Innocenti

Innocenti was an Italian machinery works originally established by Ferdinando Innocenti in 1920. Over the years they produced Lambretta scooters as well as a range of automobiles, mainly of British Leyland origins. The brand was retired in 1996, six years after a takeover by Fiat.

Innocenti
IndustryAutomotive
FateScooter sector (independent company) in 1971, car production 1993, using marque 1996
Founded1947
Defunct1997
HeadquartersMilan, Italy
Key people
Ferdinando Innocenti, founder
ProductsAutomobiles
ParentDe Tomaso, then Fiat (FCA Italy)

History

After World War II, the company was famous for many years for Lambretta scooters models such as LI125, LI150, TV175, TV200, SX125, SX150, SX200, GP125, GP150 and GP200.

From 1961 to 1976 Innocenti built under licence the BMC (later the British Leyland Motor Corporation / BLMC) Mini, with 848, 998 cc and 1,275 cc engines, followed by other models, including, from 1973, the Regent (Allegro), with engines up to 1,485 cc. The company of this era is commonly called Leyland Innocenti. The Innocenti Spyder (1961–70) was a rebodied version of the Austin-Healey MKII Sprite (styling by Ghia). The car was produced by OSI, near Milan. In 1972 BLMC took over control of the company.

In 1972 the company's land, buildings and equipment were purchased by British Leyland in a deal involving approximately £3 million.[1] The British company had high hopes for its newly acquired subsidiary at a time when, they reported to the UK press, Italian Innocenti sales were second only to those of Fiat, and ahead of Volkswagen and Renault:[1] there was talk of further increasing annual production from 56,452 in 1971 to 100,000. However, the peak production under BLMC was 62,834 in 1972, in spite of exports increasing from one car in 1971 to more than 17,000 in 1974.[2] Demonstrating their ambitions, the British company installed as managing director one of their youngest UK based senior executives, the 32-year-old former financial controller Geoffrey Robinson.[1] Three years later BLMC ran out of money and was nationalised by the UK government.

Innocenti J4 Front
Innocenti I4

In February 1976, the company passed to Alejandro de Tomaso and was reorganised by the De Tomaso Group under the name Nuova Innocenti. Benelli had a share and British Leyland retained five percent, with De Tomaso owning forty-four percent with the aid of a rescue plan from GEPI (an Italian public agency intended to provide investment for troubled corporations).[3] Management was entirely De Tomaso's responsibility, however, and later in 1976 GEPI and De Tomaso combined their 95% of Innocenti (and all of Maserati) into one new holding company.[4]

However, with the loss of the original Mini, the Austin I5, and the (slow-selling) Regent, sales were in freefall. Production was nearly halved in 1975 and was down to about a fifth of the 1974 levels in 1976. After this crisis, however, the new Bertone-bodied Mini began selling more strongly and production climbed to a steady 40,000 per annum by the end of the 1970s.[2] The first models had Bertone-designed five-seater bodywork and was available with Leyland's 998 cc and 1,275 cc engines.

Exports, which had been carried out mainly by British Leyland's local concessionaires, began drying up in the early eighties as BL did not want to see internal competition from the Innocenti Mini. Sales to France (Innocenti's biggest export market) ended in 1980, with German sales coming to a halt in 1982.[5] Around the same time, the engine deal with Leyland ended, and production soon dropped into the low twenty thousands. Having lost their engine supply as well as their entire export dealer net, Innocenti found themselves without a product and the means of selling it. Luckily, Daihatsu of Japan were in need of a European partner. In addition to providing drivetrains, Daihatsu gave Innocenti access to their burgeoning sales network, entering France, Belgium, and Switzerland at first. Daihatsu gained access to the Italian market, and a means of entry into other European nations with steep barriers for Japanese-made cars. That Innocenti, like Daihatsu, was a small-car specialist only made the marriage even more suitable.[6] And so it was that, from model year 1983 on, the Innocenti was completely reengineered, now using the Daihatsu Charade's 993 cc three-cylinder engine and an entirely new suspension. The appearance did not change in the least, in spite of it being, in essence, a new car.[6] De Tomaso developed a turbocharged version of this engine for Daihatsu which found use in both Innocenti and Daihatsu cars.[7]

In addition to building their own cars, De Tomaso also had Innocenti use their factory capacity in producing bodywork for and providing final assembly of the Maserati Biturbo,[7] Quattroporte, and the Chrysler TC by Maserati. As production kept decreasing, and prices vis-à-vis competing Fiat products increased, Innocenti attempted to stay relevant by adding ever higher and more individual equipment.[8] Innocenti kept building their own cars until early 1993. Beginning in 1990, when Fiat took over, Innocenti also sold Yugo's Koral and Brazilian-sourced versions of the Fiat Uno (Elba station wagon and Uno Mille) in the Italian market.[9] The marque ended when sales of these rebadged models came to a halt in 1996.[10]

2018 Relaunch

The Lambretta scooter was relaunched once again at the EICMA Milan Motorcycle Expo in November 2017.[11]After the purchase of the Lambretta branding by Innocenti SA, now a Swiss consortium, a new scooter model was designed and launched. This was the V-special, available in 50 to 125 to 200cc enigne sizes, and designed to meet Euro 4 standards. The scooter was designed in Austria by Austrian firm Kiska, but produced in Asia. It saw exports to Australia, Philippines, Europe, the US and UK [12] The company plans to reintroduce classic models at a later date [13] [14] Lambretta are developing production facilities in India, teaming up with Lohia Auto of Noida and the Bird Group of New Delhi. There are plans to launch an electric scooter in 2020 [15]

List of Innocenti vehicles

Austin-Innocenti A40 Front
Innocenti A40
1961 Innocenti Spider (10470885825)
Innocenti 950-S spider
1969 Innocenti C 1.1
Innocenti C coupe

Production

Year[n 1] 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975
Production 35,967[18] 46,026[18] 47,760 50,630 61,950 62,834 58,471 60,711 33,061
Exports 10 1 1 205 6,690 17,421 11,003
Year 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985
Production 12,789 38,120 40,719 39,991[19] 39,770[19] 23,187[20] 21,646[20] 13,688[21] 17,151[21] 15,218[22]
Exports 754 10,169 8,862
Year 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993
Production 12,687[22] 10,443[23] 10,331[24] 10,100[25] 4,221[25] 10,550[26] 8,600[27] 0[27]

References

  1. ^ 1969–1978 production and export numbers are from Quattroruote, March 1979.[2]
  1. ^ a b c Garnier, Peter, ed. (11 May 1972). "Worldwide news and comment: Innocenti under the BL wing". Autocar. 136 (3969): 3.
  2. ^ a b c Mazzocchi, Gianni, ed. (March 1979). "Il bilancio è migliore di quanto dicano le cifre ufficiali" [The Results Are Better Than the Official Figures Say]. Quattroruote (in Italian). 24 (280): 125.
  3. ^ Norbye, Jan P (1980), De Tomaso Pantera: '351' V8 Pantera, L, GTS, Gr3, GT4, London, UK: Osprey Publishing, p. 123, ISBN 978-0-85045-382-9
  4. ^ Norbye, p. 124
  5. ^ Heitz, Rudolf, ed. (1983). Auto Katalog 1984 (in German). 27. Stuttgart: Vereinigte Motor-Verlage GmbH & Co. KG. pp. 245, 247.
  6. ^ a b De Leener, Philippe (1983-03-10). "Le début d'une association fructueuse?" [The beginning of a fruitful relationship?]. Le Moniteur de l'Automobile (in French). Brussels, Belgium: Editions Auto-Magazine. 34 (764): 18.
  7. ^ a b Heitz, Rudolf, ed. (1985-08-01). Auto Katalog 1986 (in German). 29. Vereinigte Motor-Verlage GmbH & Co. KG. p. 104. 81530/85001.
  8. ^ Heitz, Rudolf, ed. (1987). Auto Katalog 1988 (in German). 31. Vereinigte Motor-Verlage GmbH & Co. KG. p. 125.
  9. ^ Büschi, Hans-Ulrich, ed. (5 March 1992). Automobil Revue 1992 (in German and French). 87. Hallwag AG. p. 316. ISBN 978-3-444-00539-8.
  10. ^ "Innocenti". Austin-rover.co.uk. Archived from the original on 2010-10-01. Retrieved 2010-09-27.
  11. ^ "Ropali brings Lambretta" Business Mirror 28 June 2018
  12. ^ Acescooters - Lambretta https://acescooters.com.au/scooters/lambretta/
  13. ^ Lambretta Scooters australia mcnews https://www.mcnews.com.au/lambretta-scooters-australia/
  14. ^ "lambretta-announces-scooter-prices/" motorbikewriter https://motorbikewriter.com/lambretta-announces-scooter-prices/
  15. ^ "Lambretta EV World Launch at Auto Expo 2020" Bike India 1 February 2019
  16. ^ a b "The Innocenti "C"". www.innocentispider.co.uk. Retrieved 2014-03-19.
  17. ^ History and Specifications, www.innocentispyder.com Archived 2015-04-16 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved on 19 March 2014
  18. ^ a b Gloor, Roger (13 March 1969). Braunschweig, Robert (ed.). "Die Personenwagen-Weltproduktion 1968/La production mondiale de voitures en 1968" [The world's car production 1968]. Automobil Revue - Katalognummer 1969/Revue Automobile - Numéro Catalogue 1969 (in German and French). 64: 526.
  19. ^ a b Freund, Klaus, ed. (August 1981). Auto Katalog 1982 (in German). 25. Stuttgart: Vereinigte Motor-Verlage GmbH & Co. KG. p. 251.
  20. ^ a b Auto Katalog 1984, p. 243
  21. ^ a b Auto Katalog 1986, p. 252
  22. ^ a b Auto Katalog 1988, p. 289
  23. ^ Dackevall, Gunnar, ed. (1988). BilKatalogen 1989 (Swedish edition of German Auto Katalog) (in Swedish). Stockholm, Sweden: PM Press AB. p. 261. 0284-365X.
  24. ^ Büschi, Hans-Ulrich, ed. (8 March 1990). Automobil Revue 1990 (in German and French). 85. Berne, Switzerland: Hallwag AG. p. 635. ISBN 978-3-444-00495-7.
  25. ^ a b Büschi, Hans-Ulrich, ed. (March 1991). Automobil Revue 1991 (in German and French). 86. Berne, Switzerland: Hallwag AG. p. 637. ISBN 978-3-444-00514-5.
  26. ^ Automobil Revue 1992, p. 609
  27. ^ a b Büschi, Hans-Ulrich, ed. (10 March 1994). Automobil Revue 1994 (in German and French). 89. Berne, Switzerland: Hallwag AG. p. 590. ISBN 978-3-444-00584-8.

External links

Media related to Innocenti at Wikimedia Commons

1973–74 Serie A (basketball)

The 1973–74 Serie A basketball championship was the 51st season of the Serie A, the highest professional basketball league in Italy.

The regular season ran from 4 November 1973 to 5 May 1974, with fourteen teams playing 26 games each. Defending champions Ignis Varese won the title anew (their second in succession and seventh overall) and qualified for the European Champions Cup.

Antonio Innocenti

Antonio Innocenti (23 August 1915 – 6 September 2008) was a Cardinal who was the lead figure of the Roman Curia and the Vatican diplomatic service for many years. He was born at Poppi, Italy.

Ordained in 1938 at Florence, Innocenti was studied at the Episcopal Seminary of Fiesole, the Pontifical Gregorian University where he received a doctorate in 1941, the Pontifical Lateran University, where he received a licentiate in dogmatic theology in 1950, and the Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy, where he studied diplomacy. He served as a priest in northern Italy for the decade following his ordination. His work helping Jews led to his arrest and almost being shot by a firing squad; he was released at the last minute. He was then called to Rome by Pope Pius XII and settled on a career in the Curia. He served for most of the 1950s and 1960s in the Papal Nunciature in Switzerland, where, as he saw it, the major problems were "an opulent society, religious assistance to immigrants and relations with Christian of other denominations".

On 15 December 1967, Innocenti was elevated by Pope Paul VI to the role of Titular Archbishop of Eclano and at exactly the same time appointed Papal Nuncio to Paraguay. He served as Nuncio to Paraguay whilst holding a number of titular sees until 1973, when he was promoted to the role of Secretary of the Congregation for the Discipline of the Sacraments (now the Congregation for Divine Worship) until 1980, when Innocenti became Nuncio to Spain.

In 1985, Pope John Paul II rewarded the experienced prelate by creating him a Cardinal and one year later Innocenti became Prefect of the Congregation for the Clergy, a post he was to hold until he passed the mandatory retirement age of seventy five in 1991. During Innocenti's time as Prefect, the Curia was extremely busy dealing with what was perceived as dangerous dissent from papal teaching, and Innocenti was heavily involved with many lay movements designed to restore orthodoxy among the Church's members.

After stepping down from his post as Prefect in 1991, Innocenti gradually faded into retirement. When he turned eighty in 1995, he lost his right to vote at papal conclaves, and by 1999 he had completely retired to Piazza della Citta Leonina.

Austin-Healey Sprite

The Austin-Healey Sprite is a small open sports car which was produced in the United Kingdom from 1958 to 1971. The Sprite was announced to the press in Monte Carlo by the British Motor Corporation on 20 May 1958, two days after that year's Monaco Grand Prix. It was intended to be a low-cost model that "a chap could keep in his bike shed", yet be the successor to the sporting versions of the pre-war Austin Seven. The Sprite was designed by the Donald Healey Motor Company, with production being undertaken at the MG factory at Abingdon. It first went on sale at a price of £669, using a tuned version of the Austin A-Series engine and as many other components from existing cars as possible to keep costs down.

When the Mk. II Sprite was introduced in 1961 it was joined by a badge-engineered MG version, the Midget, reviving a model name used by MG from the late 1920s through to the mid 1950s. Enthusiasts often refer to these later Sprites and Midgets collectively as "Spridgets." The MG-badged version of the car continued in production for several years after the Austin-Healey brand ceased to exist.

Austin A40 Farina

See Austin A40 for other (previous) Austin A40 models.The Austin A40 Farina is a small family car introduced by Austin in saloon (1958) and Countryman (1959) versions. It was badged as the Austin A40, but to distinguish it from previous A40 models, it's usually referred to as the A40 Farina. Austin was merged into the British Motor Corporation (BMC) in 1952, and unusually for BMC at the time, the body shape was sold only as an Austin; no other marque names were used to badge engineer it.

Austin Allegro

The Austin Allegro is a small family car that was manufactured by the Austin-Morris division of British Leyland from 1973 until 1982. The same vehicle was built in Italy by Innocenti between 1974 and 1975 and sold as the Innocenti Regent. In total, 642,350 Austin Allegros were produced during its ten-year production life, most of which were sold on the home market.

BMC ADO16

The BMC ADO16 (Amalgamated Drawing Office project number 16) is a range of small family cars built by the British Motor Corporation (BMC) and, later, British Leyland. Launched in 1962, it was Britain's best-selling car from 1963 to 1966 and from 1968 to 1971. The ADO16 was marketed under various make and model names, however the Austin 1100 and Morris 1100 were the most prolific of all the ADO16 variants.

Danilo Innocenti

Danilo Innocenti (27 April 1904 – 26 May 1949) was an Italian male pole vaulter, which participated at the 1936 Summer Olympics.

De Tomaso

De Tomaso Automobili (previously known as De Tomaso Modena SpA) is an Italian car-manufacturing company. It was founded by the Argentine-born Alejandro de Tomaso (1928–2003) in Modena in 1959. It originally produced various prototypes and racing cars, including a Formula One car for Frank Williams's team in 1970. Most of the funding for the automaker came from de Tomaso's brother-in-law, Amory Haskell Jr, Rowan Industries. In 1971, Ford acquired an 84% stake in De Tomaso from Rowan with Alejandro de Tomaso himself holding the balance. Ford would sell back their stake in the automaker in 1974 to Alejandro. The De Tomaso brand was acquired in 2014 by Hong-Kong based Ideal Team Ventures and in 2019, the newly formed company presented their first product, a retro-styled sports car called the P72.

Ferdinando Innocenti

Ferdinando Innocenti (1 September 1891, in Pescia, Italy – 21 June 1966, in Varese) was an Italian businessman who founded the machinery-works company Innocenti and was the creator of the Lambretta motorscooter.

Innocenti started working as an assistant to a blacksmith in 1907. By 1966, BMC models – primarily at that date versions of the Mini and the Austin/Morris 1100, assembled to a high standard at Innocenti's Milan plant – accounted for three percent of the Italian passenger car market.On his death his son, Luigi, who had been vice-chairman since 1958, succeeded him in the top job at the company he had founded.

Fiat Duna

The Fiat Duna (Type 155) is a small car produced by Fiat in Argentina and Brazil, where it was sold as Fiat Prêmio. Launched in 1985 in Brazil, the Duna/Prêmio is based on the Brazilian Fiat Uno, but unlike the Uno, it was a two-door sedan. The range was expanded with a three-door estate in 1987 called the Fiat Elba (or Duna Weekend), a four-door sedan added in 1987 and a five-door estate in 1989. The car was sold mainly in South America. Production ended in 2000 and the Duna and Elba models were replaced by the Fiat Siena and the Fiat Palio Weekend. The word Duna is the Hungarian name of river Danube (Danubio in Italian).

Fiat Uno

The Fiat Uno is a supermini car which was produced by the Italian manufacturer Fiat. The Uno was launched in 1983 and built in its homeland until 1995, with production still taking place in other countries for nearly 20 more years, with the final Uno built in Brazil in 2013.

With approximately 8,800,000 built, it is the eighth most produced automobile platform in history, after the Volkswagen Beetle, Ford Model T, Lada Riva, 1965–1970 GM B platform, 1981–1997 GM J platform, 1961–1964 GM B platform, and 1977–1990 GM B platform.

The Uno name was reintroduced in 2010 in South America for the Fiat Mini (Economy) platform based car built in Brazil.

Innocenti Mini

The Innocenti Mini is an automobile introduced by Innocenti in 1974. The vehicle was a rebodied, three-door hatchback version of the Mini, styled by Bertone. A five-door prototype was developed around 1980, but was never put into production. After having been sold to De Tomaso in 1976, the Innocenti Mini ended up being powered by Daihatsu-sourced three-cylinder engines and continued in production in incrementally updated forms until 1993.

Lambretta

Lambretta is the brand name of a line of motor scooters initially manufactured in Milan, Italy, by Innocenti.

The name is derived from the word Lambrate, the suburb of Milan named after the river which flows through the area, and where the factory was located. Lambretta was the name of a mythical water-sprite associated with the river which runs adjacent to the former production site.In 1972, the Indian government bought the machinery of the Milanese factory, creating Scooters India Limited (SIL) in order to produce the Lambro three-wheeler under the name Vikram for the domestic market. Lambretta scooters were also manufactured under licence by Fenwick in France, NSU in Germany, Serveta in Spain, API in India, Yulon in Taiwan, Pasco in Brazil, Auteco in Colombia and Siambretta in Argentina.

Innocenti S.A. (also known as Lambretta Consortium) based in Lugano, Switzerland is the owner of the international trademark Lambretta and has licensed the brand throughout the world.

Marco Innocenti

Marco Innocenti (born 16 August 1978) is an Italian sport shooter who competed in the 2000 Summer Olympics and in the 2004 Summer Olympics.

Marzio Innocenti

Marzio Innocenti (born 4 September 1958 in Livorno) is a former Italian rugby union player and a current coach. He played as a flanker and a number 8.

Ospedale degli Innocenti

The Ospedale degli Innocenti (Italian pronunciation: [ospeˈdaːle deʎʎ innoˈtʃɛnti]; 'Hospital of the Innocents', also known in old Tuscan dialect as the Spedale degli Innocenti) is a historic building in Florence, Italy. It was designed by Filippo Brunelleschi, who received the commission in 1419 from the Arte della Seta. It was originally a children's orphanage. It is regarded as a notable example of early Italian Renaissance architecture. The hospital, which features a nine bay loggia facing the Piazza SS. Annunziata, was built and managed by the "Arte della Seta" or Silk Guild of Florence. That guild was one of the wealthiest in the city and, like most guilds, took upon itself philanthropic duties.

The façade is made up of nine semicircular arches springing from columns of the Composite order. The semicircular windows bring the building down, earthbound and is a revival of the classical style, no longer a pointed arch. In the spandrels of the arches there are glazed blue terracotta roundels with reliefs of babies designed by Andrea della Robbia suggesting the function of the building. There is an emphasis on the horizontal because the building is longer than it is tall. Above each semicircular arch is a tabernacle window (a rectangular window with a triangular pediment on the top).

The building reveals a clean and clear sense of proportion. The height of the columns is the same as the width of the intercolumniation and the width of the arcade, making each bay a cube. The building's simple proportions reflect a new age, one of secular education, and a sense of great order and clarity. Similarly, the height of the entablature is half the column height, as is appropriate for a clear-minded society.

Children were sometimes abandoned in a basin which was located at the front portico. However, this basin was removed in 1660 and replaced by a wheel for secret refuge. There was a door with a special rotating horizontal wheel that brought the baby into the building without the parent being seen. This allowed people to leave their babies, anonymously, to be cared for by the orphanage. This system was in operation until the hospital's closure in 1875. Today the building houses a small museum of Renaissance art with works by Luca della Robbia, Sandro Botticelli, Piero di Cosimo and Adoration of the Magi by Domenico Ghirlandaio.

Pallacanestro Olimpia Milano

Pallacanestro Olimpia Milano, also known as AX Armani Exchange Olimpia Milan after its title sponsor, is an LBA Italian professional basketball team, based in Milan, Italy. Its colors are red and white, and the team is sometimes referred as "Scarpette Rosse" (Little Red Shoes) because team officials imported red Converse All-Star shoes for players from the United States. The tag line stuck, and the nickname is still used by many fans today.

As per custom in the Italian league, sponsorship has kept the team name changing frequently. From 1936 until 1955, it was called Borletti Milano. From 1956 to 1973, it was renamed Simmenthal. Other famous sponsorship names were Billy, Simac, Tracer, and Philips, in the 1980s. For past club sponsorship names, see the list below.

Olimpia is the most titled basketball club in Italy, having won 28 Italian League championships, 6 Italian National Cups, 3 Italian Super Cups, 3 EuroLeague, 1 FIBA Intercontinental Cup, 3 FIBA Saporta Cups, 2 FIBA Korać Cups and many junior titles.

Paulo Innocenti

Paulo Innocenti (11 March 1902 – 13 July 1983) was an Italian-Brazilian professional footballer who played as a defender.

Yugo

The Yugo (pronounced [ˈjûɡo]), also marketed as the Zastava Koral (pronounced [ˈzâːstaʋa ˈkǒraːl], Serbian Cyrillic: Застава Корал) and Yugo Koral, is a supermini hatchback formerly manufactured by Zastava Automobiles, at the time a Yugoslav corporation.

Originally designed in Italy, as a variant of the Fiat 127, the first Yugo prototype was manufactured on 2 July 1977. Series production started on 28 November 1980. The Zastava Koral, a facelifted model, was marketed until 11 November 2008, after production of 794,428 cars.The Yugo was marketed in the United States from 1985 to 1992 by Malcolm Bricklin, with a total of 141,651 sold – peaking at 48,812 in 1987 and falling to 1,412 in 1992.

Active manufacturers
Defunct manufacturers
Design, engineering,
and coachbuilding
Components
Related topics
Innocenti road car timeline, 1960–1997
Car type 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
City car Mini Minitre/990/650/500 Small
Mini 90/120
Sports Mini de Tomaso Mini Turbo de Tomaso
Supermini Koral
Mille Clip
Estate Elba
Small family car A40/A40S Berlina/Combinata Regent
IM3/IM3S/Austin I4/I5
Sportscar Coupé C
Spider 950/1100 Spider
Major and notable Italian motorcycle marques
Current
Defunct
Marques
Subsidiaries
Facilities
People
Related

Languages

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