Inner Mongolia or Nei Mongol (Mongolian: Mongolian script: Öbür Monggol, Mongolian Cyrillic: Өвөр Монгол Övör Mongol /ɵwɵr mɔŋɢɔɮ/; simplified Chinese: 内蒙古; traditional Chinese: 內蒙古; pinyin: PRC Standard Mandarin: Nèi Měnggǔ, ROC Standard Mandarin: Nèi Ménggǔ), officially the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region or Nei Mongol Autonomous Region (NMAR), is one of the autonomous regions of the People's Republic of China, located in the north of the country. Its border includes most of the length of China's border with Mongolia (Dornogovi, Sükhbaatar, Ömnögovi, Bayankhongor, Govi-Altai, Dornod Provinces). The rest of the Sino–Mongolian border coincides with part of the international border of the Xinjiang autonomous region and the entirety of the international border of Gansu province and a small section of China's border with Russia (Zabaykalsky Krai).[a] Its capital is Hohhot; other major cities include Baotou, Chifeng, and Ordos.
The Autonomous Region was established in 1947, incorporating the areas of the former Republic of China provinces of Suiyuan, Chahar, Rehe, Liaobei and Xing'an, along with the northern parts of Gansu and Ningxia.
Its area makes it the third largest Chinese subdivision, constituting approximately 1,200,000 km2 (463,000 sq mi) and 12% of China's total land area. It recorded a population of 24,706,321 in the 2010 census, accounting for 1.84% of Mainland China's total population. Inner Mongolia is the country's 23rd most populous province-level division. The majority of the population in the region are Han Chinese, with a sizeable titular Mongol minority. The official languages are Mandarin and Mongolian, the latter of which is written in the traditional Mongolian script, as opposed to the Mongolian Cyrillic alphabet, which is used in the state of Mongolia (formerly often described in the West as "Outer Mongolia").
Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region
Nei Mongol Autonomous Region
|• Chinese||Simplified: 内蒙古自治区|
PRC Standard Mandarin:
Nèi Měnggǔ Zìzhìqū
ROC Standard Mandarin:
Nèi Ménggǔ Zìzhìqū
Simplified: 内蒙 or 内蒙古
Traditional: 內蒙 or 內蒙古
PRC Standard Mandarin:
Nèi Měng or Nèi Měnggǔ
ROC Standard Mandarin:
Nèi Méng or Nèi Ménggǔ
Map showing the location of Inner Mongolia
|Named for||From the Mongolian öbür monggol, where öbür means the front, sunny side of a barrier (a mountain, mountain range, lake, desert, clothes etc...)|
|Divisions||12 prefectures, 101 counties, 1425 townships|
|• Secretary||Li Jiheng|
|• Chairwoman||Bu Xiaolin|
|• Total||1,183,000 km2 (457,000 sq mi)|
|Highest elevation||3,556 m (11,667 ft)|
| • Estimate |
(31 December 2014)
|• Density||20.2/km2 (52/sq mi)|
|• Density rank||28th|
|• Ethnic composition||Han - 79%|
Mongol - 17%
Manchu - 2%
Hui - 0.9%
Daur - 0.3%
|• Languages and dialects||Mandarin (official), Mongolian (official), Oirat, Buryat, Dagur, Evenki, Jin|
|ISO 3166 code||CN-NM|
|GDP (2017 )||CNY 1.61 trillion|
USD 238.50 billion (22nd)
|- per capita||CNY 81,791 |
USD 12,156 (7th)
|HDI (2017)||0.771(high) (7th)|
Part of the Great Wall of China
|Hanyu Pinyin||PRC Standard Mandarin:|
ROC Standard Mandarin:
|Literal meaning||Inner Mongolia|
|Mongolian Cyrillic||Өвөр Монгол|
|Nei Mongol Autonomous Region|
|Hanyu Pinyin||PRC Standard Mandarin:|
Nèi Měnggǔ Zìzhìqū
ROC Standard Mandarin:
Nèi Ménggǔ Zìzhìqū
|Literal meaning||Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region|
|Mongolian Cyrillic||Өвөр Монголын Өөртөө Засах Орон|
(Övör Mongolyn Öörtöö Zasakh Oron)
In Chinese, the region is known as "Inner Mongolia", where the terms of "Inner/Outer" are derived from Manchu dorgi/tulergi (cf. Mongolian dotugadu/gadagadu). Inner Mongolia is distinct from Outer Mongolia, which was a term used by the Republic of China and previous governments to refer to what is now the independent state of Mongolia plus the Republic of Tuva in Russia. The term Inner 内 (Nei) referred to the Nei Fan 内藩 (Inner Tributary), i.e. those descendants of Genghis Khan who granted the title khan (king) in Ming and Qing dynasties and lived in part of southern part of Mongolia. In Mongolian, the region was called Dotugadu monggol during Qing rule and was renamed into Öbür Monggol in 1947, öbür meaning the southern side of a mountain, while the Chinese term Nei Menggu was retained.
Much of what is known about the history of Greater Mongolia, including Inner Mongolia, is known through Chinese chronicles and historians. Before the rise of the Mongols in the 13th century, what is now central and western Inner Mongolia, especially the Hetao region, alternated in control between Chinese agriculturalists in the south and Xiongnu, Xianbei, Khitan, Jurchen, Tujue, and nomadic Mongol of the north. The historical narrative of what is now Eastern Inner Mongolia mostly consists of alternations between different Tungusic and Mongol tribes, rather than the struggle between nomads and Chinese agriculturalists.
Slab Grave cultural monuments are found in northern, central and eastern Mongolia, Inner Mongolia, north-western China, southern, central-eastern and southern Baikal territory. Mongolian scholars prove that this culture related to the Proto-Mongols.
During the Zhou dynasty, central and western Inner Mongolia (the Hetao region and surrounding areas) were inhabited by nomadic peoples such as the Loufan, Linhu, and Dí, while eastern Inner Mongolia was inhabited by the Donghu. During the Warring States period, King Wuling (340–295 BC) of the state of Zhao based in what is now Hebei and Shanxi provinces pursued an expansionist policy towards the region. After destroying the Dí state of Zhongshan in what is now Hebei province, he defeated the Linhu and Loufan and created the commandery of Yunzhong near modern Hohhot. King Wuling of Zhao also built a long wall stretching through the Hetao region. After Qin Shi Huang created the first unified Chinese empire in 221 BC, he sent the general Meng Tian to drive the Xiongnu from the region, and incorporated the old Zhao wall into the Qin dynasty Great Wall of China. He also maintained two commanderies in the region: Jiuyuan and Yunzhong, and moved 30,000 households there to solidify the region. After the Qin dynasty collapsed in 206 BC, these efforts were abandoned.
During the Western Han dynasty, Emperor Wu sent the general Wei Qing to reconquer the Hetao region from the Xiongnu in 127 BC. After the conquest, Emperor Wu continued the policy of building settlements in Hetao to defend against the Xiong-Nu. In that same year he established the commanderies of Shuofang and Wuyuan in Hetao. At the same time, what is now eastern Inner Mongolia was controlled by the Xianbei, who would later on eclipse the Xiongnu in power and influence.
During the Eastern Han dynasty (25–220 AD), Xiongnu who surrendered to the Han dynasty began to be settled in Hetao, and intermingled with the Han immigrants in the area. Later on during the Western Jin dynasty, it was a Xiongnu noble from Hetao, Liu Yuan, who established the Han Zhao kingdom in the region, thereby beginning the Sixteen Kingdoms period that saw the disintegration of northern China under a variety of Han and non-Han (including Xiongnu and Xianbei) regimes.
The Sui dynasty (581–618) and Tang dynasty (618–907) re-established a unified Chinese empire, and like their predecessors, they conquered and settled people into Hetao, though once again these efforts were aborted when the Tang empire began to collapse. Hetao (along with the rest of what now consists Inner Mongolia) was then taken over by the Khitan Empire (Liao dynasty), founded by the Khitans, a nomadic people originally from what is now the southern part of Manchuria and eastern Inner Mongolia. They were followed by the Western Xia of the Tanguts, who took control of what is now the western part of Inner Mongolia (including western Hetao) . The Khitans were later replaced by the Jurchens, precursors to the modern Manchus, who established the Jin dynasty over Manchuria and northern China.
After Genghis Khan unified the Mongol tribes in 1206 and founded the Mongol Empire, the Tangut Western Xia empire was ultimately conquered in 1227, and the Jurchen Jin dynasty fell in 1234. In 1271, Kublai Khan, the grandson of Genghis Khan established the Yuan dynasty. Kublai Khan's summer capital Shangdu (aka Xanadu) was located near present-day Dolonnor. During that time Ongud and Khunggirad peoples dominated the area of what is now Inner Mongolia. After the Yuan dynasty was overthrown by the Han-led Ming dynasty in 1368, the Ming captured parts of Inner Mongolia including Shangdu and Yingchang. The Ming rebuilt the Great Wall of China at its present location, which roughly follows the southern border of the modern Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region (though it deviates significantly at the Hebei-Inner Mongolia border). The Ming established the Three Guards composed of the Mongols there. Soon after the Tumu incident in 1449, when the Oirat ruler Esen taishi captured the Chinese emperor, Mongols flooded south from Outer Mongolia to Inner Mongolia. Thus from then on until 1635, Inner Mongolia was the political and cultural center of the Mongols during the Northern Yuan dynasty.
The eastern Mongol tribes near and in Manchuria, particularly the Khorchin and Southern Khalkha in today's Inner Mongolia intermarried, formed alliances with, and fought against the Jurchen tribes until Nurhaci, the founder of the new Jin dynasty, consolidated his control over all groups in the area in 1593. The Manchus gained far-reaching control of the Inner Mongolian tribes in 1635, when Ligden Khan's son surrendered the Chakhar Mongol tribes to the Manchus. The Manchus subsequently invaded Ming China in 1644, bringing it under the control of their newly established Qing dynasty. Under the Qing dynasty (1636–1912), Greater Mongolia was administered in a different way for each region:
The Inner Mongolian Chahar leader Ligdan Khan, a descendant of Genghis Khan, opposed and fought against the Qing until he died of smallpox in 1634. Thereafter, the Inner Mongols under his son Ejei Khan surrendered to the Qing and was given the title of Prince (親王; qīn wáng), and Inner Mongolian nobility became closely tied to the Qing royal family and intermarried with them extensively. Ejei Khan died in 1661 and was succeeded by his brother Abunai. After Abunai showed disaffection with Manchu Qing rule, he was placed under house arrest in 1669 in Shenyang and the Kangxi Emperor gave his title to his son Borni. Abunai then bid his time and then he and his brother Lubuzung revolted against the Qing in 1675 during the Revolt of the Three Feudatories, with 3,000 Chahar Mongol followers joining in on the revolt. The revolt was put down within two months, the Qing then crushed the rebels in a battle on April 20, 1675, killing Abunai and all his followers. Their title was abolished, all Chahar Mongol royal males were executed even if they were born to Manchu Qing princesses, and all Chahar Mongol royal females were sold into slavery except the Manchu Qing princesses. The Chahar Mongols were then put under the direct control of the Qing Emperor unlike the other Inner Mongol leagues which maintained their autonomy.
Despite officially prohibiting Han Chinese settlement on the Manchu and Mongol lands, by the 18th century the Qing decided to settle Han refugees from northern China who were suffering from famine, floods, and drought into Manchuria and Inner Mongolia so that Han Chinese farmed 500,000 hectares in Manchuria and tens of thousands of hectares in Inner Mongolia by the 1780s.
Ordinary Mongols were not allowed to travel outside their own leagues. Mongols were forbidden by the Qing from crossing the borders of their banners, even into other Mongol Banners and from crossing into neidi (the Han Chinese 18 provinces) and were given serious punishments if they did in order to keep the Mongols divided against each other to benefit the Qing.
During the eighteenth century, growing numbers of Han Chinese settlers had illegally begun to move into the Inner Mongolian steppe. By 1791 there had been so many Han Chinese settlers in the Front Gorlos Banner that the jasak had petitioned the Qing government to legalize the status of the peasants who had already settled there.
During the nineteenth century, the Manchus were becoming increasingly sinicized, and faced with the Russian threat, they began to encourage Han Chinese farmers to settle in both Mongolia and Manchuria. This policy was followed by subsequent governments. The railroads that were being built in these regions were especially useful to the Han Chinese settlers. Land was either sold by Mongol Princes, or leased to Han Chinese farmers, or simply taken away from the nomads and given to Han Chinese farmers. The Jindandao Incident, a rebellion by an ethnic Chinese secret society called Jindandao occurred in Inner Mongolia in November 1891 and massacred 150,000 Mongols before being suppressed by government troops in late December.
Outer Mongolia gained independence from the Qing dynasty in 1911, when the Jebtsundamba Khutugtu of the Khalkha was declared the Bogd Khan of Mongolia. Although almost all banners of Inner Mongolia recognized the Bogd Khan as the supreme ruler of Mongols, the internal strife within the region prevented a full reunification. The Mongol rebellions in Inner Mongolia were counterbalanced by princes who hoped to see a restored Qing dynasty in Manchuria and Mongolia, as they considered the theocratic rule of the Bogd Khan would be against their modernizing objectives for Mongolia. Eventually, the newly formed Republic of China promised a new nation of five races (Han, Manchu, Mongol, Tibetan and Uyghur), and suppressed the Mongol rebellions in the area, forcing the Inner Mongolian princes to recognize the Republic of China.
The Republic of China reorganized Inner Mongolia into provinces:
Some Republic of China maps still show this structure.
The history of Inner Mongolia during the Second World War is complicated, with Japanese invasion and different kinds of resistance movements. In 1931, Manchuria came under the control of the Japanese puppet state Manchukuo, taking some Mongol areas in the Manchurian provinces (i.e. Hulunbuir and Jirim leagues) along. Rehe was also incorporated into Manchukuo in 1933, taking Juu Uda and Josutu leagues along with it. These areas were occupied by Manchukuo until the end of World War II in 1945.
In 1937, the Empire of Japan openly and fully invaded Republic of China by war. On December 8, 1937, Mongolian Prince Demchugdongrub (also known as "De Wang") declared an independence of the remaining parts of Inner Mongolia (i.e. the Suiyuan and Chahar provinces) as Mengjiang, and signed an agreements with Manchukuo and Japan. Its capital was established at Zhangbei (now in Hebei province), with the Japanese puppet government's control extending as far west as the Hohhot region. The Japanese advanced was defeated by Hui Muslim General Ma Hongbin at the Battle of West Suiyuan and Battle of Wuyuan. After 1945, Inner Mongolia has remained part of China.
The Mongol Ulanhu fought against the Japanese.
Ethnic Mongolian guerilla units were created by the Kuomintang Nationalists to fight against the Japanese during the war in the late 30s and early 40s. These Mongol militias were created by the Ejine and Alashaa based commissioner's offices created by the Kuomintang. Prince Demchugdongrob's Mongols were targeted by Kuomintang Mongols to defect to the Republic of China. The Nationalists recruited 1,700 ethnic minority fighters in Inner Mongolia and created war zones in the Tumet Banner, Ulanchab League, and Ordos Yekejuu League.
The Communist movement gradually gained momentum as part of the Third Communist International in Inner Mongolia during the Japanese period. By the end of WWII, the Inner Mongolian faction of the ComIntern had a functional militia, and actively opposed the attempts at independence by De Wang's Chinggisid princes on the grounds of fighting feudalism. Following the end of World War II, the Chinese Communists gained control of Manchuria as well as the Inner Mongolian Communists with decisive Soviet support, and established the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region in 1947. The Comintern army was absorbed into the People's Liberation Army. Initially the autonomous region included just the Hulunbuir region. Over the next decade, as the communists established the People's Republic of China and consolidated control over mainland China, Inner Mongolia was expanded westwards to include five of the six original leagues (except Josutu League, which remains in Liaoning province), the northern part of the Chahar region, by then a league as well (southern Chahar remains in Hebei province), the Hetao region, and the Alashan and Ejine banners. Eventually, near all areas with sizeable Mongol populations were incorporated into the region, giving present-day Inner Mongolia its elongated shape. The leader of Inner Mongolia during that time, as both regional CPC secretary and head of regional government, was Ulanhu.
During the Cultural Revolution, the administration of Ulanhu was purged, and a wave of repressions was initiated against the Mongol population of the autonomous region. In 1969 much of Inner Mongolia was distributed among surrounding provinces, with Hulunbuir divided between Heilongjiang and Jilin, Jirim going to Jilin, Juu Uda to Liaoning, and the Alashan and Ejine region divided among Gansu and Ningxia. This was reversed in 1979.
Inner Mongolia has seen considerable development since Deng Xiaoping instituted Chinese economic reform in 1978. For about ten years since 2000, Inner Mongolia's GDP growth has been the highest in the country, (along with Guangdong) largely owing to the success of natural resource industries in the region. GDP growth has continually been over 10%, even 15% and connections with the Wolf Economy to the north has helped development. However, growth has come at a cost with huge amounts of pollution and degradation to the grasslands. Attempts to attract ethnic Chinese to migrate from other regions, as well as urbanise those rural nomads and peasants has led to huge amounts of corruption and waste in public spending, such as Ordos City. Acute uneven wealth distribution has further exacerbated ethnic tensions, many indigenous Mongolians feeling they are increasingly marginalised in their own homeland, leading to riots in 2011 and 2013.
Officially Inner Mongolia is classified as one of the provincial-level divisions of North China, but its great stretch means that parts of it belong to Northeast China and Northwest China as well. It borders eight provincial-level divisions in all three of the aforementioned regions (Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Hebei, Shanxi, Shaanxi, Ningxia, and Gansu), tying with Shaanxi for the greatest number of bordering provincial-level divisions. Most of its international border is with Mongolia,[b] which, in Chinese, is sometimes called "Outer Mongolia", while a small portion is with Russia's Zabaykalsky Krai.
Inner Mongolia largely consists of the northern side of the North China Craton, a tilted and sedimented Precambrian block. In the extreme southwest is the edge of the Tibetan Plateau where the autonomous region’s highest peak, Main Peak in the Helan Mountains reaches 3,556 metres (11,670 ft), and is still being pushed up today in short bursts. Most of Inner Mongolia is a plateau averaging around 1,200 metres (3,940 ft) in altitude and covered by extensive loess and sand deposits. The northern part consists of the Mesozoic era Khingan Mountains, and is owing to the cooler climate more forested, chiefly with Manchurian elm, ash, birch, Mongolian oak and a number of pine and spruce species. Where discontinuous permafrost is present north of Hailar District, forests are almost exclusively coniferous. In the south the natural vegetation is grassland in the east and very sparse in the arid west, and grazing is the dominant economic activity.
Owing to the ancient, weathered rocks lying under its deep sedimentary cover, Inner Mongolia is a major mining district, possessing large reserves of coal, iron ore and rare-earth minerals, which have made it a major industrial region today.
Due to its elongated shape, Inner Mongolia has a four-season monsoon climate with regional variations. The winters in Inner Mongolia are very long, cold, and dry with frequent blizzards, though snowfall is so light that Inner Mongolia has no modern glaciers even on the highest Helan peaks. The spring is short, mild and arid, with large, dangerous sandstorms, whilst the summer is very warm to hot and relatively humid except in the west where it remains dry. Autumn is brief and sees a steady cooling, with temperatures below 0 °C (32 °F) reached in October in the north and November in the south.
Officially, most of Inner Mongolia is classified as either a cold arid or steppe regime (Köppen BWk, BSk, respectively). The small portion besides these are classified as humid continental (Köppen Dwb) in the northeast, or subarctic (Köppen Dwc) in the far north near Hulunbuir.
|City||July (°C)||July (°F)||January (°C)||January (°F)|
Inner Mongolia is divided into twelve prefecture-level divisions. Until the late 1990s, most of Inner Mongolia's prefectural regions were known as Leagues (Chinese: 盟), a usage retained from Mongol divisions of the Qing dynasty. Similarly, county-level divisions are often known as Banners (Chinese: 旗). Since the 1990s, numerous Leagues have converted into prefecture-level cities, although Banners remain. The restructuring led to the conversion of primate cities in most leagues to convert to districts administratively (i.e.: Hailar, Jining and Dongsheng). Some newly founded prefecture-level cities have chosen to retain the original name of League (i.e.: Hulunbuir, Bayannur and Ulanqab), some have adopted the Chinese name of their primate city (Chifeng, Tongliao), and one League (Yekejuu) simply renamed itself Ordos. Despite these recent administrative changes, there is no indication that the Alxa, Hinggan, and Xilingol Leagues will convert to prefecture-level cities in the near future.
|Administrative divisions of Inner Mongolia|
|№||Division code||Division||Area in km2||Population 2010||Seat||Divisions|
|Districts||Counties Banners||Aut. banners||CL cities|
|150000||Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region||1183000.00||24,706,321||Hohhot city||23||66||3||11|
|6||150100||Hohhot city||17186.10||2,866,615||Xincheng District||4||5|
|5||150200||Baotou city||27768.00||2,650,364||Jiuyuan District||6||3|
|3||150300||Wuhai city||1754.00||532,902||Haibowan District||3|
|9||150400||Chifeng city||90021.00||4,341,245||Songshan District||3||9|
|10||150500||Tongliao city||59535.00||3,139,153||Horqin District||1||6||1|
|4||150600||Ordos city||86881.61||1,940,653||Hia'bagx District||2||7|
|12||150700||Hulunbuir city||254003.79||2,549,278||Hailar District||2||4||3||5|
|2||150800||Bayannur city||65755.47||1,669,915||Linhe District||1||6|
|7||150900||Ulanqab city||54447.72||2,143,590||Jining District||1||9||1|
|11||152200||Hinggan League||59806.00||1,613,250||Ulanhot city||4||2|
|8||152500||Xilingol League||202580.00||1,028,022||Xilinhot city||10||2|
|1||152900||Alxa League||267574.00||231,334||Alxa Left Banner||3|
The twelve prefecture-level divisions of Inner Mongolia are subdivided into 102 county-level divisions, including 22 districts, 11 county-level cities, 17 counties, 49 banners, and 3 autonomous banners. Those are in turn divided into 1425 township-level divisions, including 532 towns, 407 townships, 277 sumu, eighteen ethnic townships, one ethnic sumu, and 190 subdistricts. At the end of 2017, the total population of Inner-Mongolia is 25.29 million.
Farming of crops such as wheat takes precedence along the river valleys. In the more arid grasslands, herding of goats, sheep and so on is a traditional method of subsistence. Forestry and hunting are somewhat important in the Greater Khingan ranges in the east. Reindeer herding is carried out by Evenks in the Evenk Autonomous Banner. More recently, growing grapes and winemaking have become an economic factor in the Wuhai area.
Inner Mongolia has an abundance of resources especially coal, cashmere, natural gas, rare-earth elements, and has more deposits of naturally occurring niobium, zirconium and beryllium than any other province-level region in China. However, in the past, the exploitation and utilisation of resources were rather inefficient, which resulted in poor returns from rich resources. Inner Mongolia is also an important coal production base, with more than a quarter of the world's coal reserves located in the province. It plans to double annual coal output by 2010 (from the 2005 volume of 260 million tons) to 500 million tons of coal a year.
Industry in Inner Mongolia has grown up mainly around coal, power generation, forestry-related industries, and related industries. Inner Mongolia now encourages six competitive industries: energy, chemicals, metallurgy, equipment manufacturing, processing of farm (including dairy) produce, and high technology. Well-known Inner Mongolian enterprises include companies such as ERDOS, Yili, and Mengniu.
The nominal GDP of Inner Mongolia in 2015 was 1.8 trillion yuan (US$272.1 billion), with an average annual increase of 10% from the period 2010-2015. Its per capita GDP reached US$11,500 in 2015, ranking No.4th among all the 31 provinces of China, only after Shanghai, Beijing and Tianjin.
As with much of China, economic growth has led to a boom in construction, including new commercial development and large apartment complexes.
In addition to its large reserves of natural resources, Inner Mongolia also has the largest usable wind power capacity in China thanks to strong winds which develop in the province's grasslands. Some private companies have set up wind parks in parts of Inner Mongolia such as Bailingmiao, Hutengliang and Zhouzi.
Hohhot Export Processing Zone was established on June 21, 2002, by the State Council, which is located in the west of the Hohhot, with a planning area of 2.2 km2 (0.85 sq mi). Industries encouraged in the export processing zone include Electronics Assembly & Manufacturing, Telecommunications Equipment, Garment and Textiles Production, Trading and Distribution, Biotechnology/Pharmaceuticals, Food/Beverage Processing, Instruments & Industrial Equipment Production, Medical Equipment and Supplies, Shipping/Warehousing/Logistics, Heavy Industry.
Under the Constitution of the People's Republic of China, articles 112-122, autonomous regions have limited autonomy in both the political and economic arena. Autonomous regions have more discretion in administering economic policy in the region in accordance with national guidelines. Structurally, the Chairman—who legally must be an ethnic minority and is usually ethnic Mongolian—is always kept in check by the Communist Party Regional Committee Secretary, who is usually from a different part of China (to reduce corruption) and Han Chinese. As of August 2016, the current party secretary is Li Jiheng. The Inner Mongolian government and its subsidiaries follow roughly the same structure as that of a Chinese province. With regards to economic policy, as a part of increased federalism characteristics in China, Inner Mongolia has become more independent in implementing its own economic roadmap.
The position of Chairman of Inner Mongolia alternates between Khorchin Mongols in the east and the Tumed Mongols in the west. Since the end of the Cultural Revolution, this convention has not been broken. The family of Ulanhu has retained influence in regional politics ever since the founding the People's Republic. His son Buhe and granddaughter Bu Xiaolin both served as Chairman of the region.
|Established in 1947 from dissolution of Xing'an Province, Qahar Province, parts of Rehe Province, and Suiyuan Province; parts of Ningxia Province were incorporated into Inner Mongolia AR.|
When the autonomous region was established in 1947, Han Chinese comprised 83.6% of the population, while the Mongols comprised 14.8% of the population. By 2010, the percentage of Han Chinese had dropped to 79.5%. While the Hetao region along the Yellow River has always alternated between farmers from the south and nomads from the north, the most recent wave of Han Chinese migration began in the early 18th century with encouragement from the Qing dynasty, and continued into the 20th century. Han Chinese live mostly in the Hetao region as well as various population centres in central and eastern Inner Mongolia. Over 70% of Mongols are concentrated in less than 18% of Inner Mongolia's territory (Hinggan League, and the prefectures of Tongliao and Chifeng).
Mongols are the second largest ethnic group, comprising 17.11% of the population as of the 2010 census. They include many diverse Mongolian-speaking groups; groups such as the Buryats and the Oirats are also officially considered to be Mongols in China. In addition to the Manchus, three other Tungusic ethnic groups, the Daur, the Oroqen, and the Evenks also populate parts of northeastern Inner Mongolia.
Many of the traditionally nomadic Mongols have settled in permanent homes as their pastoral economy was collectivized during the Mao Era, and some have taken jobs in cities as migrant labourers; however, some Mongols continue in their nomadic tradition. In practice, highly educated Mongols tend to migrate to big urban centers after which they become essentially indistinct with ethnic Han Chinese populations.
Inter-marriage between Mongol and non-Mongol populations is very common, particularly in areas where Mongols are in regular contact with other groups. There was little cultural stigma within Mongol families for marrying outside the ethnic group, and in urban centers in particular, Mongol men and women married non-Mongols at relatively similar rates. The rates of intermarriage stands in very sharp contrast to ethnic Tibetans and Uyghurs in their respective autonomous regions. By the 1980s, for instance, in the former Jirim League, nearly 40% of marriages with at least one Mongol spouse was a mixed Mongol-Han Chinese marriage. However, anecdotal reports have also demonstrated an increase in Mongol-female, Han Chinese-male pairings in which the woman is of a rural background, ostensibly shutting rural Mongol males from the marriage market as the sex ratio in China becomes more skewed with a much higher proportion of men.
|Name of banner||Mongol population||Percentage|
|Horqin Right Middle Banner, Hinggan (2009)||222,410||84.1%|
|New Barag Right Banner, Hulunbuir (2009)||28,369||82.2%|
|Horqin Left Back Banner, Tongliao||284,000||75%|
|New Barag Left Banner, Hulunbuir (2009)||31,531||74.9%|
|Horqin Left Middle Banner, Tongliao||395,000||73.5%|
|East Ujimqin Banner, Xilingol (2009)||43,394||72.5%|
|West Ujimqin Banner, Xilingol||57,000||65%|
|Sonid Left Banner, Xilingol (2006)||20,987||62.6%|
|Bordered Yellow Banner, Xilingol||19,000||62%|
|Hure Banner, Tongliao||93,000||56%|
|Jarud Banner, Tongliao||144,000||48%|
|Horqin Right Front Banner, Hinggan||162,000||45%|
|Old Barag Banner, Hulunbuir (2006)||25,903||43.6%|
|Jalaid Banner, Hinggan||158,000||39%|
|Ar Khorchin Banner, Chifeng (2002)||108,000||36.6%|
Population numbers exclude members of the People's Liberation Army in active service based in Inner Mongolia.
Alongside Chinese, Mongolian is the official provincial language of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, where there are at least 4.1 million ethnic Mongols. Across the whole of China, the language is spoken by roughly half of the country's 5.8 million ethnic Mongols (2005 estimate) However, the exact number of Mongolian speakers in China is unknown, as there is no data available on the language proficiency of that country's citizens. The use of Mongolian in China, specifically in Inner Mongolia, has witnessed periods of decline and revival over the last few hundred years. The language experienced a decline during the late Qing period, a revival between 1947 and 1965, a second decline between 1966 and 1976, a second revival between 1977 and 1992, and a third decline between 1995 and 2012. However, in spite of the decline of the Mongolian language in some of Inner Mongolia's urban areas and educational spheres, the ethnic identity of the urbanized Chinese-speaking Mongols is most likely going to survive due to the presence of urban ethnic communities. The multilingual situation in Inner Mongolia does not appear to obstruct efforts by ethnic Mongols to preserve their language. Although an unknown number of Mongols in China, such as the Tumets, may have completely or partially lost the ability to speak their language, they are still registered as ethnic Mongols and continue to identify themselves as ethnic Mongols. The children of inter-ethnic Mongol-Chinese marriages also claim to be and are registered as ethnic Mongols.
By law, all street signs, commercial outlets, and government documents must be bilingual, written in both Mongolian and Chinese. There are three Mongolian TV channels in the Inner Mongolia Satellite TV network. In public transportation, all announcements are to be bilingual.
Mongols in Inner Mongolia speak Mongolian dialects such as Chakhar, Xilingol, Baarin, Khorchin and Kharchin Mongolian and, depending on definition and analysis, further dialects or closely related independent Central Mongolic languages such as Ordos, Khamnigan, Barghu Buryat and the arguably Oirat dialect Alasha. The standard pronunciation of Mongolian in China is based on the Chakhar dialect of the Plain Blue Banner, located in central Inner Mongolia, while the grammar is based on all Southern Mongolian dialects. This is different from the Mongolian state, where the standard pronunciation is based on the closely related Khalkha dialect. There are a number of independent languages spoken in Hulunbuir such as the somewhat more distant Mongolic language Dagur and the Tungusic language Evenki. Officially, even the Evenki dialect Oroqin is considered a language.
The Han Chinese of Inner Mongolia speak a variety of dialects, depending on the region. Those in the eastern parts tend to speak Northeastern Mandarin, which belongs to the Mandarin group of dialects; those in the central parts, such as the Yellow River valley, speak varieties of Jin, another subdivision of Chinese, due to its proximity to other Jin-speaking areas in China such as the Shanxi province. Cities such as Hohhot and Baotou both have their unique brand of Jin Chinese such as the Zhangjiakou–Hohhot dialect which are sometimes incomprehensible with dialects spoken in northeastern regions such as Hailar.
The vast grasslands have long symbolised Inner Mongolia. Mongolian art often depicts the grassland in an uplifting fashion and emphasizes Mongolian nomadic traditions. The Mongols of Inner Mongolia still practice their traditional arts. Inner Mongolian cuisine has Mongol roots and consists of dairy-related products and hand-held lamb (手扒肉). In recent years, franchises based on Hot pot have appeared in Inner Mongolia, the best known of which is Xiaofeiyang. Notable Inner Mongolian commercial brand names include Mengniu and Yili, both of which began as dairy product and ice cream producers.
Among the Han Chinese of Inner Mongolia, Jinju (晋剧) or Shanxi Opera is a popular traditional form of entertainment. See also: Shanxi. A popular career in Inner Mongolia is circus acrobatics. The internationally known Inner Mongolia Acrobatic Troupe travels and performs with the renowned Ringling Bros. and Barnum and Bailey Circus.
According to a survey held in 2004 by the Minzu University of China, about 80% of the population of the region practice the worship of Heaven (that is named Tian in the Chinese tradition and Tenger in the Mongolian tradition) and of ovoo/aobao.
Official statistics report that 12.1% of the population (3 million people) are members of Tibetan Buddhist groups. According to the Chinese Spiritual Life Survey of 2007 and the Chinese General Social Survey of 2009, Christianity is the religious identity of 2% of the population of the region; and Chinese ancestral religion the professed belonging of 2.36%, while a demographic analysis of the year 2010 reported that Muslims comprise the 0.91%.
The cult of Genghis Khan, present in the form of various Genghis Khan temples, is a tradition of Mongolian shamanism, in which he is considered a cultural hero and divine ancestor, an embodiment of the Tenger (Heaven, God of Heaven). His worship in special temples, greatly developed in Inner Mongolia since the 1980s, is also shared by the Han Chinese, claiming his spirit as the founding principle of the Yuan dynasty.
Tibetan Buddhism (Mongolian Buddhism, locally also known as "Yellow Buddhism") is the dominant form of Buddhism in Inner Mongolia, also practiced by many Han Chinese. Another form of Buddhism, practiced by the Chinese, are the schools of Chinese Buddhism.
In the capital city Hohhot:
Elsewhere in Inner Mongolia:
One of China's space vehicle launch facilities, Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center, is located in the extreme west of Inner Mongolia, in the Alxa League's Ejin Banner. It was founded in 1958, making it the PRC's first launch facility. More Chinese launches have occurred at Jiuquan than anywhere else. As with all Chinese launch facilities, it is remote and generally closed to the public. It is named as such since Jiuquan is the nearest urban center, although Jiuquan is in the nearby province of Gansu. Many space vehicles have also made their touchdowns in Inner Mongolia. For example, the crew of Shenzhou 6 landed in Siziwang Banner, near Hohhot.
All of the above are under the authority of the autonomous region government. Institutions without full-time bachelor programs are not listed.
Arxan (Mongolian for "Hot Springs") is a county-level city in the Hinggan League of northeastern Inner Mongolia in the People's Republic of China.Banners of Inner Mongolia
A banner (Chinese: 旗; pinyin: qí) is an administrative division of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region in the People's Republic of China, corresponding to the county level.
Banners were first used during the Qing Dynasty, which organized the Mongols into banners except those who belonged to the Eight Banners. Each banner had sumu as nominal subdivisions. In Inner Mongolia, several banners made up a league. In the rest, including Outer Mongolia, northern Xinjiang and Qinghai, Aimag (Аймаг) was the largest administrative division. While it restricted the Mongols from crossing banner borders, the dynasty protected Mongolia from population pressure from China proper.
There were 49 banners and 24 tribes during the Republic of China.Today, banners are a county level division in the Chinese administrative hierarchy. There are 49 banners in total.Baotou
Baotou (Chinese: 包头市; pinyin: Bāotóu; Mongolian: Buɣutu qota, Mongolian cyrillic.Бугат хот) is the largest city by urban population in Inner Mongolia. Governed as a prefecture-level city, its built-up (or metro) area made up of 5 urban districts is home to 2,070,801 inhabitants with a total population of over 2.65 million accounting for counties under its jurisdiction. The city's Mongolian name means "place with deer", and an alternate name is "Lucheng" (Chinese: 鹿城; pinyin: Lùchéng), meaning "Deer City".Bayannur
Bayannur or Bayannao'er (Chinese: 巴彦淖尔市; pinyin: bāyànnàoěr; Mongolian: Bayannaɣur qota, Mongolian Cyrillic Баяннуур хот) is a prefecture-level city in western Inner Mongolia, People's Republic of China. Until December 1, 2003, the area was called Bayannur League.
Bayannur has an administrative area of 65,788 km2 (25,401 sq mi). The name of the city in Mongolian means "Rich Lake". At the 2010 census, the total population of Bayannur is up to 1,669,915, while the city proper, Linhe District, has 520,300 inhabitants.Chifeng
Chifeng (Chinese: 赤峰市), also known as Ulankhad (Mongolian: ᠤᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨᠬᠠᠳᠠ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ (Улаанхад хот) Ulaɣanqada qota [ʊlaːnxad xɔt], "red cliff"), is a prefecture-level city in southeastern Inner Mongolia, People's Republic of China. It borders Xilin Gol League to the north and west, Tongliao to the northeast, Chaoyang (Liaoning) to the southeast, and Chengde (Hebei) to the south. The city has a total administrative area of 90,275 square kilometres (34,855 sq mi) and has a population of 4,341,245 inhabitants. As of the 2010 census, 1,094,970 of those residents reside within in the urban districts of Hongshan, Yuanbaoshan and Songshan. However, a large part of Songshan is still rural and Yuanbaoshan is a de facto separate town 27 kilometers away from the core district of Chifeng. The city was the administrative center of the defunct Ju Ud League (昭乌达盟; ᠵᠤᠤ ᠤᠳᠠ ᠴᠢᠭᠤᠯᠭᠠᠨ).Chifeng Yulong Airport
Chifeng Yulong Airport (IATA: CIF, ICAO: ZBCF) is an airport serving Chifeng, a city in the autonomous region of Inner Mongolia in China.Erenhot
Erenhot (Mongolian: ᠡᠷᠢᠶᠡᠡ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ Эрээн хот; Chinese: 二连浩特; pinyin: Èrliánhàotè, commonly shortened to Ereen or Erlian) is a county-level city of the Xilin Gol League, in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, located in the Gobi Desert along the Sino-Mongolian border, across from the Mongolian town of Zamyn-Üüd. There are 74,197 inhabitants (2010 census) and the elevation is 966 metres (3,169 ft).Ergun City
Ergun (simplified Chinese: 额尔古纳市; traditional Chinese: 額爾古納市; pinyin: É'ěrgǔnà Shì; Mongolian: Эргүн Ergün), formerly Ergun Right Banner (Mongolian: ᠡᠷᠬᠥᠨᠠ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ Эргүнэ хот; Chinese: 额尔古纳右旗; pinyin: E'erguna You Qi), is a county-level city in Inner Mongolia, containing the autonomous region's northernmost point. Administratively, Ergun is part of the prefecture-level city of Hulunbuir. It occupies 28,400 km2 (11,000 sq mi) on the right (south-eastern) bank of the Argun River, which forms China's border with Russia's Zabaykalsky Krai (formerly, Chita Oblast).The county-level city had the population of 85,162 people as of 2006.Hailar District
Hailar District, formerly a county-level city, is an urban district that serves as the seat of the prefecture-level city Hulunbuir in northeastern Inner Mongolia, China. Hulunbuir, due to its massive size, is a city in administrative terms only, being mainly grassland and rural.
Long known as the "Pearl of the Grasslands", Hailar acts as a gateway between China and Russia. The district has an estimated population of 256,000, and serves as a regional center for commerce, trade, and transportation.Hohhot
Hohhot (Mongolian: Mongolian script: Kökeqota, Mongolian Cyrillic: Хөх хот Höh hot /xɵxˈxɔtʰ/; Chinese: 呼和浩特; pinyin: Hūhéhàotè), abbreviated Hushi (Chinese: 呼市; pinyin: Hūshì), formerly known as Kweisui (traditional Chinese: 歸綏; simplified Chinese: 归绥; pinyin: PRC Standard Mandarin: Guīsuí, ROC Standard Mandarin: Guīsuī), is the capital of Inner Mongolia in the north of the People's Republic of China, serving as the region's administrative, economic and cultural center. Its population was 2,866,615 inhabitants at the 2010 census, of whom 1,980,774 lived in the built-up (or metro) area made up of 4 urban districts.The name of the city in Mongolian means "Blue City", although it is also wrongly referred to as the "Green City." The color blue in Mongol culture is associated with the sky, eternity and purity. In Chinese, the name can be translated as Qīng Chéng (Chinese: 青城; literally: 'Blue/Green City') The name has also been variously romanized as Kokotan, Kokutan, Kuku-hoton, Huhohaot'e, Huhehot, Huhot, or Köke qota.Holingol
Holingol (a.k.a. Huolin Gol; Mongolian: ᠬᠣᠣᠯᠢᠠ ᠭᠣᠤᠯ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ (Хоолингол хот); Chinese: 霍林郭勒; pinyin: Huòlínguōlè) is a county-level city of Inner Mongolia, China.
It has a population of more than 70,000, which includes 17 ethnic groups. It is the northernmost and westernmost county-level division of Tongliao.Hulunbuir
Hulunbuir or Hulun Buir (Mongolian: Kölün buyir, Mongolian Cyrillic: Хөлөнбуйр, Khölönbuir; Chinese: 呼伦贝尔, Hūlúnbèi'ěr) is a region that is governed as a prefecture-level city in northeastern Inner Mongolia, China. Its administrative center is located at Hailar District, its largest urban area. Major scenic features are the high steppes of the Hulun Buir grasslands, the Hulun and Buir lakes (the latter partially in Mongolia), and the Khingan range. Hulun Buir borders Russia to the north and west, Mongolia to the south and west, Heilongjiang province to the east and Hinggan League to the direct south. Hulunbuir is a linguistically diverse area: next to Mandarin Chinese, Mongolian dialects such as Khorchin and Buryat, the Mongolic language Daur, and some Tungusic languages are spoken there.Inner Mongolia University
Inner Mongolia University is a university in Hohhot, Inner Mongolia, China, under the authority of the Inner Mongolia regional government. It is a Chinese Ministry of Education Double First Class Discipline University, with Double First Class status in certain disciplines.The university has 4 campuses, covering an area of 1,990 thousand square meters. It consists of 20 colleges, under which there are 34 departments, and 1 independent department for general education.As of February 2006, the university provides 92 programs for master's degrees and 59 undergraduate majors.About 2,414 staff members work with the University, including 1,303 full-time teachers and researchers, among whom are 744 professors and associate professors.Inner Mongolia University has officially signed agreements of exchange and cooperation with 20 foreign universities.Leagues of China
A league (Mongolian: ayimaγ [æːmɑ̆ɡ̊] Aimag; historically, čiγulγan [t͡ʃʰʊːlɡ̊ɑ̆n] Qûûlgan; Chinese: 盟; pinyin: méng) is an administrative unit of the autonomous region of Inner Mongolia in the People's Republic of China.
Leagues are the prefectures of Inner Mongolia. The name comes from a Mongolian administrative unit used during the Qing Dynasty in Mongolia. Mongolian Banners (county level regions) were organized into conventional assemblies at the league level. During the ROC era, the leagues had a status equivalent to provinces. Leagues contain banners, equivalent to counties.
After the establishment of the provincial level Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region in 1947, leagues of Inner Mongolia became equal to prefectures in other provinces and autonomous regions. The administrative commission (Chinese: 行政公署; pinyin: xíngzhènggōngshǔ) of the league is the administrative branch office dispatched by the People's Government of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. The leader of the league's government, titled as league leader (simplified Chinese: 盟长; traditional Chinese: 盟長; pinyin: méngzhǎng), is appointed by People's Government of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. So are deputy leaders of leagues. Instead of local level of People's Congress, league's working commissions of the Standing Committee of the People’s Congress of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region are detached and supervise the league's governments, but can not elect or dismiss league's government officials. In such a way, the league's working committee of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region's committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference is instead of league's committee of CPPCC.
Leagues have existed since the Qing Dynasty as a level of government. The head of a league was chosen from jasagh or sula of the banners belonging to it. The original six leagues were Jirem, Ju Ud, Jost, Xilingol, Ulanqab, and Ih Ju. More were added in the subsequent centuries.
Today, leagues belong to the prefecture level of the Chinese administrative hierarchy. Of the 9 leagues that existed in the late 1970s, 6 have now been reorganized into prefecture-level cities. There are only 3 leagues remaining in Inner Mongolia: Xilingol, Alxa, and Hinggan.Mongolian Plateau
The Mongolian Plateau is the part of the Central Asian Plateau lying between 37°46′-53°08′N and 87°40′-122°15′E and having an area of approximately 3,200,000 square kilometres (1,200,000 sq mi). It is bounded by the Greater Hinggan Mountains in the east, the Yin Mountains to the south, the Altai Mountains to the west, and the Sayan and Khentii mountains to the north. The plateau includes the Gobi Desert as well as dry steppe regions. It has an elevation of roughly 1,000 to 1,500 meters, with the lowest point in Hulunbuir and the highest point in Altai.Politically, the plateau is divided between Mongolia, China and Russia. In China, parts of the Inner Mongolia and Xinjiang autonomous regions lie on the plateau. In Russia, the plateau forms part of Buryatia and the southern Irkutsk Oblast.Ordos City
Ordos (Mongolian: Ordos; simplified Chinese: 鄂尔多斯; traditional Chinese: 鄂爾多斯; pinyin: È'ěrduōsī) is one of the twelve major subdivisions of Inner Mongolia, China. It lies within the Ordos Plateau of the Yellow River. Although mainly rural, Ordos is administered as a prefecture-level city.
Ordos is known for its large scale government projects undertaken recently including most prominently the new Kangbashi District, an urban district planned as a massive civic mall with abundant monuments, cultural institutions, and other showpiece architecture. It was the venue for the 2012 Miss World Final.When it was newly built, the streets of the new Kangbashi district didn't have much activity and was frequently described as a "ghost city" by the western media. However by 2017, Kangbashi had become more populated with a resident population of 153,000 and around one-third of apartments occupied. In a Forbes article, Wade Shepard noted that "Of the 40,000 apartments that had been built in the new district since 2004, only 500 are still on the market.Sum (country subdivision)
Sum, sumu, sumon, and somon (Plural: sumd) are a type of administrative district used in China, Mongolia, and Russia.Ulanhot
Ulanhot (Mongolian: ᠤᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨᠬᠣᠲᠠ; Cyrillic: Улаан хот; Latin transliteration: Ulaγan qota; Chinese: 乌兰浩特; pinyin: Wūlánhàotè), formerly known as Wangin Süm, alternatively Wang-un Süme, Ulayanqota (Red City) in Classical Mongolian, and Wangyehmiao or Wangyemiao (Chinese: 王爺廟) in Chinese prior to 1947, is a county-level city and the administrative center of Hinggan League in the East of Inner Mongolia autonomous region. Between the years 1947 and 1950, Ulanhot was the capital of Inner Mongolia Region. In 1950, the capital moved to Zhangjiakou and then again in 1952 it moved to Hohhot, which remains the capital to this day.
The city is connected to Baicheng, Jilin by the Baicheng–Arxan railway (Chinese: 白阿铁路), which runs through the pass south of Ulanhot. China's National Highway 302 runs from Tumen, Jilin to Ulanhot. In the 7918 Network of Highways it will be on the route from Hunchun to Ulanhot. The city is also served by Ulanhot Airport (ICAO code ZBUL, IATA code HLH). Routes flown by Air China and Hainan Airlines connect Ulanhot with Beijing Capital International Airport and Hohhot.
Just outside the city is a tomb from the Yuan dynasty and a temple dedicated to Genghis Khan. The temple was constructed in 1940. In the year 2002 it received funds for significant expansion.Ulanqab
Ulanqab or Ulan Chab (Chinese: 乌兰察布; pinyin: Wūlánchábù; Mongolian: Ulaɣančab qota; Mongolian cyrillic.Улаанцав хот) is a region administered as a prefecture-level city in south-central Inner Mongolia, People's Republic of China. Its administrative centre is in Jining District, which was formerly a county-level city. It was established as a prefecture-level city on 1 December 2003, formed from the former Ulanqab League.
Ulaan Chab city has an area of 54,491 square kilometres (21,039 sq mi). It borders Hohhot to the west, Mongolia to the north, Xilin Gol League to the northeast, Hebei to the east and Shanxi to the south.
The western part of Ulaan Chab used to be part of the now defunct Chinese province of Suiyuan.
|Hanyu Pinyin||PRC Standard Mandarin:|
ROC Standard Mandarin:
|Bopomofo||PRC: ㄋㄟˋ ㄇㄥˇ ㄍㄨˇ|
ROC: ㄋㄟˋ ㄇㄥˊ ㄍㄨˇ
|Gwoyeu Romatzyh||PRC: Ney Meengguu|
ROC: Ney Mengguu
|Wade–Giles||PRC: Nei4 Mêng3-ku3|
ROC: Nei4 Mêng2-ku3
|Tongyong Pinyin||PRC: Nèi Měnggǔ|
ROC: Nèi Ménggǔ
|Yale Romanization||PRC: Nèi Měnggǔ|
ROC: Nèi Ménggǔ
|MPS2||PRC: Nèi Měnggǔ|
ROC: Nèi Ménggǔ
|Yale Romanization||Noih Mùhnggú|
|Hanyu Pinyin||PRC Standard Mandarin:|
Nèi Měnggǔ Zìzhìqū
ROC Standard Mandarin:
Nèi Ménggǔ Zìzhìqū
ㄋㄟˋ ㄇㄥˇ ㄍㄨˇ
ㄗˋ ㄓˋ ㄑㄩ
ㄋㄟˋ ㄇㄥˊ ㄍㄨˇ
ㄗˋ ㄓˋ ㄑㄩ
Ney Meengguu Tzyhjyhchiu
Ney Mengguu Tzyhjyhchiu
Nei4 Mêng3-ku3 Tzŭ4-chih4-chʻü1
Nei4 Mêng2-ku3 Tzŭ4-chih4-chʻü1
|Tongyong Pinyin||PRC: Nèi Měnggǔ Zìhjhìhcyu|
ROC: Nèi Ménggǔ Zìhjhìhcyu
|Yale Romanization||PRC: Nèi Měnggǔ Dz̀jr̀chyū|
ROC: Nèi Ménggǔ Dz̀jr̀chyū
|MPS2||PRC: Nèi Měnggǔ Tz̀jr̀chiū |
ROC: Nèi Ménggǔ Tz̀jr̀chiū
|IPA||[nêi mə̌ŋ.kù tsɹ̩̂.ʈʂɻ̩̂.tɕʰý]|
|Romanization||Ne Monku Zyzychiu|
|Yale Romanization||Noih Mùhnggú Jihjihkēui|
|IPA||[nɔ̀ːy mȍŋ.kǔː tsìː.tsìː.kʰɵ́y]|
|Hokkien POJ||Lāi-bông-kó Chū-tī-khu|
|SASM/GNC||Öbür mongγol-un Öbertegen Zasaqu Orun|
|Administrative divisions in Mongolian, Chinese, and varieties of romanizations|
|English||Mongolian||SASM/GNC Mongolian Pinyin||Mongolian Transcription||Chinese||Pinyin|
|Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region||Öbür mongγol-un öbertegen zasaqu orun||内蒙古自治区||Nèi Měnggǔ Zìzhìqū|
|Hohhot city||Hohhot||Kökeqota||呼和浩特市||Hūhéhàotè Shì|
|Baotou city||Bugt Hot||Buɣutu qota||包头市||Bāotóu Shì|
|Wuhai city||Uhai Hot||Üqai qota||乌海市||Wūhǎi Shì|
|Chifeng city||Ulanhad Hot||Ulaɣanqada qota||赤峰市||Chìfēng Shì|
|Tongliao city||Tungliyo Hot||Tüŋliyou qota||通辽市||Tōngliáo Shì|
|Ordos city||Ordos Hot||Ordos qota||鄂尔多斯市||È'ěrduōsī Shì|
|Hulunbuir city||Hulun'buir Hot||Kölön-buyir qota||呼伦贝尔市||Hūlúnbèi'ěr Shì|
|Bayannur city||Bayannur Hot||Bayannaɣur qota||巴彦淖尔市||Bāyànnào'ěr Shì|
|Ulanqab city||Ulanqab Hot||Ulaɣančab qota||乌兰察布市||Wūlánchábù Shì|
|Hinggan League||Hinggan Aimag||Qiŋɣan ayimaɣ||兴安盟||Xīng'ān Méng|
|Xilingol League||Xiliin'gol Aimag||Sili-yin ɣool ayimaɣ||锡林郭勒盟||Xīlínguōlè Méng|
|Alxa League||Alxa Aimag||Alaša ayimaɣ||阿拉善盟||Ālāshàn Méng|
|Population by urban areas of prefecture & county cities|
|#||City||Urban area||District area||City proper||Census date|
|(9)||Hulunbuir (new district)[ii]||99,960||99,960||see Hulunbuir||2010-11-01|
|11||Ulanhot||276,406||327,081||part of Hinggan League||2010-11-01|
|12||Xilinhot||214,382||245,886||part of Xilingol League||2010-11-01|
|18||Erenhot||71,455||74,179||part of Xilingol League||2010-11-01|
|19||Arxan||55,770||68,311||part of Hinggan League||2010-11-01|
Places adjacent to Inner Mongolia
|Special administrative regions|
Inner Mongolia topics