Institute of Optronics

The Institute of Optronics (IOP) is an administrative research weapons engineering institute located in Rawalpindi, Punjab Province of Pakistan. The IOP is noted for its production of advanced military technologies produced for the Pakistan Defence Forces (PDF).


The Institute of Optronics (IOP) was established in 1984 as a project led Ministry of Defence (MoD) of Government of Pakistan. The project was led by then-Director-General of the DESTO Lieutenant-General Talat Masood who supervised the construction of the institute.

After it was made fully functional, the IOP's were handed over to civilian management. Dr. Akram Hussain Abidi, a scientist in the field of Electrical physics and former NASA senior scientist, was its pioneer, Director-General. Presently the organization is working under the Ministry of Defence Production, Government of Pakistan.

ROLE and TASK of IOP include Undertaking Research & Development, and production of

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Air Force ranks and insignia of Pakistan

The Ranks of Pakistan Air Force are primarily based on Royal Air Force rank structure, though ranks for other ranks personnel and insignia differ. Insignia for officer ranks were changed from the British influenced ranks to a Turkish style one on 5 July 2006.

Army ranks and insignia of Pakistan

The Ranks of Pakistan Army are primarily based on British Army Ranks structure, though ranks for other ranks personnel and insignia differ.

Officers and JCOs of the Pakistan Army in khaki uniform wear their rank insignia on the shoulders, while NCOs wear them on the arm. In CCD, all army personnel wear their insignia on the chest.

College of Flying Training

The College of Flying Training (CFT) is located at Risalpur, Nowshera District, Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The College is a constituent unit of the Pakistan Air Force Academy.

Defence industry of Pakistan

The defence industry of Pakistan, under the Ministry of Defence Production, was created in September 1951 to promote and coordinate the patchwork of military production facilities that have developed since independence. The ministry also includes seven other specialized organizations devoted to research and development, production, and administration.Pakistan Navy is supported mainly by a facility at the Karachi Shipyard, which has limited production capacity. In 1987 development of a submarine repair and rebuild facility at Port Qasim was begun. By early 2000, in a joint project with China led to the development of the JF-17 Thunder fighter and the Al-Khalid Tank. Pakistan also has taken major steps to becoming self-sufficient in aircraft overhaul, modernization and tank and helicopter sales and a transfer of technology with France led to the construction of the Agosta B-90 Submarine in the late 1990s and early 2000s and is currently participating in many joint production projects such as Al Khalid 2, advance trainer aircraft, combat aircraft, navy ships and submarines.

Force Command Northern Areas

Force Command Northern Areas is a division size formation of the Pakistan Army. It commands the troops deployed in the Northern Areas of Pakistan. It is a component of X Corps of the Pakistan Army. In contrast to the general belief that it is a corps sized formation, it is a division sized force commanded by a major general. Its coat of arms is a snow leopard on a black background.

General Headquarters (Pakistan Army)

General Headquarters (GHQ) is the Headquarters of Pakistan Army located in Rawalpindi. It was established on 14 August 1947 in Northern Command Headquarters of the British Indian Army.

Joint Staff Headquarters (Pakistan)

The Joint Staff Headquarters (reporting name:JS HQ), is the combatant joint-field operations secretariat and principal headquarters of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee established after Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 in Rawalpindi. It is situated next to the General Headquarters of the Pakistan Army. The JS HQ served as the principle headquarters of Pakistan Armed Forces and concerned authorities relating the defence and strategic developments.

The JS HQ was set up to improve coordination, command and communication between the three branches of the Pakistan Armed Forces.

Karachi Cantonment

The Karachi Cantonment (Urdu: کراچی چھاؤنی ‎) is a cantonment town of the city of Karachi, in Sindh, Pakistan. It serves as a military base and residential establishment. It was established by the British Indian Army in August 1942, and taken over by the Pakistan Army in 1947. The cantonment maintains its own water supply and electricity infrastructure and is outside the jurisdiction of the City District Government of Karachi.

The biggest and busiest railway station of Pakistan, Karachi Cantt, is also located here.

Manora Cantonment

This Town is famous for being the birth place of Fahad Bin Ijaz .

National Logistics Cell

The National Logistics Cell (reporting name: NLC), is a Pakistani logistics company run by the Pakistan Army. The NLC served as a sole purpose of crises management and logistics emergence on a short notice for the Pakistan Government. The NLC provide state-emergency level management services to the government, and is one of leading crises management government authority in the country.

Naval Headquarters (Pakistan Navy)

Naval Headquarters (NHQ) is the headquarters of Pakistan Navy established in 1947 in Karachi. On 15 March 1975, it was moved to Islamabad. Initially it was housed in a government secretariat building of sector G-6 and was later shifted to sector E-8.

Naval ranks and insignia of Pakistan

In the Pakistan Navy, there are various Naval ranks and insignia that identify their roles as commanding officers and varies with their responsibilities. These ranks corresponds in equivalency with the other militaries around the world, complementing those of the Royal Navy's rank structure (service uniform) and reflecting the rank equivalency with the United States Navy's insignia and ranks.

PNS Akram

PNS Akram (Urdu: پایگاه بحریہ اکرم‎) is a naval base located in Gwadar, Balochistan, Pakistan. Established in 1987, it serves as the forward operating base for the Pakistan Navy and acts as a military depot for all naval personnel stationed as part of the Western Command. It is namesake in the honor and in memory of Admiral Afzal Rahman Khan, and is the first naval base to be established on the Makran Coast of Balochistan.

PNS Darmaan Jah

The Pakistan Naval Station Darmaan Jah or PNS Darmaan Jah (meaning: place of Cure and Healing in Balochi):, is a technologically advanced Naval medical treatment facility and hospital. Located in Ormara, Balochistan Province. It is the first ever hospital facility established at Ormara, inaugurated by Chief of Naval Staff, Admiral Noman Bashir on September 12, 2011. The PNS Darmaan Jah is a 100-bed hospital.

PNS Himalaya

The PNS Himalaya is the naval base and the home of the Pakistan Navy's only boot camp, commissioned in 1943. It is located in Manora Island, Karachi.As a first step Marine Training Establishment (MTE) was created at Manora in 1948. The facility was upgraded as an independent unit in Dec 1950. Subsequently, a new establishment was considered for commissioning in an area where future expansion could take place

Pakistan Navy Punjab Command

The Central Punjab Navy Command (reporting name: COMCEP), is a military command of Pakistan Navy in the Northern Pakistan, covering the area of responsibility (AOR) of defending the Punjab Province. It is headquartered in PNS Punjab in Lahore, Punjab Province of Pakistan. The command is currently commanded by the Rear-Admiral Naveed Ahmed Rizvi, who is designated as Commander Central Punjab (COMCEP).The COMCEP is mandated and covers defense of the area of responsibility (AOR) of southern contingent of the country and the ensure excellence in naval combatant logistic support system of Pakistan Navy. The northern command also provides administrative and combat support in its AOR through PNS Punjab.

Pakistan Navy Western Command

The Western Naval Command (reporting name: COMWEST) is a naval military command of the Pakistan Navy mainly scattered across the province of Baluchistan. It is currently headquartered in the Headquarters Commander West at PNS Akram in Gwadar. The command is currently commanded by Commodore Syed Faisal Ali Shah TI(M) who is designated as the Commander West or COMWEST.

The Western Command mandates an area of responsibility of the western contingent of the country and to maintain the efficiency of the command many bases and military establishments have been placed under the COMWEST. Fully operational establishments and units include an airbase at Pasni PNS Makran, PNS Akram a depot for detachments at Gwadar, a naval base at Jiwani and the 3rd marine battalion consisting of 800 marines under the command of Commander Rehan. COMWEST command provides logistic and administrative support as well as the security to the under development Naval station at Turbat. COMWEST command is also responsible for the security of the Gwadar port. The command has an approximate area of 700 miles. COMWEST is a type commander who comes under the Coastal Command based at Karachi.

University of Wah

The University of Wah (UOW) is a private university located at Wah Cantonment, Punjab, Pakistan. It was established in 2005. The university offers bachelors, masters and doctoral programs in basic sciences, social sciences, management sciences, engineering and engineering technology.

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