Inoceramus

Inoceramus (Greek: translation "strong pot") is an extinct genus of fossil marine pteriomorphian bivalves that superficially resembled the related winged pearly oysters of the extant genus Pteria. They lived from the Early Jurassic to latest Cretaceous.[1]

Inoceramus
Temporal range: Early Jurassic-Maastrichtian
~189–66 Ma
Inoceramus steenstrup, world's largest fossil mollusk
A 187 cm (74 in) Inoceramus/Sphenoceramus steenstrupi fossil found on the Nuussuaq Peninsula
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Mollusca
Class: Bivalvia
Order: Pteriida
Family: Inoceramidae
Genus: Inoceramus
Sowerby, 1814
Species

See text

Taxonomy

The taxonomy of the inoceramids is disputed, with genera such as Platyceramus sometimes classified as subgenus within Inoceramus. Also the number of valid species in this genus is disputed.

Description

Inoceramids had a thick shell paved with "prisms" of calcite deposited perpendicular to the surface, which gave it a pearly luster in life.[2] Most species have prominent growth lines which appear as raised semicircles concentric to the growing edge of the shell. Paleontologists suggest that the giant size of some species was an adaptation for life in the murky bottom waters, with a correspondingly large gill area that would have allowed the animal to survive in oxygen-deficient waters.[2]

Selected species

  • Inoceramus aequicostatusVoronetz 1937
  • Inoceramus albertensisMcLearn 1926
  • Inoceramus altifluminisMcLearn 1943
  • Inoceramus americanusWalaszczyk & Cobban 2006
  • Inoceramus andinusWilckens 1907
  • Inoceramus anglicusWoods 1911
  • Inoceramus anilisPcelinceva 1962
  • Inoceramus anomalusHeine 1929
  • Inoceramus anomiaeformisFeruglio 1936
  • Inoceramus apicalisWoods 1912
  • Inoceramus arvanusStephenson 1953
  • Inoceramus bellvuensis
  • Inoceramus biformisTuomey, 1854
  • Inoceramus browneiMarwick 1953
  • Inoceramus carsoniMcCoy 1865
  • Inoceramus comancheanus
  • Inoceramus constellatusWoods 1904
  • Inoceramus corpulentusMcLearn 1926
  • Inoceramus coulthardiMcLearn 1926
  • Inoceramus cuvieriSowerby 1814
  • Inoceramus dakotensis
  • Inoceramus dominguesiMaury 1930
  • Inoceramus dowlingiMcLearn 1931
  • Inoceramus dunveganensisMcLearn 1926
  • Inoceramus elburzensisFantini 1966
  • Inoceramus everestiOppel 1862
  • Inoceramus fibrosusMeek & Hayden 1857
  • Inoceramus formosulusVoronetz 1937
  • Inoceramus fragilisHaal & Meek 1856
  • Inoceramus frechiFlegel 1905
  • Inoceramus galoiBoehm 1907
  • Inoceramus gibbosus
  • Inoceramus ginterensisPergament 1966
  • Inoceramus glacierensisWalaszczyk & Cobban 2006
  • Inoceramus haastHochstetter 1863
  • Inoceramus howelliWhite 1876
  • Inoceramus incelebratusPergament 1966
  • Inoceramus inconditusMarwick 1953
  • Inoceramus kystatymensisKoschelkina 1960
  • Inoceramus lamarckiParkinson 1819
  • Inoceramus laterisRossi de Gargia & Camacho 1965
  • Inoceramus mesabiensisBergquist 1944
  • Inoceramus moriiHayami 1959
  • Inoceramus multiformisPergament 1971
  • Inoceramus mytiliformisFantini 1966
  • Inoceramus nipponicusNagao & Matsumoto 1939
  • Inoceramus perplexus
  • Inoceramus pictus
  • Inoceramus pontoniMcLearn 1926
  • Inoceramus porrectusVoronetz 1937
  • Inoceramus prefragilisStephenson 1952
  • Inoceramus proximusTuomey, 1854
  • Inoceramus pseudoluciferAfitsky 1967
  • Inoceramus quenstedtiPcelinceva 1933
  • Inoceramus robertsoniWalaszczyk & Cobban 2006
  • Inoceramus saskatchewanensisWarren 1934
  • Inoceramus selwyniMcLearn 1926
  • Inoceramus sokoloviWalaszczyk & Cobban 2006
  • Inoceramus steinmanniWilckens 1907
  • Inoceramus subdepressusMeek & Hayden 1861
  • Inoceramus tenuirostratusMeek & Hayden 1862
  • Inoceramus triangularisTuomey, 1854
  • Inoceramus undabundusMeek & Hayden 1862
  • Inoceramus ussuriensisVoronetz 1937

Distribution

Cretaceous seaway
The Western Interior Seaway that covered North America during the Cretaceous

Species of Inoceramus had a worldwide distribution during the Cretaceous and Jurassic periods (from 189.6 to 66.043 Ma).[1] Many examples are found in the Pierre Shale of the Western Interior Seaway in North America. Inoceramus can also be found abundantly in the Cretaceous Gault Clay that underlies London. Other locations for this fossil include Vancouver Island,[2] British Columbia, Colombia (Hiló Formation, Tolima and La Frontera Formation, Boyacá, Cundinamarca and Huila),[3] Spain, France, Germany, Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Angola, Antarctica, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada (Alberta, Northwest Territories, Nunavut, Saskatchewan, Yukon), Chile, China, Cuba, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Ecuador, Egypt, Greenland, Hungary, India, Indian Ocean, Iran, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kenya, Libya, Madagascar, Mexico, Morocco, Mozambique, Nepal, New Caledonia, New Zealand, Nigeria, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Poland, the Russian Federation, Saudi Arabia, Serbia and Montenegro, South Africa, Sweden, Switzerland, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, the United Kingdom, United States (Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Delaware, Idaho, Iowa, Kansas, Maryland, Minnesota, Mississippi, Montana, Nebraska, New Jersey, New Mexico, North Carolina, North Dakota, Oregon, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Washington, Wyoming), and Venezuela.[1]

Gallery

InoceramusCretaceousSouthDakota

Inoceramus from the Cretaceous of South Dakota

Inoceramidae - Inoceramus proximus

Inoceramus proximus

Inoceramus cuvieri Palaeontological exhibition Prague

Inoceramus cuvieri

Inoceramus vancouverensis 1

Inoceramus vancouverensis

Inoceramus hobetsensis - National Museum of Nature and Science, Tokyo - DSC06954

Inoceramus hobetsensis

References

  1. ^ a b c Inoceramus at Fossilworks.org
  2. ^ a b c Ludvigsen & Beard, 1997, pp.102-103
  3. ^ Acosta & Ulloa, 2001, p.41

Bibliography

  • Ludvigsen, Rolf; Beard, Graham (1997). West Coast Fossils: A Guide to the Ancient Life of Vancouver Island. pp. 102–103.
  • Acosta Garay, Jorge; Ulloa Melo, Carlos E (2001). Geología de la Plancha 208 Villeta - 1:100,000 (PDF). INGEOMINAS. pp. 1–84. Retrieved 4 April 2017.

Further reading

  • Kennedy, W.J.; Kauffman, E.G.; Klinger, H.C. (1973). "Upper Cretaceous Invertebrate Faunas from Durban, South Africa". Geological Society of South Africa Transactions. 76 (2): 95–111.
  • Klinger, H.C.; Kennedy, W.J. (1980). "Upper Cretaceous ammonites and inoceramids from the off-shore Alphard Group of South Africa". Annals of the South African Museum. 82 (7): 293–320.
  • Gebhardt, H. (2001). "Inoceramids, Didymotis and ammonites from the Nkalagu Formation type locakity (late Turonian to Coniacian, southern Nigeria): biostratigraphy and palaeoecologic implications". Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Monatshefte. 4: 193–212.
  • El Qot, G.M. (2006). "Late Cretaceous macrofossils from Sinai, Egypt". Beringeria. 36: 3–163.

External links

Actinoceramus

Actinoceramus is an extinct genus of fossil saltwater clams, marine pteriomorphian bivalve molluscs. These bivalves were facultatively mobile infaunal suspension feeders.

Hiló Formation

The Hiló Formation (Spanish: Formación Hiló, Kih) is a geological formation of the Altiplano Cundiboyacense, Eastern Ranges of the Colombian Andes. The predominantly shale formation dates to the Middle Cretaceous period; Late Albian to Early Cenomanian epochs and has a measured thickness at its type section of 470 metres (1,540 ft). The fossiliferous formation has provided a great abundance of ammonites and other marine species.

Inoceramidae

Inoceramidae is an extinct family of clam-like bivalves. Fossils of inoceramids are found in marine sediments of Permian to latest Cretaceous in age. Inoceramids tended to live in upper bathyal and neritic environments..

Leptecodon

Leptecodon (meaning "small tooth") is a genus of prehistoric mackerel-like ray-finned fish which was described by Williston in 1899 and was possibly preyed on by other sea creatures. However, it was a hunter of smaller creatures itself. This fish sometimes hid in clams such as Inoceramus. The first-discovered fossil was inside a clam. Many believe that Leptecodon had formed a symbiotic relationship with the clam rather than get eaten by Inoceramus. Another fish from the same time and place, Caproberyx, has also been found among Inoceramus.

List of index fossils

Index fossils (also known as guide fossils or indicator fossils) are fossils used to define and identify geologic periods (or faunal stages). Index fossils must have a short vertical range, wide geographic distribution and rapid evolutionary trends. Another term, Zone fossil is used when the fossil have all the characters stated above except wide geographical distribution, they are limited to a zone and can't be used for correlations of stratas.

List of the Mesozoic life of Colorado

This list of the Mesozoic life of Colorado contains the various prehistoric life-forms whose fossilized remains have been reported from within the US state of Colorado and are between 252.17 and 66 million years of age.

List of the Mesozoic life of Montana

This list of the Mesozoic life of Montana contains the various prehistoric life-forms whose fossilized remains have been reported from within the US state of Montana and are between 252.17 and 66 million years of age.

List of the Mesozoic life of Wyoming

This list of the Mesozoic life of Wyoming contains the various prehistoric life-forms whose fossilized remains have been reported from within the US state of Wyoming and are between 252.17 and 66 million years of age.

List of the prehistoric life of Alaska

This list of the prehistoric life of Alaska contains the various prehistoric life-forms whose fossilized remains have been reported from within the US state of Alaska.

List of the prehistoric life of Arizona

This list of the prehistoric life of Arizona contains the various prehistoric life-forms whose fossilized remains have been reported from within the US state of Arizona.

List of the prehistoric life of Colorado

This list of the prehistoric life of Colorado contains the various prehistoric life-forms whose fossilized remains have been reported from within the US state of Colorado.

List of the prehistoric life of Iowa

This list of the prehistoric life of Iowa contains the various prehistoric life-forms whose fossilized remains have been reported from within the US state of Iowa.

List of the prehistoric life of Minnesota

This list of the prehistoric life of Minnesota contains the various prehistoric life-forms whose fossilized remains have been reported from within the US state of Minnesota.

List of the prehistoric life of Montana

This list of the prehistoric life of Montana contains the various prehistoric life-forms whose fossilized remains have been reported from within the US state of Montana.

List of the prehistoric life of New Mexico

This list of the prehistoric life of New Mexico contains the various prehistoric life-forms whose fossilized remains have been reported from within the US state of New Mexico.

List of the prehistoric life of South Dakota

This list of the prehistoric life of South Dakota contains the various prehistoric life-forms whose fossilized remains have been reported from within the US state of South Dakota.

List of the prehistoric life of Wyoming

This list of the prehistoric life of Wyoming contains the various prehistoric life-forms whose fossilized remains have been reported from within the US state of Wyoming.

Platyceramus

Platyceramus was a genus of Cretaceous bivalve molluscs belonging to the extinct inoceramid lineage. It is sometimes classified as a subgenus of Inoceramus.

Pseudoperna

Pseudoperna is a genus of extinct very small oysters. Pseudoperna lived in tight groups. This small oyster is commonly found attached in groups to the shell of large species such as Inoceramus. Pycnodonte and Pseudoperna are preserved mostly as calcitic valves and are also found attached to Mytiloides.

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