Inner city

The term inner city has been used as a euphemism for lower-income residential districts in the city center, and nearby areas.[1] Sociologists sometimes turn this euphemism into a formal designation, applying the term "inner city" to such residential areas, rather than to geographically more central commercial districts.

Some inner-city areas of American cities have undergone the socioeconomic process of gentrification, especially since the 1990s, which could potentially remove them from the sociological definition.[2]

ManchesterCity With Ferris
The inner city of Manchester, England, in 2007

See also


  1. ^ "BBC - Higher Bitesize Geography - Urban : Revision, Page4". Retrieved 7 April 2018.
  2. ^ "State of Metropolitan America, Part II, "Race and Ethnicity"" (PDF). p. 62. Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 May 2010. Retrieved 7 April 2018. (Brookings Institution) and its analysis in Gurwitt, Rob (July 2008). "Atlanta and the Urban Future". Governing. Retrieved April 5, 2010. — see example in Demographics of Atlanta: Race and ethnicity

Further reading

  • Harrison, P. (1985) Inside the Inner City: Life Under the Cutting Edge. Penguin: Harmondsworth. This book takes Hackney in London as a case study of inner city urban deprivation.
Anglican Diocese of Melbourne

The Anglican Diocese of Melbourne is the metropolitan diocese of the Province of Victoria in the Anglican Church of Australia. The diocese was founded from the Diocese of Australia by letters patent of 25 June 1847 and includes the cities of Melbourne and Geelong and also some more rural areas. The cathedral church is St Paul's Cathedral, Melbourne. The ordinary of the diocese is the Archbishop of Melbourne, Philip Freier, who was translated from the Anglican Diocese of The Northern Territory.


District V is the heart of Budapest and the political, financial, commercial and touristic center of Hungary. The name of the district is Belváros-Lipótváros (English: Inner City – Leopold Town), which refers to the two historical neighbourhoods that is located in the district; Belváros ("Inner City") and Lipótváros ("Leopold Town").

Inner City is the old town of Pest, while Leopold Town was established in the early 19th century, and became the political and financial centre of Hungary in the early 20th century when the Hungarian Parliament was built. The two neighbourhoods were originally the 4th (Inner City) and 5th (Leopold Town) districts of Budapest until 1950 when the two districts were merged and number IV was given to Újpest ("New Pest").

Today there is a coexisting larger definition of "inner city" (with lower case letters) which includes all of District V and some parts of District VI, District VII, District VIII, District IX and District XIII, and sometimes even some parts of the Buda side, however this larger definition is only colloquial.

The reason Inner City is not the 1st district, is that until 1873, Buda served as the capital city of Hungary, so it was obvious to start the numbering at the Buda Castle District. Districts on the Pest side received numbers from IV to X.


Gentrification is a process of renovating deteriorated urban neighborhoods by means of the influx of more affluent residents. This is a common and controversial topic in politics and in urban planning. Gentrification can improve the material quality of a neighborhood, while also potentially forcing relocation of current, established residents and businesses, causing them to move from a gentrified area, seeking lower cost housing and stores.

Gentrification often shifts a neighborhood's racial/ethnic composition and average household income by developing new, more expensive housing, businesses and improved resources. Conversations about gentrification have evolved, as many in the social-scientific community have questioned the negative connotations associated with the word gentrification. One example is that gentrification can lead to community displacement for lower-income families in gentrifying neighborhoods, as property values and rental costs rise; however, every neighborhood faces unique challenges, and reasons for displacement vary.The gentrification process is typically the result of increasing attraction to an area by people with higher incomes spilling over from neighboring cities, towns, or neighborhoods. Further steps are increased investments in a community and the related infrastructure by real estate development businesses, local government, or community activists and resulting economic development, increased attraction of business, and lower crime rates. In addition to these potential benefits, gentrification can lead to population migration and displacement. However, some view the fear of displacement, which is dominating the debate about gentrification, as hindering discussion about genuine progressive approaches to distribute the benefits of urban redevelopment strategies.

Indre By

Indre By (lit. English, "Inner City"), also known as Copenhagen Center or K or Downtown Copenhagen, is an administrative district (by) in central Copenhagen, the capital of Denmark. It covers an area of 4.65 square kilometres (1.80 sq mi), has a population of 26,223, and a population density of 5,638 per km².

Neighboring city districts are as follows:

to the east and south east is Christianshavn, separated from the Inner City by the Inner Harbour (Inderhavnen) and Copenhagen Harbour (Københavns Havn)

to the north is Indre Østerbro

to the west is Indre Nørrebro and Frederiksberg municipality, which is not a part of Copenhagen municipality but rather an enclave surrounded by the municipality, with both being separated from the Indre By along the "lakes" (Skt. Jørgens Lake, Peblinge Lake, and Sortedams Lake)

to the southwest is Vesterbro

to the south is Vestamager, separated from the Inner City by the South Harbour (Sydhavnen)

Inner City (band)

Inner City is an American electronic music group that formed in Detroit, Michigan, in 1987. The group was originally composed of the record producer and composer Kevin Saunderson and the Chicago, Illinois, vocalist Paris Grey. Saunderson is renowned as one of the Belleville Three—along with Juan Atkins and Derrick May—high school friends who later originated the Detroit techno sound. In February 2018, Billboard magazine ranked them as the 69th most successful dance artists of all-time.

Inner City Blues (Make Me Wanna Holler)

"Inner City Blues (Make Me Wanna Holler)", often shortened to "Inner City Blues", is a song by Marvin Gaye, released as the third and final single from and the climactic song of his 1971 landmark album, What's Going On. Written by Gaye and James Nyx Jr., the song depicts the ghettos and bleak economic situations of inner-city America, and the emotional effects these have on inhabitants.

Inner City Bypass, Brisbane

M3 Inner City Bypass (ICB) is a major motorway standard road in Brisbane, Queensland. The 4.5 kilometres (2.8 mi) bypass is north of the city. Bypassing the Brisbane central business district, it connects Brisbane’s Pacific Motorway and Go Between Bridge at Hale Street to Kingsford Smith Drive, Legacy Way Tunnel, Clem Jones Tunnel, AirportLink Tunnel and Lutwyche Road following the Exhibition railway line for the majority of its length.

The route is marked as the M3 from the western part of the route, to the Horace Street interchange.

The motorway cost $220m to complete and incorporates a total of six lanes, four tunnels, 18 bridges and was the largest infrastructure engineering project undertaken in Queensland for decades. The route also includes a 350-metre-long (1,150 ft) tunnel under the RNA Showgrounds. There is no toll for use of this roadway.

The ICB, built by the Brisbane City Council, is considered one of the most successful road projects in Brisbane, completed well before schedule, on budget, and to date is one of the most used road corridors in the city.

Inner City Parish Church in Pest

Budapest's Inner City Parish Church (Budapest-Belvárosi Nagyboldogasszony) (Church of the Blessed Virgin Mary), is the main parish church of Budapest (often referred to as the Parish Church of the City). It is located adjacent to the walls of the Contra-Aquincum Fortress and the Elisabeth Bridge. Its earliest features date back to the Romanesque period. In 1046 Bishop St. Gellért was buried there. The 14th century Hungarian King Sigismund, supported the Gothic reconstructed style. During the reign of King Matthias, two new side ships were added. It was used as a mosque in Turkish times and its memory is a miracle (imafülke) in the south-eastern wall of the sanctuary. After a fire in 1723, between 1725 and 1739, it was restored in baroque style, under the direction of the master builder György Pauer János (1692-1752). In 1828, István Kultsár , the great theater organizer of the era of Enlightenment, was placed in the church's vault for eternal rest. In 1839, it was built with stalls selling the buttresses, which were dismantled in 1932. Then they found the Gothic windows and the twin bed.

The church was restored several times: between 1805-1808 János Hild, Imre Steindl in 1889 and Lászlo Gerő, after 1945. The painting of the church interior was renovated in 1976-77. In 2010, in the parlor of the sanctuary behind the sanctuary, an Anjou-era throne of Virgin Mary was found, surprisingly intact. The exterior of the church was neglected until the facade was renovated in 2011 after the renovation of the park before it, according to Hungarian architect Mezős Tamás.

During the archaeological excavations carried out between 2014 and 2016, the camp commander's room was accessed and a sub-church was built. After the renovation, on August 15, 2016, the church was handed over to the faithful and visitors by Dr. Péter Erdő.

When the Elisabeth Bridge was being rebuilt after destruction during World War Two, the Communist government of Hungary sought to demolish the church, but through the Church's astute negotiation with Hungary's Communist government, the ecclesial authorities managed to save this historic treasure.

Innere Stadt

The Innere Stadt (German pronunciation: [ˈɪnərə ʃtat] (listen)) is the 1st municipal District of Vienna (German: 1. Bezirk) located in the center of the Austrian capital. The Innere Stadt is the Old Town of Vienna. Until the city boundaries were expanded in 1850, the Innere Stadt was congruent with the city of Vienna. Traditionally it was divided into four quarters, which were designated after important town gates: Stubenviertel (northeast), Kärntner Viertel (southeast), Widmerviertel (southwest), Schottenviertel (northwest).The Ringstraße circles the Innere Stadt along the route of the former city walls.

The first district is, with a workforce of 100,745, the largest employment locale in Vienna. This is partially due to tourism, as well as the presence of many corporate headquarters due to the district's central location.

Newcastle Inner City Bypass

The Newcastle Inner City Bypass is a road in Newcastle and Lake Macquarie, New South Wales, Australia. Alternate titles include State Highway 23, Main Road 123 and H23.The road is divided into five sections. The southernmost section is the West Charlestown Bypass, which is a 6.5-kilometre-long (4.0 mi) freeway standard road that was opened to traffic in 2003. The second section leads up the ridge and consists of parts of Charlestown Road and Lookout Road, which were widened into a divided dual carriageway non-freeway configuration during the 1980s. The third section is a planned freeway diverging from Lookout Road near the intersection of McCaffrey Drive, skirting around the west of the John Hunter Hospital and passing over Newcastle Road to join the fourth section, the Jesmond bypass, which is a freeway that was constructed during the 1990s. The fifth section is another freeway section from the northern end of the Jesmond Bypass to the Pacific Highway at Sandgate.

With the third section of the route not yet completed, a more circuitous route through suburban roads remains in use for the gap between the second and fourth sections. From the end of the Charlestown Bypass, it is necessary to follow Lookout Road, which becomes Croudace Street, before turning left onto Newcastle Road. Approximately 1.3 km (0.8 mi) after turning left, the Inner City Bypass is rejoined by turning right at the Jesmond roundabout.

Pre-construction early works for the northernmost section, between Shortland and Sandgate, began in June 2010. The work to be completed as part of that contract was for digging a cutting where the Sandgate Road bridge has been built over the bypass and filling two other areas, including constructing retaining walls and relocating water mains. The contract for construction of that section was awarded to Reed Constructions in February 2011, with work starting in April 2011. On 28 May 2012 Roads and Maritime Services terminated its contract with Reed Constructions which had been placed in liquidation, and remaining works were completed by Thiess, the prime contractor for the Hunter Expressway.The Shortland – Sandgate section of the bypass was unofficially opened on 16 January 2014 and opened to traffic on 23 January 2014.

Old City (Baku)

Old City or Inner City (Azerbaijani: İçərişəhər) is the historical core of Baku, the capital of Azerbaijan. The Old City is the most ancient part of Baku, which is surrounded by walls which were easily defended. In 2007, the Old City had a population of about 3000 people. In December 2000, the Old City of Baku, including the Palace of the Shirvanshahs and Maiden Tower, became the first location in Azerbaijan to be classified as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO.


Paramaribo (Dutch pronunciation: [ˌpaːraːˈmaːriboː]; nicknamed Par′bo) is the capital and largest city of Suriname, located on the banks of the Suriname River in the Paramaribo District. Paramaribo has a population of roughly 241,000 people (2012 census), almost half of Suriname's population. The historic inner city of Paramaribo has been a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 2002.

Paul Is Live

Paul Is Live is a live album by Paul McCartney, released in 1993 during his New World Tour in support of the album Off the Ground. The album cover is based on that of Beatles' 1969 album Abbey Road and contains multiple references to the "Paul is dead" conspiracy theory.

Ring road

A ring road (also known as beltline, beltway, circumferential (high)way, loop or orbital) is a road or a series of connected roads encircling a town, city, or country. The most common purpose of a ring road is to assist in reducing traffic volumes in the urban centre, such as by offering an alternate route around the city for drivers who do not need to stop in the city core.


A suburb is a mixed-use or residential area, existing either as part of a city or urban area or as a separate residential community within commuting distance of a city. In most English-speaking countries, suburban areas are defined in contrast to central or inner-city areas, but in Australian English and South African English, suburb has become largely synonymous with what is called a "neighborhood" in other countries and the term extends to inner-city areas. In some areas, such as Australia, India, China, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, and a few U.S. states, new suburbs are routinely annexed by adjacent cities. In others, such as Saudi Arabia, Canada, France, and much of the United States, many suburbs remain separate municipalities or are governed as part of a larger local government area such as a county.

Suburbs first emerged on a large scale in the 19th and 20th centuries as a result of improved rail and road transport, which led to an increase in commuting. In general, they have lower population densities than inner city neighborhoods within a metropolitan area, and most residents commute to central cities or other business districts; however, there are many exceptions, including industrial suburbs, planned communities, and satellite cities. Suburbs tend to proliferate around cities that have an abundance of adjacent flat land.

Transdev Brisbane Ferries

Transdev Brisbane Ferries (formerly Metrolink Queensland & TransdevTSL Brisbane Ferries) is the operator of the Brisbane City Council's ferry network under the TransLink integrated public transport scheme on the Brisbane River.

Urban decay

Urban decay (also known as urban rot and urban blight) is the sociological process by which a previously functioning city, or part of a city, falls into disrepair and decrepitude. It may feature deindustrialization, depopulation or deurbanization, economic restructuring, abandoned buildings and infrastructure, high local unemployment, fragmented families, political disenfranchisement, crime, and a desolate cityscape, known as greyfield or urban prairie.

Since the 1970s and 1980s, urban decay has been associated with Western cities, especially in North America and parts of Europe (mostly the United Kingdom and France). Since then, major structural changes in global economies, transportation, and government policy created the economic and then the social conditions resulting in urban decay.The effects counter the development of most of Europe and North America; on other continents, urban decay is manifested in the peripheral slums at the outskirts of a metropolis, while the city center and the inner city retain high real estate values and sustain a steadily increasing populace. In contrast, North American and British cities often experience population flights to the suburbs and exurb commuter towns; often in the form of white flight. Another characteristic of urban decay is blight—the visual, psychological, and physical effects of living among empty lots, buildings and condemned houses.

Urban decay has no single cause; it results from combinations of inter-related socio-economic conditions—including the city's urban planning decisions, tight rent control, the poverty of the local populace, the construction of freeway roads and rail road lines that bypass—or run through—the area, depopulation by suburbanization of peripheral lands, real estate neighborhood redlining, and immigration restrictions.


WBLS (107.5 MHz) is an urban adult contemporary formatted FM radio station, licensed to New York City. It is currently owned by Emmis Communications, along with sister stations WLIB (1190 AM) and WQHT (97.1 FM). The three stations share studios in the Hudson Square neighborhood of Manhattan, and WBLS' transmitter is located at the Empire State Building. It was previously owned by YMF Media LLC, owned jointly by investor Ronald Burkle and Magic Johnson, which had assumed control of WBLS and WLIB's former parent company, Inner City Broadcasting Corporation, on October 19, 2012 at a purchase price of $180 million.


Willemstad (; Dutch pronunciation: [ˈʋɪləmstɑt]) is the capital city of Curaçao, an island in the southern Caribbean Sea that forms a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Formerly the capital of the Netherlands Antilles prior to its dissolution in 2010, it has an estimated population of 150,000. The historic centre of the city consists of four quarters: the Punda and Otrobanda, which are separated by the Sint Anna Bay, an inlet that leads into the large natural harbour called the Schottegat, as well as the Scharloo and Pietermaai Smal quarters, which are across from each other on the smaller Waaigat harbour. Willemstad is home to the Curaçao synagogue, the oldest surviving synagogue in the Americas. The city centre, with its unique architecture and harbour entry, has been designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

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