Innsbruck

Innsbruck (German: [ˈɪnsbʁʊk], Austrian German: [ˈɪnsbrʊk]; Bavarian: [ˈɪnʃprʊk]) is the capital city of Tyrol in western Austria and the fifth-largest city in Austria. It is in the Inn valley, at its junction with the Wipp valley, which provides access to the Brenner Pass some 30 km (18.6 mi) to the south.

Located in the broad valley between high mountains, the so-called North Chain in the Karwendel Alps (Hafelekarspitze, 2,334 metres or 7,657 feet) to the north, and the Patscherkofel (2,246 m or 7,369 ft) and Serles (2,718 m or 8,917 ft) to the south.

Innsbruck is an internationally renowned winter sports center, and hosted the 1964 and 1976 Winter Olympics as well as the 1984 and 1988 Winter Paralympics. Innsbruck also hosted the first Winter Youth Olympics in 2012. The name translates as "Inn Bridge".[3]

Innsbruck
Innsbruck at blue hour
Panorama insbruck4
Innsbruck - panoramio (45)
Austria-01454 - Wilten Abbey (21402649823)
Schloss Ambras - panoramio (2)
Innsbruck - Altes Landhaus (Tiroler Landtag)1 (cropped)
Coat of arms of Innsbruck

Coat of arms
Innsbruck is located in Austria
Innsbruck
Innsbruck
Location within Austria
Coordinates: 47°16′N 11°23′E / 47.267°N 11.383°ECoordinates: 47°16′N 11°23′E / 47.267°N 11.383°E
CountryAustria
StateTyrol
DistrictStatutory city
Government
 • MayorGeorg Willi
Area
 • Total104.91 km2 (40.51 sq mi)
Elevation
574 m (1,883 ft)
Population
(2018-01-01)[2]
 • Total132,493
 • Density1,300/km2 (3,300/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
6010–6080
Area code0512
Vehicle registrationI
Websiteinnsbruck.at

History

The earliest traces suggest initial inhabitation in the early Stone Age. Surviving pre-Roman place names show that the area has been populated continuously. In the 4th century the Romans established the army station Veldidena (the name survives in today's urban district Wilten) at Oenipons (Innsbruck), to protect the economically important commercial road from Verona-Brenner-Augsburg in their province of Raetia.

The first mention of Innsbruck dates back to the name Oeni Pontum or Oeni Pons which is Latin for bridge (pons) over the Inn (Oenus), which was an important crossing point over the Inn river. The Counts of Andechs acquired the town in 1180. In 1248 the town passed into the hands of the Counts of Tyrol.[4] The city's arms show a bird's-eye view of the Inn bridge, a design used since 1267. The route over the Brenner Pass was then a major transport and communications link between the north and the south of Europe, and the easiest route across the Alps. It was part of the Via Imperii, a medieval imperial road under special protection of the king. The revenues generated by serving as a transit station on this route enabled the city to flourish.

Albrecht Dürer - View of Innsbruck - WGA7356
View of Innsbruck by Albrecht Dürer, 1495

Innsbruck became the capital of all Tyrol in 1429 and in the 15th century the city became a centre of European politics and culture as Emperor Maximilian I also resided in Innsbruck in the 1490s. The city benefited from the emperor's presence as can be seen for example in the Hofkirche. Here a funeral monument for Maximilian was planned and erected partly by his successors. The ensemble with a cenotaph and the bronze statues of real and mythical ancestors of the Habsburg emperor are one of the main artistic monuments of Innsbruck. A regular postal service between Innsbruck and Mechelen was established in 1490 by the Thurn-und-Taxis-Post.

In 1564 Ferdinand II, Archduke of Austria received the rulership over Tirol and other Further Austrian possessions administered from Innsbruck up to the 18th century. He had Schloss Ambras built and arranged there his unique Renaissance collections nowadays mainly part of Vienna's Kunsthistorisches Museum. Up to 1665 a stirps of the Habsburg dynasty ruled in Innsbruck with an independent court. In the 1620s the first opera house north of the Alps was erected in Innsbruck (Dogana).

In 1669 the university was founded. Also as a compensation for the court as Emperor Leopold I again reigned from Vienna and the Tyrolean stirps of the Habsburg dynasty had ended in 1665.

Franz von Defregger 001
Andreas Hofer with his Consultants at the Hofburg by Franz Defregger, 1879

During the Napoleonic Wars Tyrol was ceded to Bavaria, ally of France. Andreas Hofer led a Tyrolean peasant army to victory in the Battles of Bergisel against the combined Bavarian and French forces, and then made Innsbruck the centre of his administration. The combined army later overran the Tyrolean militia army and until 1814 Innsbruck was part of Bavaria. After the Vienna Congress Austrian rule was restored. Until 1918, the town (one of the 4 autonomous towns in Tyrol) was part of the Austrian monarchy (Austria side after the compromise of 1867), head of the district of the same name, one of the 21 Bezirkshauptmannschaften in the Tyrol province.[5]

The Tyrolean hero Andreas Hofer was executed in Mantua; his remains were returned to Innsbruck in 1823 and interred in the Franciscan church.

During World War I, the only recorded action taking place in Innsbruck was near the end of the war. On February 20, 1918, Allied planes flying out of Italy raided Innsbruck, causing casualties among the Austrian troops there. No damage to the town is recorded.[6] In November 1918 Innsbruck and all Tyrol were occupied by the 20 to 22 thousand soldiers of the III Corps of the First Italian Army.[7]

In 1929, the first official Austrian Chess Championship was held in Innsbruck.

In 1938 Austria was annexed by Nazi Germany in the Anschluss. Between 1943 and April 1945, Innsbruck experienced twenty-two air raids and suffered heavy damage.

Euroregion Tyrol-South Tyrol-Trentino

In 1996, the European Union approved further cultural and economic integration between the Austrian province of Tyrol and the Italian autonomous provinces of South Tyrol and Trentino by recognizing the creation of the Euroregion Tyrol-South Tyrol-Trentino.

Population

Historical population
YearPop.±%
190049,727—    
195195,055+91.2%
1961100,959+6.2%
1971116,104+15.0%
1981117,287+1.0%
1991118,112+0.7%
2001113,392−4.0%
2011118,895+4.9%
2014124,579+4.8%
2015126,965+1.9%
2016130,894+3.1%
Largest minority groups
Nationality Population (2019)
 Germany 12,203
 Italy 8,826
 Turkey 2,978
 Serbia 1,737
 Romania 1,660
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 1,414
 Croatia 1,175
 Bulgaria 1,038
 Afghanistan 945
 Hungary 954
 Syria 930
 Slovakia 695
 Spain 562
 Luxembourg 538

Geography

Climate

Innsbruck has a humid continental climate (Köppen classification: Dfb),[8] since it has larger annual temperature differences than most of Central Europe due to its location in the centre of the Continent and its position around mountainous terrains. Winters are often very cold (colder than those of most major European cities) and snowy, although the foehn wind sometimes brings pronounced thaws.

Spring is brief; days start to get warm, often over 15 °C (59 °F), but nights remain cool or even freezing.

Summer is highly variable and unpredictable. Days can be cool 17 °C (63 °F) and rainy, or sunny and extremely hot, sometimes hitting 34 °C (93 °F). In summer, as expected for an alpine-influenced climate, the diurnal temperature variation is often very high as nights usually remain cool, being 12 °C (54 °F) on average, but sometimes dipping as low as 6 °C (43 °F).

The average annual temperature is 9 °C (48 °F).

Boroughs and statistical divisions

Karte Innsbruck - Katastralgemeinden und Statistische Stadtteile
Cadastral settlements (red) and wards (grey) of Innsbruck

Innsbruck is divided into nine boroughs (cadastral settlements) that were formed from previously independent municipalities or villages.[11] These nine boroughs are further divided into twenty wards (cadastral districts). All wards are within one borough, except for the ward of Hungerburg (Upper Innsbruck), which is divided between two. For statistical purposes, Innsbruck is further divided into forty-two statistical units (Statistischer Bezirk) and 178 numbered blocks (Zählsprengel).[12]

The following are the nine boroughs with the population as of 31 October 2011:[13]

  • Innsbruck (inner city) (18.524), consisting of Oldtown (Altstadt), Dreiheiligen-Schlachthof, and Saggen
  • Wilten (15.772), consisting of Mentlberg, Sieglanger, and Wilten West
  • Pradl (30.890), consisting of Pradler-Saggen, Reichenau, and Tivoli
  • Hötting (31.246), consisting of Höttinger Au, Hötting West, Sadrach, Allerheiligen, Kranebitten, and part of Hungerburg
  • Mühlau (4.750), consisting of part of Hungerburg
  • Amras (5.403), consisting of Roßau
  • Arzl (10.293), consisting of Neuarzl and Olympisches Dorf
  • Vill (535)
  • Igls (2.204)

Places of interest

Buildings and monuments

Innsbruck - Hofburg2
Imperial Hofburg (Kaiserliche Hofburg)
IA GoldenesDachl-A
Goldenes Dachl (Golden Roof)

Museums

Hofkirche Innsbruck 2
Tyrolean Folk Art Museum next to the Hofkirche in Innsbruck

Churches

Cathedral of St. James Facade 1
Innsbruck Cathedral (Dom zu St. Jakob)
  • Court Church (Hofkirche)
  • Innsbruck Cathedral (Dom zu St. Jakob)
  • Old Ursuline Church
  • Jesuit Church
  • Church of Our Lady
  • Church of Our Lady of Perpectual Succour
  • Servite Church
  • Hospital Church
  • Ursuline Church
  • Wilten Abbey (Stift Wilten)
  • Wilten Basilica (Wiltener Basilika)
  • Holy Trinity Church
  • St. John's Church
  • St. Theresa's Church (Hungerburg)
  • Pradler Parish Church
  • St. Paul's State Memorial Church in the Reichenau
  • Evangelical Church of Christ
  • Evangelical Church of the Resurrection
  • Old Höttingen Parish Church
  • Höttingen Parish Church
  • Parish Church of St. Nicholas
  • Parish Church of Neu-Arzl
  • Parish Church of St. Norbert
  • Parish Church of Maria am Gestade
  • Parish Church of the Good Shepherd
  • Parish Church of St. George
  • Parish Church of St. Paul
  • Parish Church of St. Pirminius
  • Church of the Guardian Angel

Parks and gardens

Gallery

Chateau ambras

Ambras Castle

Innsbruck 1 230

Andreas Hofer's tomb

Zeughaus-innsbruck

Armoury

Innsbruck 2 108

City Tower (Stadtturm)

Helblinghaus3

Helblinghaus

IA Hofgarten A

Hofgarten (Court Garden)

Hofkirche Innsbruck 1

Hofkirche (Court Church)

2781 - Innsbruck - Inn

Innsbruck at night

Innsbruck Flusspromenade

Innsbruck from the Inn river

IA Mariahilf-A

Mariahilfkirche

Innsbruck 1 305

Maximilian's Cenotaph and the Black Men

Blick auf Innsbruck-Mariahilf und Innbruecke

Old Inn Bridge

Goldenes Dachl 3950109736 571225b427 b

Old Town (Altstadt) with the Goldenes Dachl

Goldenes Dachl2

Old Town from the Stadtturm

12-06-05-innsbruck-by-ralfr-070

Servitenkirche

Innsbruck Siebenkreuzkapelle 2

Siebenkreuzkapelle

Innsbruck Spitalkirche 103

Spitalskirche

IA TirolerLandesmuseum A

Tyrolean State Museum (Tiroler Landesmuseum)

Innsbruck 1879

Triumphpforte

Innsbruck Stiftskirche Wilten

Wilten Abbey Church

Innsbruck-Basilique de Wilten

Wilten Basilica

Panorama insbruck4
Panoramic view looking north

Government and politics

Innsbruck overlook with town
Panoramic view looking down

The results of the 2018 local elections were:

Culture

Cultural events

Innsbruck is a very popular tourist destination, organizing the following events every year:

  • Innsbrucker Tanzsommer
  • Bergsilvester (New Year's Eve)
  • Innsbrucker Festwochen der Alten Musik (Innsbruck Festival of Early Music)
  • Christkindlmarkt (Christmas fair)

Sports

BergiselInnsbruck2
Bergiselschanze ski jumping facility

Due to its location between high mountains, Innsbruck serves as an ideal place for skiing in winter, ski-jumping and mountaineering in summer. There are several ski resorts around Innsbruck, with the Nordkette served by a cable car and additional chair lifts further up. Other ski resorts nearby include Axamer Lizum, Muttereralm, Patscherkofel, Igls, Seefeld, Tulfes and Stubai Valley. The glaciated terrain in the latter makes skiing possible even in summer months.

The Winter Olympic Games were held in Innsbruck twice, first in 1964, then again in 1976, when Colorado voters rejected a bond referendum in 1972 to finance the Denver games, originally awarded in 1970. The 1976 Winter Olympics were the last games held in the German-speaking Alps (Austria, Germany, or Switzerland).

Along with St. Moritz, Switzerland and Lake Placid, New York in the United States, it is one of three places which have twice hosted the Winter Games. It also hosted the 1984 and 1988 Winter Paralympics.

Innsbruck hosted the 1st Winter Youth Olympic Games in 2012.[14]

Innsbruck also hosts one of the 4 ski-jumping competitions of the 4 Hills Tournament every year.

Other notable events held in Innsbruck include the Air & Style Snowboard Contest from 1994 to 1999 and 2008 and the Ice Hockey World Championship in 2005. Together with the city of Seefeld, Innsbruck organized the Winter Universiade in 2005. Innsbruck's Bergiselschanze is one of the hills of the famous Four Hills Tournament.

Innsbruck is home to the football club FC Wacker Innsbruck, which plays in the Austrian Football Bundesliga (first tier) as of the 2018–19 season. Former teams include the FC Swarovski Tirol and FC Tirol Innsbruck. FC Wacker Innsbruck's stadium, Tivoli Neu, is one of eight stadiums which hosted Euro 2008 which took place in Switzerland and Austria in June 2008.

The city also hosted an American Football final, Eurobowl XXII between the Swarco Raiders Tirol and the Raiffeisen Vikings Vienna.

The city hosted opening round games in the 2011 IFAF World Championship, the official international American Football championship.

In 2018 Innsbruck will host the IFSC Climbing World Championships 2018 from September 6 to September 16 and the 2018 UCI Road World Championships from September 22 to September 30.[15]

Economy and infrastructure

Innsbruck is a substantial tourist centre, with more than a million overnight stays.

In Innsbruck, there are 86,186 employees and about 12,038 employers. 7,598 people are self-employed.[16] Nearly 35,000 people commute every day into Innsbruck from the surrounding communities in the area. The unemployment rate for the year 2012 was 4.2%.[17]

The national statistics office, Statistik Austria, does not produce economic data for the City of Innsbruck alone, but on aggregate level with the Innsbruck-Land District summarized as NUTS 3-region Innsbruck. In 2013, GDP per capita in the NUTS 3-region Innsbruck was €41,400 which is around 60% above the EU average.[18]

The headquarters of Tiwag (energy production), Bank für Tirol und Vorarlberg (financial services), Tiroler Versicherung (insurance) and MED-EL (medical devices) are located in Innsbruck. The headquarters of Swarovski (glass), Felder Group (mechanical engineering) and Swarco (traffic technology) are located within 20 km (12 mi) from the city.

Residential property is very expensive by national standards. The average price per square metre in Innsbruck is €4,430 (2015), which is the second highest per square metre price among Austrian cities surpassed only by Salzburg (€4,823), but followed by Vienna (€3,980).[19]

Transport

12-06-05-innsbruck-by-ralfr-165
Innsbruck Airport

Innsbruck is located along the A12/A13 highway corridor, providing freeway access to Verona, Italy and Munich, Germany. The A12 and A13 converge near Innsbruck, at which point the A13 terminates.

Innsbruck Hauptbahnhof, the most important railway station of Innsbruck and Tyrol, is one of the busiest railway stations in Austria. It is served by the Lower Inn Valley line to Germany and eastern Austria, the Arlberg line to the west and the Brenner line, which connects northern Italy with southern Germany via the Brenner pass. Since December 2007 suburban services have been operated as the Innsbruck S-Bahn.

Innsbruck Airport is located in the suburb of Kranebitten, which is located in the west of the city. It provides services to airports including Frankfurt, London, Amsterdam and Vienna. It also handles regional flights around the Alps, as well as seasonal flights to other destinations. During the winter, activity increases significantly, due to the high number of skiers travelling to the region. The airport is approximately 4 kilometres (2.5 mi) from the centre of Innsbruck.

Trambahn in Innsbruck
Trambahn in Innsbruck

Local public transport is provided by Innsbrucker Verkehrsbetriebe (IVB), a public authority operating a network of bus and tram routes. The metre-gauge tram network consists of four city lines, 1, 2, 3 and 5, and two lines serving the surrounding area: line 6, the Innsbrucker Mittelgebirgsbahn to Igls, and line STB, the Stubaitalbahn running through the Stubai Valley to Fulpmes. The network is planned to be enlarged during the coming years to reach the neighboring village Rum in the east and Völs in the west . Numerous bus lines serve the inner city and connect it with surrounding areas. Until 2007 the bus network included two trolleybus routes, but these were abandoned in preparation for planned expansion of the tram network.

In December 2007, the Hungerburgbahn, a funicular service to the district of Hungerburg, was reopened after a two-year closure for extensive rebuilding, with partial realignment and a new extension across the Inn River and into central Innsbruck. The line was also equipped with new vehicles. Because of the unique design of the stations, drafted by the famous architect Zaha Hadid, the funicular evolves immediately to a new emblem of the city.[20] The line was rebuilt by the Italian company Leitner, and can now carry up to 1,200 persons per hour.[21] It is operated by a private company, the 'Innsbrucker Nordkettenbahnen'.

Education

Innsbruck is a university city, with several locally based colleges and universities.

Innsbruck is home to the oldest grammar school (Gymnasium) of Western Austria, the "Akademisches Gymnasium Innsbruck". The school was founded in 1562 by the Jesuit order and was the precursor of the university, founded in 1669.

Innsbruck hosts several universities. The most well-known are the University of Innsbruck (Leopold-Franzens-Universität), the Innsbruck Medical University, and the university of applied sciences MCI Management Center Innsbruck.

Organizations

Notable sons and daughters

Margaretha von Habsburg, duchess of Saxony
Margaretha von Habsburg
Frans Pourbus d. J. 002
Anna of Tyrol
Léopold duc de Bar et de Lorraine 00206
Léopold, Duke of Lorraine
WP Josef Speckbacher
Josef Speckbacher, 1891
Josef von Hormayr
Josef von Hormayr, 1850
Wenzl Weis - Karl Schönherr
Karl Schönherr
Otto Hofmann
Otto Hofmann, 1945
Roderich Menzel 01
Roderich Menzel, 1934
Otmar-Suitner
Otmar Suitner, 2007
Portrait Dietmar Schönherr
Dietmar Schönherr, 2006
William Berger-1967
William Berger, 1967
Portrait peter noever
Peter Noever, 2005
Armin Wolf 04092008
Armin Wolf, 2008
Eva Lind NY
Eva Lind, 2007
2015-04-29-AliceTumler
Alice Tumler, 2015

Early times to 1600

1600 to 1700

1700 to 1850

1850 to 1880

1880 to 1900

1900 to 1918

1918 to 1930

1930 to 1955

1955 to modern times

International relations

Twin towns and sister cities

Partnerships

Austrian Service Abroad

The Austrian Service Abroad is a NGO, which provides positions for an alternative Austrian national service at 85 organizations in 35 countries worldwide in the sectors Holocaust Memorial Service, Social Service and Peace Service. It was founded by Andreas Maislinger and Andreas Hörtnagl in 1998 and is based in Innsbruck.

See also

References

Citations
  1. ^ "Dauersiedlungsraum der Gemeinden Politischen Bezirke und Bundesländer - Gebietsstand 1.1.2018". Statistics Austria. Retrieved 10 March 2019.
  2. ^ "Einwohnerzahl 1.1.2018 nach Gemeinden mit Status, Gebietsstand 1.1.2018". Statistics Austria. Retrieved 9 March 2019.
  3. ^ Planet, Lonely. "History of Innsbruck - Lonely Planet Travel Information". lonelyplanet.com.
  4. ^ Chizzali. Tyrol: Impressions of Tyrol. (Innsbruck: Alpina Printers and Publishers), p. 5
  5. ^ Die postalischen Abstempelungen auf den österreichischen Postwertzeichen-Ausgaben 1867, 1883 und 1890, Wilhelm KLEIN, 1967
  6. ^ Reynolds, Churchill, et al. The Story of the Great War, vol. 14. (New York: Collier and Son, 1919)
  7. ^ http://www.agiati.it/UploadDocs/12255_Art_20_di_michele.pdf
  8. ^ "Account Suspended". innsbruck.climatemps.com.
  9. ^ Klimadaten von Österreich 1971-2000 -Innsbruck-Flugplatz (in German). Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics.
  10. ^ "Klimadaten von Österreich 1971-2000 -Innsbruck-Uni" (in German). Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics. Retrieved 2012-09-06.
  11. ^ "Landesrecht Tirol: Stadtrecht der Landeshauptstadt Innsbruck 1975 § 2". Rechts Informations System (RIS), Bundeskanzleramt Österreich. Archived from the original on 8 June 2014.
  12. ^ "Räumliches Bezugssystem: Referat Statistik und Berichtswesen, Innsbruck". Landeshauptstadt Innsbruck. Archived from the original on 1 February 2014.
  13. ^ "Registerzählung vom 31. Oktober 2011, Bevölkerung nach Ortschaften, Innsbruck (70101)" (PDF). Statistik Austria. 31 July 2013.
  14. ^ "International Olympic Committee – News". Olympic.org. Retrieved 2009-05-05.
  15. ^ Climbing, Austria. "Kletter-WM Innsbruck Tirol 2018: IFSC Climbing World Championships". Innsbruck / Tirol 2018.
  16. ^ "Gemeinde auf einen Blick" (PDF). Statistik Austria. Retrieved 2016-10-02.
  17. ^ "City Statistics Illustrated". ec.europa.eu/eurostat. Retrieved 2015-12-29.
  18. ^ "Regionales BIP und Hauptaggregate nach Wirtschaftsbereichen und 35 NUTS 3-Regionen". statistik.at. Retrieved 2015-12-29.
  19. ^ "In Salzburg und Innsbruck ist Wohnraum teurer als in Wien". presse.com. Retrieved 2015-12-29.
  20. ^ "Hungerburgbahn Innsbruck".
  21. ^ "IF130 Hungerburgbahn".
  22. ^ Jérôme Steffenino, Marguerite Masson. "Ville de Grenoble –Coopérations et villes jumelles". Grenoble.fr. Retrieved 16 May 2013.
  23. ^ "Fraternity cities on Sarajevo Official Web Site". © City of Sarajevo 2001–2008. Retrieved 2008-11-09.
  24. ^ "Aalborg Twin Towns". Europeprize.net. Archived from the original on 7 September 2013. Retrieved 19 August 2013.
  25. ^ "Aalborg Kommune – Venskabsbyer". Web.archive.org. 2007-11-14. Archived from the original on 2007-11-14. Retrieved 2009-07-26.
  26. ^ "Tbilisi Sister Cities". Tbilisi City Hall. Tbilisi Municipal Portal. Archived from the original on 2013-07-24. Retrieved 2013-08-05. External link in |work= (help)
  27. ^ 友好・姉妹都市. Omachi City Hall (in Japanese). Omachi Municipal Office. Archived from the original on 2014-08-17. Retrieved 2014-08-17.
  28. ^ "Kraków - Miasta Partnerskie" [Kraków -Partnership Cities]. Miejska Platforma Internetowa Magiczny Kraków (in Polish). Archived from the original on 2013-07-02. Retrieved 2013-08-10.
Bibliography
  • Krakover, Shaul; Borsdorf, Axel (2000). "Spatial dynamics of urban expansion: The case of Innsbruck, Austria". DIE ERDE. 131 (2): 125–141. Retrieved 7 June 2014.
  • Bousfield, Jonathan; Humphreys, Rob (2001). The Rough Guide to Austria. London: Rough Guides. ISBN 978-1858280592.
  • City Guides: Innsbruck. Vienna: Freytag-Berndt. 1999. ISBN 978-3850849111.
  • Maier, Dieter (1998). Insight Guide Austria. Singapore: APA Publications. ISBN 978-0887296109.
  • Parsons, Nicholas T. (2000). Blue Guide Austria (Fourth ed.). London: A & C Black Publishers Ltd. ISBN 978-0393320176.
  • Schulte-Peevers, Andrea (2007). Alison Coupe (ed.). Michelin Green Guide Austria. London: Michelin Travel & Lifestyle. ISBN 978-2067123250.

Further reading

Published in the 19th century
Published in the 20th century
  • "Innsbruck", Guide through Germany, Austria-Hungary, Switzerland, Italy, France, Belgium, Holland, the United Kingdom, Spain, Portugal, &c (9th ed.), Berlin: J.H. Herz, 1908, OCLC 36795367
  • "Innsbruck", The Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.), New York: Encyclopædia Britannica, 1910, OCLC 14782424
  • "Innsbruck", Austria-Hungary (11th ed.), Leipzig: Karl Baedeker, 1911

External links

1964 Winter Olympics

The 1964 Winter Olympics, officially known as the IX Olympic Winter Games (French: Les IXes Jeux olympiques d'hiver) (German: Olympische Winterspiele 1964), was a winter multi-sport event which was celebrated in Innsbruck, Austria, from January 29 to February 9, 1964. The Games included 1091 athletes from 36 nations, and the Olympic Torch was carried by Joseph Rieder, a former alpine skier who had participated in the 1956 Winter Olympics.

The Games were affected by the deaths of Australian alpine skier Ross Milne and British luge slider Kazimierz Kay-Skrzypeski, during training, and by the deaths, three years earlier, of the entire US figure skating team and family members.

1976 Winter Olympics

The 1976 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XII Olympic Winter Games (French: XIIes Jeux olympiques d'hiver, German: Olympische Winterspiele 1976), were a winter multi-sport event which was celebrated February 4–15, 1976 in Innsbruck, Austria. It was the second time the Tyrolean city hosted the Games, which were awarded to Innsbruck after Denver, the original host city, withdrew in 1972.

1981 European Figure Skating Championships

The European Figure Skating Championships is an annual figure skating competition sanctioned by the International Skating Union in which figure skaters compete for the title of European Champion. Skaters competed in the disciplines of men's singles, ladies' singles, pair skating, and ice dancing.The 1981 competitions took place from February 3 to 8, 1981 at Olympia Hall in Innsbruck, Austria.

2005 IIHF World Championship

The 2005 IIHF World Championship was held in May 2005 in Vienna and Innsbruck, Austria. It was the 69th annual event, and was run by the International Ice Hockey Federation (IIHF).

2005 Winter Universiade

The 2005 Winter Universiade, the XXII Winter Universiade, took place in Innsbruck, Austria.

2012 Winter Youth Olympics

The 2012 Winter Youth Olympic Games (German: Olympische Jugend-Winterspiele 2012), officially known as the I Winter Youth Olympic Games (YOG), were an international multi-sport event for youths that took place in Innsbruck, on 13–22 January 2012. They were the inaugural Winter Youth Olympics, a major sports and cultural festival celebrated in the tradition of the Olympic Games. Approximately 1100 athletes from 70 countries competed. The decision for Innsbruck to host the Games was announced on 12 December 2008 after mail voting by 105 International Olympic Committee (IOC) members. Innsbruck is the first city to host three winter Olympic events, having previously hosted the 1964 Winter Olympics and the 1976 Winter Olympics.

2018 UCI Road World Championships

The 2018 UCI Road World Championships were held in Innsbruck, Austria. It was the 91st UCI Road World Championships and the third to be held in Austria.The World Championships consisted of a total of twelve competitions, one road race, one team time trial and one individual time trial for men and women, as well as one road race and one individual time trial for U23 riders and juniors. The Tour de Suisse organisers were responsible for the operational organisation of the races. The competitions were very demanding: the 265-kilometre men's road race had nine climbs with around 5000 metres of altitude difference. Because of the many climbs, some sprinters did not participate in the World Championships because they saw no prospect of success for themselves. It was the last edition to feature a team time trial for UCI trade teams. From 2019 onwards it will be replaced by a mixed team time trial for national teams.

Austrian Cup

The Austrian Cup (German: ÖFB-Cup) known as UNIQA ÖFB Cup for sponsorship purposes, is an annual football competition held by the Austrian Football Association, the ÖFB. During the 2008–09 season, Austria Wien won the tournament for 27th time, a record.

FC Tirol Innsbruck

FC Tirol Innsbruck was an Austrian association football club from Innsbruck, Tyrol which existed between 1993 and 2002, when bankruptcy was declared.

FC Wacker Innsbruck

FC Wacker Innsbruck was an Austrian association football club from Innsbruck, Tyrol.

FC Wacker Innsbruck (2002)

FC Wacker Innsbruck is an Austrian association football club from Innsbruck. The club was formed in June 2002 as FC Wacker Tirol, and plays their home games at Tivoli-Neu. The club regard themselves as the spiritual continuation of the team FC Tirol Innsbruck, which went bankrupt in 2002 as well as the original FC Wacker Innsbruck which had been founded in 1913. In honour of this heritage, FC Wacker Tirol was renamed FC Wacker Innsbruck in 2007. However, legally it is a distinct and separate club, and is not entitled to claim the honours won by its predecessors.

FIL World Luge Championships

The FIL World Luge Championships, part of the International Luge Federation (FIL) have taken place on an almost annual basis in non-Winter Olympics years since 1955. These championships are shown for artificial tracks. See FIL World Luge Natural Track Championships for all natural track events that have taken place since 1979.

Innsbruck Airport

Innsbruck Airport (IATA: INN, ICAO: LOWI), also known locally as Kranebitten Airport, is the largest international airport in Tyrol in western Austria. It is located approximately 2.5 miles from the centre of Innsbruck. The airport, which was opened in 1925, handles regional flights around the Alps, as well as seasonal international traffic to further European destinations. During the winter, activity increases significantly, due to the high number of skiers travelling to the region.

Kurt Jara

Kurt Jara (born 14 October 1950) is a retired Austrian football midfielder and manager.

List of Austrian football champions

The Austrian football champions are the winners of the highest league of football in Austria. The championship has been contested through the Austrian Football Bundesliga since the 1974–75 season.

Rapid Wien and Austria Wien are the most successful clubs. They have won 32 and 24 titles, respectively, as of 2016.

Tivoli-Neu

Tivoli-Neu is a multi-purpose stadium in Innsbruck, Austria. It is currently used mostly for football matches and is the home ground of FC Wacker Innsbruck and Swarco Raiders Tirol. The stadium capacity was 17,400 when it was built in 2000. For the UEFA Euro 2008 the stadium was temporarily expanded to 30,000 people. The North Stand is fitted with rail seats for safe standing.

Tyrol (state)

Tyrol (; German: Tirol [tiˈʁoːl] (listen); Italian: Tirolo; Slovak: Tirolsko) is a federal state (Bundesland) in western Austria. It comprises the Austrian part of the historical Princely County of Tyrol. It is a constituent part of the present-day Euroregion Tyrol–South Tyrol–Trentino (together with South Tyrol and Trentino in Italy). The capital of Tyrol is Innsbruck.

University of Innsbruck

The University of Innsbruck (German: Leopold-Franzens-Universität Innsbruck; Latin: Universitas Leopoldino Franciscea) is a public university in Innsbruck, the capital of the Austrian federal state of Tyrol, founded in 1669.

It is currently the largest education facility in the Austrian Bundesland of Tirol, the third largest in Austria behind Vienna University and the University of Graz and according to The Times Higher Education Supplement World Ranking 2010 Austria's leading university. Significant contributions have been made in many branches, most of all in the physics department. Further, regarding the number of Web of Science-listed publications, it occupies the third rank worldwide in the area of mountain research.

Youth Olympic Games

The Youth Olympic Games (YOG) is an international multi-sport event organized by the International Olympic Committee. The games are held every four years in staggered summer and winter events consistent with the current Olympic Games format, though in reverse order with Winter Games held in leap years instead of Summer Games. The first summer version was held in Singapore from 14 to 26 August 2010 while the first winter version was held in Innsbruck, Austria from 13 to 22 January 2012. The age limitation of the athletes is 14 to 18. The idea of such an event was introduced by Johann Rosenzopf from Austria in 1998. On 6 July 2007, International Olympic Committee (IOC) members at the 119th IOC session in Guatemala City approved the creation of a youth version of the Olympic Games, with the intention of sharing the costs of hosting the event between the IOC and the host city, whereas the traveling costs of athletes and coaches were to be paid by the IOC. These Games will also feature cultural exchange programs and opportunities for participants to meet Olympic athletes.

Several other Olympic events for youth, like the European Youth Olympic Festival held every other year with summer and winter versions, and the Australian Youth Olympic Festival, have proven successful. The Youth Games are modelled after these sporting events. The YOG are also a successor to the discontinued World Youth Games.

The Summer Youth Olympic Games of Singapore in 2010 and Nanjing in 2014 each played host to 3600 athletes and lasted 13 days, whereas the Winter YOG of Innsbruck in 2012 had 1059 athletes and Lillehammer in 2016 had 1100 athletes and lasted 10 days. Even though this exceeded initial estimates, the YOG are still both smaller in size as well as shorter than their senior equivalents. The most recent Summer YOG was the 2018 Summer Youth Olympic Games of Buenos Aires. The next Winter YOG to take place will be the 2020 Winter Youth Olympic Games of Lausanne while the 2022 Summer Youth Olympics will take place in Dakar.

Climate data for Innsbruck-Flugplatz (LOWI)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 20.2
(68.4)
18.6
(65.5)
23.9
(75.0)
26.4
(79.5)
32.2
(90.0)
33.6
(92.5)
37.7
(99.9)
35.0
(95.0)
32.1
(89.8)
26.0
(78.8)
21.2
(70.2)
17.1
(62.8)
37.7
(99.9)
Average high °C (°F) 3.5
(38.3)
6.3
(43.3)
11.3
(52.3)
14.8
(58.6)
20.3
(68.5)
22.6
(72.7)
24.7
(76.5)
24.4
(75.9)
20.8
(69.4)
15.8
(60.4)
8.2
(46.8)
3.7
(38.7)
14.7
(58.5)
Daily mean °C (°F) −1.7
(28.9)
0.4
(32.7)
4.8
(40.6)
8.4
(47.1)
13.4
(56.1)
16.1
(61.0)
18.1
(64.6)
17.7
(63.9)
14.0
(57.2)
9.1
(48.4)
2.9
(37.2)
−1.0
(30.2)
8.5
(47.3)
Average low °C (°F) −5.2
(22.6)
−3.7
(25.3)
0.2
(32.4)
3.4
(38.1)
7.8
(46.0)
10.8
(51.4)
12.8
(55.0)
12.7
(54.9)
9.3
(48.7)
4.8
(40.6)
−0.5
(31.1)
−4.2
(24.4)
4.0
(39.2)
Record low °C (°F) −23.8
(−10.8)
−17.3
(0.9)
−16.5
(2.3)
−4.8
(23.4)
−2.3
(27.9)
3.0
(37.4)
4.4
(39.9)
1.9
(35.4)
−0.9
(30.4)
−6.6
(20.1)
−17.9
(−0.2)
−20.1
(−4.2)
−23.8
(−10.8)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 43.9
(1.73)
41.4
(1.63)
55.9
(2.20)
57.7
(2.27)
87.1
(3.43)
110.3
(4.34)
137.2
(5.40)
111.3
(4.38)
78.1
(3.07)
57.3
(2.26)
63.2
(2.49)
53.1
(2.09)
896.5
(35.30)
Average snowfall cm (inches) 25.6
(10.1)
30.0
(11.8)
12.5
(4.9)
3.5
(1.4)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.8
(0.3)
12.0
(4.7)
25.9
(10.2)
110.3
(43.4)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 7.4 7.3 8.8 9.7 10.7 13.2 13.9 12.6 9.2 7.8 9.0 8.6 118.2
Average snowy days (≥ 1.0 cm) 20.3 14.8 6.2 1.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.3 5.1 16.5 65.1
Mean monthly sunshine hours 94.7 121.1 154.2 168.2 193.0 186.8 215.5 214.4 180.0 159.0 102.2 82.8 1,871.9
Source: Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics[9] data of sunshine hours from the nearby university station[10]
Tyrol (state) Cities and districts (Bezirke) of Tyrol
Cities
Districts
Administrative seats of Austrian states
Summer Youth Olympics
Winter Youth Olympics
Tournaments
Ski jumping hills

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