 20th century, with computer programs that explain or notate how the singer or musician should create musical sounds. Examples range from 20th century avant-garde music that uses graphic notation, to text compositions such as Karlheinz Stockhausen's Aus den sieben Tagen, to computer programs that select sounds for musical pieces. Music that makes heavy use of randomness and chance is called aleatoric music, and is associated with contemporary composers active in the 20th century, such as John Cage, Morton Feldman, and Witold Lutosławski. A more commonly known example of chance-based music is the sound of wind chimes jingling in a breeze. The study of composition has traditionally been dominated by examination of methods and practice of Western classical music, but the definition of composition is broad enough to include the creation of popular music and traditional music songs and instrumental pieces, and to include spontaneously improvised works like those of free jazz performers and African percussionists such as Ewe drummers.

Although in the 2000s, composition is considered to consist of the manipulation of each aspect of music (harmony, melody, form, rhythm, and timbre), according to Jean-Benjamin de Laborde (1780, 2:12):

Composition consists in two things only. The first is the ordering and disposing of several sounds...in such a manner that their succession pleases the ear. This is what the Ancients called melody. The second is the rendering audible of two or more simultaneous sounds in such a manner that their combination is pleasant. This is what we call harmony, and it alone merits the name of composition.

New-age music

New-age music is a genre of music intended to create artistic inspiration, relaxation, and optimism. It is used by listeners for yoga, massage, meditation, reading as a method of stress management to bring about a state of ecstasy rather than trance, or to create a peaceful atmosphere in their home or other environments, and is associated with environmentalism and New Age spirituality.New-age music includes both acoustic forms, featuring instruments such as flutes, piano, acoustic guitar and a wide variety of non-Western acoustic instruments, and electronic forms, frequently relying on sustained synth pads or long sequencer-based runs. Vocal arrangements were initially rare in the genre, but as it has evolved vocals have become more common, especially those featuring Native American-, Sanskrit-, or Tibetan-influenced chants, or lyrics based on mythology such as Celtic legends.There is no exact definition of new-age music. An article in Billboard magazine in 1987 commented that "New Age music may be the most startling successful non-defined music ever to hit the public consciousness". Many consider it to be an umbrella term for marketing rather than a musical category, and to be part of a complex cultural trend.New-age music was influenced by a wide range of artists from a variety of genres. Tony Scott's Music for Zen Meditation (1964) is considered to be the first new-age recording. Paul Horn (beginning with 1968's Inside) was one of the important predecessors. Irv Teibel's Environments series (1969–79) featured natural soundscapes, tintinnabulation, and "Om" chants and were some of the first publicly available psychoacoustic recordings. Steven Halpern's 1975 Spectrum Suite was a key work that began the new-age music movement.

Obscured by Clouds

Obscured by Clouds is the seventh studio album by the English progressive rock band Pink Floyd, released on 2 June 1972 by Harvest and Capitol Records. It is based on their soundtrack for the French film La Vallée, by Barbet Schroeder. It was recorded in two sessions in France, while they were in the midst of touring, and produced by the band members.

The album is noticeably shorter than some of their previous material, and makes heavy utilization of the acoustic guitar. Lyrically, the songs center around love, a common theme in the film it was inspired by. The album's only single, "Free Four", was released in the US only.

Obscured by Clouds is often seen as a stopgap for the band, who had started work on their next album, The Dark Side of the Moon (1973). The resulting work is often overlooked in the band canon, primarily because of the success of their later material. Nevertheless, the album reached number six in the UK and number 46 in the US, and retrospective opinions from both fans and critics have been positive, with some critics noting the similarities to their later material.

Operant conditioning

Operant conditioning (also called instrumental conditioning) is a learning process through which the strength of a behavior is modified by reinforcement or punishment. It is also a procedure that is used to bring about such learning.

Although operant and classical conditioning both involve behaviors controlled by environmental stimuli, they differ in nature. In operant conditioning, stimuli present when a behavior is rewarded or punished come to control that behavior. For example, a child may learn to open a box to get the sweets inside, or learn to avoid touching a hot stove; in operant terms, the box and the stove are "discriminative stimuli". Operant behavior is said to be "voluntary": for example, the child may face a choice between opening the box and petting a puppy.

In contrast, classical conditioning involves involuntary behavior based on the pairing of stimuli with biologically significant events. For example, sight of sweets may cause a child to salivate, or the sound of a door slam may signal an angry parent, causing a child to tremble. Salivation and trembling are not operants; they are not reinforced by their consequences, and they are not voluntarily "chosen".

The study of animal learning in the 20th century was dominated by the analysis of these two sorts of learning, and they are still at the core of behavior analysis.

Remix

A remix is a piece of media which has been altered from its original state by adding, removing and changing pieces of the item. A song, piece of artwork, books, video, or photograph can all be remixes. The only characteristic of a remix is that it appropriates and changes other materials to create something new.

Most commonly, remixes are a subset of audio mixing in music and song recordings. Songs may be remixed for a variety of reasons:

to adapt or revise a song for radio or nightclub play

to create a stereo or surround sound version of a song where none was previously available

to improve the fidelity of an older song for which the original master has been lost or degraded

to alter a song to suit a specific music genre or radio format

to use some of the same materials, allowing the song to reach a different audience

to alter a song for artistic purposes.

to provide additional versions of a song for use as bonus tracks or for a B-side, for example, in times when a CD single might carry a total of 4 tracks

to create a connection between a smaller artist and a more successful one, as was the case with Fatboy Slim's remix of "Brimful of Asha" by Cornershop

to improve the first or demo mix of the song, generally to ensure a professional product.

to provide an alternative version of a song

to improve a song from its original stateRemixes should not be confused with edits, which usually involve shortening a final stereo master for marketing or broadcasting purposes. Another distinction should be made between a remix, which recombines audio pieces from a recording to create an altered version of a song, and a cover: a re-recording of someone else's song like Mike D's remix of Moby's "Natural Blues".

While audio mixing is one of the most popular and recognized forms of remixing, this is not the only media form which is remixed in numerous examples. Literature, film, technology, and social systems can all be argued as a form of remix

Smooth jazz

Smooth jazz is music that evolved from a blend of jazz fusion and easy listening pop music, featuring a polished pop feel with little to no jazz improvisation. The genre arose in the mid-1970s in the United States, although it was not named "smooth jazz" until the 1980s. Traditional jazz players and jazz purists did not embrace the popular style: Jazz Journal's "Sound Investment" column stated in November 1999 that it "would cover an extremely wide spectrum of jazz styles" while avoiding smooth jazz.

The earliest smooth jazz music appearing in the 1970s includes the 1975 album Touch by saxophonist John Klemmer, the song "Breezin'" as performed by guitarist George Benson in 1976, the 1977 instrumental composition "Feels So Good" by flugelhorn player Chuck Mangione, and jazz fusion group Spyro Gyra's instrumental "Morning Dance", released in 1979. Smooth jazz grew in popularity in the 1980s as Anita Baker, Sade, Al Jarreau and Grover Washington released multiple hit songs. The smooth jazz genre began to decline at the end of the 1980s in a backlash exemplified by critical complaints about what many critics saw as the "bland" sound of top-selling saxophonist Kenny G, whose popularity peaked with his 1992 album Breathless.

Surf music

Surf music is a subgenre of rock music associated with surf culture, particularly as found in Southern California. It was especially popular from 1962 to 1964 in two major forms. The first is instrumental surf, distinguished by reverb-drenched electric guitars played to evoke the sound of crashing waves, largely pioneered by Dick Dale and the Del-Tones. The second is vocal surf, which took elements of the original surf sound and added vocal harmonies, a movement led by the Beach Boys.Dick Dale developed the surf sound from instrumental rock, where he added Middle Eastern and Mexican influences, a spring reverb, and the rapid alternate picking characteristics. His regional hit "Let's Go Trippin'" (1961) launched the surf music craze, inspiring many others to take up the approach.

The genre reached national exposure when it was represented by vocal groups such as the Beach Boys and Jan and Dean. Dale is quoted on such groups: "They were surfing sounds [with] surfing lyrics. In other words, the music wasn't surfing music. The words made them surfing songs. ... That was the difference ... the real surfing music is instrumental."At the height of its popularity, surf music rivaled girl groups and Motown for top American popular music trends. It is sometimes referred to interchangeably with the California Sound. During the later stages of the surf music craze, many of its groups started to write songs about cars and girls; this was later known as hot rod rock.

The Shadows

The Shadows (originally known as the Drifters) were an English instrumental rock group, and were Cliff Richard's backing band from 1958 to 1968 and have also collaborated again on numerous reunion tours. The Shadows have placed 69 UK charted singles from the 1950s to the 2000s, 35 credited to the Shadows and 34 to Cliff Richard and the Shadows. The group, who were in the forefront of the UK beat-group boom, were the first backing band to emerge as stars. As pioneers of the four-member instrumental format, the band consisted of lead guitar, rhythm guitar, bass guitar and drums. Their range covers pop, rock, surf rock and ballads with a jazz influence.The core members from 1958 to 2015 were Hank Marvin and Bruce Welch. Along with the

Fender guitar, another cornerstone of the Shadows sound was the Vox amplifier. The Shadows, with Cliff Richard, dominated British popular music in the late 1950s and early 1960s in the years before the Beatles. The Shadows' number one hits included "Apache", "Kon-Tiki", "Wonderful Land", "Foot Tapper" and "Dance On!". They disbanded in 1968, but reunited in the 1970s for further commercial success.

The Shadows are the fourth most successful act in the UK singles chart, behind Elvis Presley, the Beatles, and Cliff Richard. The Shadows and Cliff Richard & the Shadows each have had four No. 1 selling EPs.

Vocal music

Vocal music is a type of music performed by one or more singers, either with instrumental accompaniment, or without instrumental accompaniment (a cappella), in which singing provides the main focus of the piece. Music which employs singing but does not feature it prominently is generally considered instrumental music (e.g. the wordless women's choir in the final movement of Holst's The Planets) as is music without singing. Music without any non-vocal instrumental accompaniment is referred to as a cappella.Vocal music typically features sung words called lyrics, although there are notable examples of vocal music that are performed using non-linguistic syllables, sounds, or noises, sometimes as musical onomatopoeia. A short piece of vocal music with lyrics is broadly termed a song.

Vocal music is probably the oldest form of music, since it does not require any instrument besides the human voice. All musical cultures have some form of vocal music.

Yngwie Malmsteen

Yngwie Johan Malmsteen (; born Lars Johan Yngve Lannerbäck; 30 June 1963) is a Swedish guitarist, songwriter and bandleader. Malmsteen first became known in the 1980s for his neoclassical metal playing style in heavy metal, and has released 20 studio albums in a career spanning almost 40 years. In 2009, Time magazine rated Malmsteen as number 7 among the 10 greatest electric guitar players of all time.

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